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Volume 6, December

Non-Coding RNA, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 18 articles

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Open AccessArticle
miRCOVID-19: Potential Targets of Human miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 for RNA-Based Drug Discovery
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010018 - 02 Mar 2021
Abstract
Sense-antisense interactions of long and short RNAs in human cells are integral to post-transcriptional gene regulation, in particular that of mRNAs by microRNAs. Many viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 (the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19), have RNA [...] Read more.
Sense-antisense interactions of long and short RNAs in human cells are integral to post-transcriptional gene regulation, in particular that of mRNAs by microRNAs. Many viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 (the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19), have RNA genomes, and interactions between the host and viral RNAs; while they are known to be functional in other viral diseases, they have not yet been investigated in COVID-19. To remedy this gap in knowledge, we present miRCOVID-19, a computational meta-analysis framework highlighting the predicted binding sites of human microRNAs along the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome. To highlight the potential relevance of SARS-CoV-2-genome-complementary miRNAs to COVID-19 pathogenesis, we assessed their expression in COVID-19-relevant tissues using public transcriptome data. miRCOVID-19 identified 14 high-confidence mature miRNAs that are highly likely to interact with the SARS-CoV-2 genome and are expressed in diverse respiratory epithelial and immune cell types that are relevant to COVID-19 pathogenesis. As a proof of principle, we have shown that human miR-122, a previously known co-factor of another RNA virus, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) whose genome it binds as a prerequisite for pathogenesis, was predicted to also bind the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome with high affinity, suggesting the perspective of repurposing anti-HCV RNA-based drugs, such as Miravirsen, to treat COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study globally that highlights all predicted high-confidence binding sites of human miRNAs in the SARS-CoV-2 genome with high confidence using multiple tools. Our work directly facilitates experimental validation of the reported targets, which would accelerate RNA-based drug discovery for COVID-19 and has the potential to provide new avenues for treating symptomatic COVID-19, and block SARS-CoV-2 replication, in humans. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Implications of ncRNAs in the Development of Human Diseases
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010017 - 24 Feb 2021
Viewed by 124
Abstract
The mammalian genome comprehends a small minority of genes that encode for proteins (barely 2% of the total genome in humans) and an immense majority of genes that are transcribed into RNA but not encoded for proteins (ncRNAs). These non-coding genes are intimately [...] Read more.
The mammalian genome comprehends a small minority of genes that encode for proteins (barely 2% of the total genome in humans) and an immense majority of genes that are transcribed into RNA but not encoded for proteins (ncRNAs). These non-coding genes are intimately related to the expression regulation of protein-coding genes. The ncRNAs subtypes differ in their size, so there are long non-coding genes (lncRNAs) and other smaller ones, like microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Due to their important role in the maintenance of cellular functioning, any deregulation of the expression profiles of these ncRNAs can dissemble in the development of different types of diseases. Among them, we can highlight some of high incidence in the population, such as cancer, neurodegenerative, or cardiovascular disorders. In addition, thanks to the enormous advances in the field of medical genomics, these same ncRNAs are starting to be used as possible drugs, approved by the FDA, as an effective treatment for diseases. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Role of LncRNAs in Translation
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010016 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 199
Abstract
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a group of non-protein coding RNAs with lengths of more than 200 nucleotides, exert their effects by binding to DNA, mRNA, microRNA, and proteins and regulate gene expression at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. Depending on cellular [...] Read more.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a group of non-protein coding RNAs with lengths of more than 200 nucleotides, exert their effects by binding to DNA, mRNA, microRNA, and proteins and regulate gene expression at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. Depending on cellular location, lncRNAs are involved in a wide range of cellular functions, including chromatin modification, transcriptional activation, transcriptional interference, scaffolding and regulation of translational machinery. This review highlights recent studies on lncRNAs in the regulation of protein translation by modulating the translational factors (i.e, eIF4E, eIF4G, eIF4A, 4E-BP1, eEF5A) and signaling pathways involved in this process as wells as their potential roles as tumor suppressors or tumor promoters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-transcriptional Regulation through Long Noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs))
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Endogenous Double-Stranded RNA
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010015 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 203
Abstract
The birth of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is closely associated with the presence and activation of repetitive elements in the genome. The transcription of endogenous retroviruses as well as long and short interspersed elements is not only essential for evolving lncRNAs but is [...] Read more.
The birth of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is closely associated with the presence and activation of repetitive elements in the genome. The transcription of endogenous retroviruses as well as long and short interspersed elements is not only essential for evolving lncRNAs but is also a significant source of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). From an lncRNA-centric point of view, the latter is a minor source of bother in the context of the entire cell; however, dsRNA is an essential threat. A viral infection is associated with cytoplasmic dsRNA, and endogenous RNA hybrids only differ from viral dsRNA by the 5′ cap structure. Hence, a multi-layered defense network is in place to protect cells from viral infections but tolerates endogenous dsRNA structures. A first line of defense is established with compartmentalization; whereas endogenous dsRNA is found predominantly confined to the nucleus and the mitochondria, exogenous dsRNA reaches the cytoplasm. Here, various sensor proteins recognize features of dsRNA including the 5′ phosphate group of viral RNAs or hybrids with a particular length but not specific nucleotide sequences. The sensors trigger cellular stress pathways and innate immunity via interferon signaling but also induce apoptosis via caspase activation. Because of its central role in viral recognition and immune activation, dsRNA sensing is implicated in autoimmune diseases and used to treat cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-transcriptional Regulation through Long Noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs))
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Open AccessArticle
MicroRNAs and Long Non-Coding RNAs as Potential Candidates to Target Specific Motifs of SARS-CoV-2
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010014 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 596
Abstract
The respiratory system is one of the most affected targets of SARS-CoV-2. Various therapies have been utilized to counter viral-induced inflammatory complications, with diverse success rates. Pending the distribution of an effective vaccine to the whole population and the achievement of “herd immunity”, [...] Read more.
The respiratory system is one of the most affected targets of SARS-CoV-2. Various therapies have been utilized to counter viral-induced inflammatory complications, with diverse success rates. Pending the distribution of an effective vaccine to the whole population and the achievement of “herd immunity”, the discovery of novel specific therapies is to be considered a very important objective. Here, we report a computational study demonstrating the existence of target motifs in the SARS-CoV-2 genome suitable for specific binding with endogenous human micro and long non-coding RNAs (miRNAs and lncRNAs, respectively), which can, therefore, be considered a conceptual background for the development of miRNA-based drugs against COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 genome contains three motifs in the 5′UTR leader sequence recognized by selective nucleotides within the seed sequence of specific human miRNAs. The seed of 57 microRNAs contained a “GGG” motif that promoted leader sequence-recognition, primarily through offset-6mer sites able to promote microRNAs noncanonical binding to viral RNA. Similarly, lncRNA H19 binds to the 5′UTR of the viral genome and, more specifically, to the transcript of the viral gene Spike, which has a pivotal role in viral infection. Notably, some of the non-coding RNAs identified in our study as candidates for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 gene expression have already been proposed against diverse viral infections, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Therapeutics: From Concepts to Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Non-Coding RNAs in Retinoic Acid as Differentiation and Disease Drivers
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010013 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 176
Abstract
: All-trans retinoic acid (RA) is the most active metabolite of vitamin A. Several studies have described a pivotal role for RA signalling in different biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation, embryonic development and organogenesis. Since RA signalling is highly dose-dependent, [...] Read more.
: All-trans retinoic acid (RA) is the most active metabolite of vitamin A. Several studies have described a pivotal role for RA signalling in different biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation, embryonic development and organogenesis. Since RA signalling is highly dose-dependent, a fine-tuning regulatory mechanism is required. Thus, RA signalling deregulation has a major impact, both in development and disease, related in many cases to oncogenic processes. In this review, we focus on the impact of ncRNA post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, especially those of microRNAs and lncRNAs, in RA signalling pathways during differentiation and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNA: 5th Anniversary)
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Open AccessReview
Plant Long Noncoding RNAs: New Players in the Field of Post-Transcriptional Regulations
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010012 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 320
Abstract
The first reference to the “C-value paradox” reported an apparent imbalance between organismal genome size and morphological complexity. Since then, next-generation sequencing has revolutionized genomic research and revealed that eukaryotic transcriptomes contain a large fraction of non-protein-coding components. Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed [...] Read more.
The first reference to the “C-value paradox” reported an apparent imbalance between organismal genome size and morphological complexity. Since then, next-generation sequencing has revolutionized genomic research and revealed that eukaryotic transcriptomes contain a large fraction of non-protein-coding components. Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed and noncoding regions give rise to a plethora of noncoding RNAs with undeniable biological functions. Among them, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) seem to represent a new layer of gene expression regulation, participating in a wide range of molecular mechanisms at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In addition to their role in epigenetic regulation, plant lncRNAs have been associated with the degradation of complementary RNAs, the regulation of alternative splicing, protein sub-cellular localization, the promotion of translation and protein post-translational modifications. In this review, we report and integrate numerous and complex mechanisms through which long noncoding transcripts regulate post-transcriptional gene expression in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-transcriptional Regulation through Long Noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs))
Open AccessReview
RNA-Centric Approaches to Profile the RNA–Protein Interaction Landscape on Selected RNAs
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010011 - 15 Feb 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
RNA–protein interactions frame post-transcriptional regulatory networks and modulate transcription and epigenetics. While the technological advances in RNA sequencing have significantly expanded the repertoire of RNAs, recently developed biochemical approaches combined with sensitive mass-spectrometry have revealed hundreds of previously unrecognized and potentially novel RNA-binding [...] Read more.
RNA–protein interactions frame post-transcriptional regulatory networks and modulate transcription and epigenetics. While the technological advances in RNA sequencing have significantly expanded the repertoire of RNAs, recently developed biochemical approaches combined with sensitive mass-spectrometry have revealed hundreds of previously unrecognized and potentially novel RNA-binding proteins. Nevertheless, a major challenge remains to understand how the thousands of RNA molecules and their interacting proteins assemble and control the fate of each individual RNA in a cell. Here, I review recent methodological advances to approach this problem through systematic identification of proteins that interact with particular RNAs in living cells. Thereby, a specific focus is given to in vivo approaches that involve crosslinking of RNA–protein interactions through ultraviolet irradiation or treatment of cells with chemicals, followed by capture of the RNA under study with antisense-oligonucleotides and identification of bound proteins with mass-spectrometry. Several recent studies defining interactomes of long non-coding RNAs, viral RNAs, as well as mRNAs are highlighted, and short reference is given to recent in-cell protein labeling techniques. These recent experimental improvements could open the door for broader applications and to study the remodeling of RNA–protein complexes upon different environmental cues and in disease. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Fusion Genes and RNAs in Cancer Development
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010010 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Fusion RNAs are a hallmark of some cancers. They result either from chromosomal rearrangements or from splicing mechanisms that are non-chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal rearrangements that result in gene fusions are particularly prevalent in sarcomas and hematopoietic malignancies; they are also common in solid [...] Read more.
Fusion RNAs are a hallmark of some cancers. They result either from chromosomal rearrangements or from splicing mechanisms that are non-chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal rearrangements that result in gene fusions are particularly prevalent in sarcomas and hematopoietic malignancies; they are also common in solid tumors. The splicing process can also give rise to more complex RNA patterns in cells. Gene fusions frequently affect tyrosine kinases, chromatin regulators, or transcription factors, and can cause constitutive activation, enhancement of downstream signaling, and tumor development, as major drivers of oncogenesis. In addition, some fusion RNAs have been shown to function as noncoding RNAs and to affect cancer progression. Fusion genes and RNAs will therefore become increasingly important as diagnostic and therapeutic targets for cancer development. Here, we discuss the function, biogenesis, detection, clinical relevance, and therapeutic implications of oncogenic fusion genes and RNAs in cancer development. Further understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate how fusion RNAs form in cancers is critical to the development of therapeutic strategies against tumorigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNAs and Cancer Genetics)
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Open AccessArticle
miR-24 Targets the Transmembrane Glycoprotein Neuropilin-1 in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010009 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Neuropilin-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that has been implicated in several processes including angiogenesis and immunity. Recent evidence has also shown that it is implied in the cellular internalization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 [...] Read more.
Neuropilin-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that has been implicated in several processes including angiogenesis and immunity. Recent evidence has also shown that it is implied in the cellular internalization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We hypothesized that specific microRNAs can target Neuropilin-1. By combining bioinformatic and functional approaches, we identified miR-24 as a regulator of Neuropilin-1 transcription. Since Neuropilin-1 has been shown to play a key role in the endothelium-mediated regulation of the blood-brain barrier, we validated miR-24 as a functional modulator of Neuropilin-1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs), which are the most suitable cell line for an in vitro blood–brain barrier model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNA: 5th Anniversary)
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Open AccessReview
MicroRNAs as Candidate Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010008 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
The neurological damage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is thought to be irreversible upon onset of dementia-like symptoms, as it takes years to decades for occult pathologic changes to become symptomatic. It is thus necessary to identify individuals at risk for the development of [...] Read more.
The neurological damage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is thought to be irreversible upon onset of dementia-like symptoms, as it takes years to decades for occult pathologic changes to become symptomatic. It is thus necessary to identify individuals at risk for the development of the disease before symptoms manifest in order to provide early intervention. Surrogate markers are critical for early disease detection, stratification of patients in clinical trials, prediction of disease progression, evaluation of response to treatment, and also insight into pathomechanisms. Here, we review the evidence for a number of microRNAs that may serve as biomarkers with possible mechanistic insights into the AD pathophysiologic processes, years before the clinical manifestation of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers in Non-coding RNA)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Non-Coding RNA in 2020
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010007 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Non-Coding RNA maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Open AccessHypothesis
Secondary Structural Model of MALAT1 Becomes Unstructured in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Undergoes Structural Rearrangement in Cervical Cancer
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010006 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) influence cellular function through binding events that often depend on the lncRNA secondary structure. One such lncRNA, metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), is upregulated in many cancer types and has a myriad of protein- and miRNA-binding sites. Recently, [...] Read more.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) influence cellular function through binding events that often depend on the lncRNA secondary structure. One such lncRNA, metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), is upregulated in many cancer types and has a myriad of protein- and miRNA-binding sites. Recently, a secondary structural model of MALAT1 in noncancerous cells was proposed to form 194 hairpins and 13 pseudoknots. That study postulated that, in cancer cells, the MALAT1 structure likely varies, thereby influencing cancer progression. This work analyzes how that structural model is expected to change in K562 cells, which originated from a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and in HeLa cells, which originated from a patient with cervical cancer. Dimethyl sulfate-sequencing (DMS-Seq) data from K562 cells and psoralen analysis of RNA interactions and structure (PARIS) data from HeLa cells were compared to the working structural model of MALAT1 in noncancerous cells to identify sites that likely undergo structural alterations. MALAT1 in K562 cells is predicted to become more unstructured, with almost 60% of examined hairpins in noncancerous cells losing at least half of their base pairings. Conversely, MALAT1 in HeLa cells is predicted to largely maintain its structure, undergoing 18 novel structural rearrangements. Moreover, 50 validated miRNA-binding sites are affected by putative secondary structural changes in both cancer types, such as miR-217 in K562 cells and miR-20a in HeLa cells. Structural changes unique to K562 cells and HeLa cells provide new mechanistic leads into how the structure of MALAT1 may mediate cancer in a cell-type specific manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Analysis of lncRNA Structures and Functions)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Interplay between the ADAR Editome and Immunotherapy in Melanoma
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010005 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Background: RNA editing is a highly conserved posttranscriptional mechanism that contributes to transcriptome diversity. In mammals, it includes nucleobase deaminations that convert cytidine (C) into uridine (U) and adenosine (A) into inosine (I). Evidence from cancer studies indicates that RNA-editing enzymes promote certain [...] Read more.
Background: RNA editing is a highly conserved posttranscriptional mechanism that contributes to transcriptome diversity. In mammals, it includes nucleobase deaminations that convert cytidine (C) into uridine (U) and adenosine (A) into inosine (I). Evidence from cancer studies indicates that RNA-editing enzymes promote certain mechanisms of tumorigenesis. On the other hand, recoding editing in mRNA can generate mutations in proteins that can participate in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) ligandome and can therefore be recognized by the adaptive immune system. Anti-cancer treatment based on the administration of immune checkpoint inhibitors enhance these natural anti-cancer immune responses. Results: Based on RNA-Seq datasets, we evaluated the editome of melanoma cell lines generated from patients pre- and post-immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Our results reveal a differential editing in Arthrobacter luteus (Alu) sequences between samples pre-therapy and relapses during therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Conclusion: These data pave the way towards the development of new diagnostics and therapies targeted to editing that could help in preventing relapses during immunotherapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on RNA Modification)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Exosomes in Immune Regulation
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010004 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Exosomes, small extracellular vesicles mediate intercellular communication by transferring their cargo including DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids from cell to cell. Notably, in the immune system, they have protective functions. However in cancer, exosomes acquire new, immunosuppressive properties that cause the dysregulation of [...] Read more.
Exosomes, small extracellular vesicles mediate intercellular communication by transferring their cargo including DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids from cell to cell. Notably, in the immune system, they have protective functions. However in cancer, exosomes acquire new, immunosuppressive properties that cause the dysregulation of immune cells and immune escape of tumor cells supporting cancer progression and metastasis. Therefore, current investigations focus on the regulation of exosome levels for immunotherapeutic interventions. In this review, we discuss the role of exosomes in immunomodulation of lymphoid and myeloid cells, and their use as immune stimulatory agents to elicit specific cytotoxic responses against the tumor. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers in Non-coding RNA)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Role of lncRNAs in Gene Expression Regulation through mRNA Stabilization
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010003 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 672
Abstract
mRNA stability influences gene expression and translation in almost all living organisms, and the levels of mRNA molecules in the cell are determined by a balance between production and decay. Maintaining an accurate balance is crucial for the correct function of a wide [...] Read more.
mRNA stability influences gene expression and translation in almost all living organisms, and the levels of mRNA molecules in the cell are determined by a balance between production and decay. Maintaining an accurate balance is crucial for the correct function of a wide variety of biological processes and to maintain an appropriate cellular homeostasis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to participate in the regulation of gene expression through different molecular mechanisms, including mRNA stabilization. In this review we provide an overview on the molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs modulate mRNA stability and decay. We focus on how lncRNAs interact with RNA binding proteins and microRNAs to avoid mRNA degradation, and also on how lncRNAs modulate epitranscriptomic marks that directly impact on mRNA stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-transcriptional Regulation through Long Noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs))
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Open AccessReview
Circular RNAs: Potential Applications as Therapeutic Targets and Biomarkers in Breast Cancer
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010002 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that form a covalently closed loop. A number of functions and mechanisms of action for circRNAs have been reported, including as miRNA sponge, exerting transcriptional and translational regulation, interacting with proteins, and coding for [...] Read more.
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that form a covalently closed loop. A number of functions and mechanisms of action for circRNAs have been reported, including as miRNA sponge, exerting transcriptional and translational regulation, interacting with proteins, and coding for peptides. CircRNA dysregulation has also been implicated in many cancers, such as breast cancer. Their relatively high stability and presence in bodily fluids makes cancer-associated circRNAs promising candidates as a new biomarker. In this review, we summarize the research undertaken on circRNAs associated with breast cancer, discuss circRNAs as biomarkers, and present circRNA-based therapeutic approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Long Non-Coding RNAs in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
Non-Coding RNA 2021, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna7010001 - 28 Dec 2020
Viewed by 730
Abstract
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoid malignancy in adults. Although significant progress has been made in recent years to treat DLBCL patients, 30%–40% of the patients eventually relapse or are refractory to first line treatment, calling for better therapeutic [...] Read more.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoid malignancy in adults. Although significant progress has been made in recent years to treat DLBCL patients, 30%–40% of the patients eventually relapse or are refractory to first line treatment, calling for better therapeutic strategies for DLBCL. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a highly diverse group of non-protein coding transcripts with intriguing molecular functions in human disease, including cancer. Here, we review the current understanding of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis and progression of DLBCL to provide an overview of the field. As the current knowledge of lncRNAs in DLBCL is still in its infancy, we provide molecular signatures of lncRNAs in DLBCL cell lines to assist further lncRNA research in DLBCL. Full article
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