Exosomes, small extracellular vesicles mediate intercellular communication by transferring their cargo including DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids from cell to cell. Notably, in the immune system, they have protective functions. However in cancer, exosomes acquire new, immunosuppressive properties that cause the dysregulation of immune cells and immune escape of tumor cells supporting cancer progression and metastasis. Therefore, current investigations focus on the regulation of exosome levels for immunotherapeutic interventions. In this review, we discuss the role of exosomes in immunomodulation of lymphoid and myeloid cells, and their use as immune stimulatory agents to elicit specific cytotoxic responses against the tumor.
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