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ChemEngineering, Volume 7, Issue 4 (August 2023) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The authors sought to establish a novel methodology for the efficient recovery of polyphenolic antioxidants from coffee processing residues, namely coffee silverskin (CSS). The process developed is an ethanol-based organosolv treatment alongside acid catalysis using sulfuric acid or oxalic acid. It is proposed that this methodology may contribute towards the use of coffee processing wastes as potential sources of bioactive ingredients and the design of novel functional products, with the goal of coffee processing companies employing a more sustainable strategy. View this paper
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17 pages, 2477 KiB  
Article
Closed-Loop Stability of a Non-Minimum Phase Quadruple Tank System Using a Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller with EKF
by Ismaila A. Oyehan, Ajiboye S. Osunleke and Olanrewaju O. Ajani
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040074 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
The dynamics of a quadruple tank system (QTS) represent an extensive class of multivariate nonlinear uncertain systems found in the industry. It has been established that changes in split fractions affect the transmission zero location, thereby altering the operating conditions between the minimum [...] Read more.
The dynamics of a quadruple tank system (QTS) represent an extensive class of multivariate nonlinear uncertain systems found in the industry. It has been established that changes in split fractions affect the transmission zero location, thereby altering the operating conditions between the minimum and non-minimum phase regions. The latter is difficult to control as more fluid flows into the two upper tanks than into the two bottom tanks, resulting in competing effects between the initial and final system responses. This attribute, alongside nonlinearity, uncertainties, constraints, and a multivariate nature, can degrade closed-loop system performance, leading to instability. In this study, we addressed the aforementioned challenges by designing controllers for the regulation of the water flow in the two bottom tanks of the QTS. For comparative analysis, three controller algorithms—a nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC), NMPC augmented with an extended Kalman filter (i.e., NMPC-EKF) and linear model predictive controller (LMPC)—were considered in the analysis and design of the control mechanism for the quadruple water level system in a non-minimum phase condition via the Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) simulation package environment. The simulated and real-time results in the closed loop were analyzed, and the controller performances were considered based on faster setpoint responses, less oscillation, settling time, overshoot, and smaller integral absolute error (IAE) and integral square error (ISE) under various operational conditions. The study showed that the NMPC, when augmented with an EKF, is effective for the control of a QTS in the non-minimum phase and could be designed for more complex, nonlinear, and multivariable dynamics systems, even in the presence of constraints. Full article
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13 pages, 2158 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Degradation of Diuron by Anodic Oxidation on a Commercial Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 Anode in a Sulfate Medium
by Lucas B. de Faria, Guilhermina F. Teixeira, Andréia C. F. Alves, José J. Linares, Sérgio B. Oliveira, Artur J. Motheo and Flavio Colmati
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040073 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
This work presents the electrochemical degradation of the herbicide Diuron by anodic oxidation on a Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 metal mixed oxide anode using sulfate as the electrolyte. The study includes the influence of Diuron concentration and current density on anodic [...] Read more.
This work presents the electrochemical degradation of the herbicide Diuron by anodic oxidation on a Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 metal mixed oxide anode using sulfate as the electrolyte. The study includes the influence of Diuron concentration and current density on anodic oxidation. The results evidence a first-order degradation, with the highest capacity achieved at 40 mA cm−2 and at an initial Diuron concentration of 38 mg L−1. Nevertheless, in terms of efficiency and energy demand, the operation at 10 mA cm−2 is favored due to the more efficient and less energy-consuming condition. To discern the optimum design and operation conditions, this work presents the results of a preliminary technical–economic analysis, demonstrating that, to minimize the total costs of the system, it is recommended to seek the most efficient conditions, i.e., the conditions demanding the lowest applied charges with the highest Diuron degradation. At the same time, attention must be given to the required cell voltage to not increase excessively the operating costs. Full article
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14 pages, 3250 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Coffee Silverskin Using Acid-Catalyzed Ethanol Organosolv Treatment
by George Smyrnakis, George Stamoulis, Dimitrios Palaiogiannis, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Vassilis Athanasiadis, Stavros I. Lalas and Dimitris P. Makris
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040072 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
The examination presented herein sought to establish a novel methodology for the efficient recovery of polyphenolic antioxidants from coffee processing residues, namely coffee silverskin (CSS). The process developed was an ethanol-based organosolv treatment, assisted by acid catalysis, using sulfuric acid or oxalic acid [...] Read more.
The examination presented herein sought to establish a novel methodology for the efficient recovery of polyphenolic antioxidants from coffee processing residues, namely coffee silverskin (CSS). The process developed was an ethanol-based organosolv treatment, assisted by acid catalysis, using sulfuric acid or oxalic acid as the catalyst. The first approach was modeling treatment based on severity, where it was found that treatment dependence on time and temperature may well be described by linear relationships. Response surface methodology was then deployed as a consecutive stage, to optimize treatments with regard to catalyst concentration and resident time. In this case, again, linear models could effectively predict polyphenol recovery yield (YTP). For the sulfuric-acid-catalyzed treatment, the maximum theoretic YTP was found to be 10.95 ± 0.44 mg caffeic acid equivalent (CAE) g−1 DM, achieved at CSuAc = 1.5% and t = 300 min. On the other hand, the maximum YTP of 10.30 ± 0.53 could be attained at COxAc = 4%, and t = 300 min. Considering treatment severity, it was concluded that the use of oxalic acid, a food-grade organic acid, instead of sulfuric acid, a corrosive acid, would afford equivalent effects at lower severity. The high-performance liquid chromatography analyses also revealed that the extract produced through the oxalic-acid-catalyzed treatment was more enriched in neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids, and it exhibited stronger antiradical activity, but weaker ferric-reducing effects. It is proposed that the methodology developed may contribute towards the use of coffee processing wastes as potential sources of bioactive ingredients and the design of novel functional products, in the frame of a more sustainable strategy for coffee processing companies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Treatment of Biomass and Solid Municipal Waste)
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16 pages, 10366 KiB  
Article
Low-Waste Synthesis and Properties of Highly Dispersed NiO·Al2O3 Mixed Oxides Based on the Products of Centrifugal Thermal Activation of Gibbsite
by Aleksey V. Zhuzhgov, Lyubov A. Isupova, Evgeny A. Suprun and Aleksandr S. Gorkusha
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040071 - 29 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1276
Abstract
This study revealed an increased reactivity of centrifugally thermoactivated products of gibbsite toward aqueous solutions of nickel nitrate at room temperature as well as under hydrothermal conditions. X-ray, thermal, microscopy, adsorption and chemical analysis methods were used to investigate and demonstrate the possibility [...] Read more.
This study revealed an increased reactivity of centrifugally thermoactivated products of gibbsite toward aqueous solutions of nickel nitrate at room temperature as well as under hydrothermal conditions. X-ray, thermal, microscopy, adsorption and chemical analysis methods were used to investigate and demonstrate the possibility of obtaining highly loaded mixed aluminum–nickel oxide systems, with a nickel content of ca. 33 wt.%, using a hydrochemical treatment at room temperature or a hydrothermal treatment of suspensions of the product of the centrifugal thermal activation of gibbsite in aqueous solutions of nickel nitrate. It was shown that the thermal treatment of xerogels—hydrochemical interaction products—in the range of 350–850 °C led to the formation of NiO phases and highly dispersed solid solutions of nickel based on the NiAl2O4 spinel structure, with different ratios and a high specific surface area of 140–200 m2/g. A hydrochemical treatment of suspensions at room temperature ensures that the predominant formation of the NiO phase is distributed over the surface of the alumina matrix after calcination, whereas hydrothermal treatment at 150 °C leads to a deeper interaction of the suspension components at the treatment step, which occurs after the thermal treatment of the formed xerogel in the predominant formation of poorly crystallized NiAl2O4 spinel (“protospinel”). The considered method makes it possible to obtain complex aluminum–nickel oxide systems with different phase ratios, decreases the number of initial reagents and synthesis steps, completely excludes waste and diminishes the total amount of nitrates by 75 wt.% compared to the classical nitrate scheme for the coprecipitation of compounds with a similar elemental composition. Full article
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30 pages, 12189 KiB  
Article
Recent Progress in the Viscosity Modeling of Concentrated Suspensions of Unimodal Hard Spheres
by Rajinder Pal
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040070 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
The viscosity models for concentrated suspensions of unimodal hard spheres published in the twenty-first century are reviewed, compared, and evaluated using a large pool of available experimental data. The Pal viscosity model for unimodal suspensions is the best available model in that the [...] Read more.
The viscosity models for concentrated suspensions of unimodal hard spheres published in the twenty-first century are reviewed, compared, and evaluated using a large pool of available experimental data. The Pal viscosity model for unimodal suspensions is the best available model in that the predictions of this model agree very well with the low (zero)-shear experimental relative viscosity data for coarse suspensions, nanosuspensions, and coarse suspensions thickened by starch nanoparticles. The average percentage error in model predictions is less than 6.5%. Finally, the viscous behavior of concentrated multimodal suspensions is simulated using the Pal model for unimodal suspensions. Full article
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11 pages, 940 KiB  
Article
Hydraulic Cold-Pressed Extraction of Sacha Inchi Seeds: Oil Yield and Its Physicochemical Properties
by Sela Kong, Tongor Keang, Monyneath Bunthan, Manit Say, Yukleav Nat, Chin Ping Tan and Reasmey Tan
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040069 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2980
Abstract
Sacha inchi oil (SIO) extraction has been extensively studied using various oil extraction techniques to achieve a high oil recovery. However, most studies relied on heat-based methods, which led to compromised oil quality and reduced nutritional values, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and [...] Read more.
Sacha inchi oil (SIO) extraction has been extensively studied using various oil extraction techniques to achieve a high oil recovery. However, most studies relied on heat-based methods, which led to compromised oil quality and reduced nutritional values, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6), vitamin E, and phenolic compounds. To address these concerns, this study employed a hydraulic cold-pressed extraction (HCPE) technique for extracting SIO aiming to enhance oil yield while preserving its nutritional integrity. During the HCPE process of sacha inchi seeds (SIS), conducted at a constant temperature of 25 ± 1 °C, pressures and pressing times were varied within the range of 30–50 MPa and 10–30 min, respectively, to determine their impact on SIO yields. The results revealed that both pressure and pressing time significantly influenced the yields of SIO (p < 0.05), with the highest oil recovery of 86.31 wt.% on a wet basis achieved at 50 MPa for 30 min. Regarding physicochemical properties, the peroxide values (5.71–9.07 meq/kg), iodine values (176.22–197.76 g I2/100 g), acid values (1.82–2.16 mg KOH/g), and percentage of free fatty acids (0.91–1.08 wt.% as oleic acid) were found to be influenced by pressure and pressing time (p < 0.05). Additionally, the color variation by L* (34.22–35.17), −a* (0.39–0.81), and b* (3.48–5.62) changed with each oil yield. Notably, the high iodine value in SIO indicated a substantial content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 (40.86%), omega-6 (40.87%), and omega-9 (10.20%). Furthermore, a comparison with solvent extraction methods demonstrated that HCPE exhibited similar efficiency in extracting SIO, offering additional advantage in terms of its cold-pressed condition, eliminating of solvent use, simplicity, short extraction time, and higher oil recovery. Full article
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16 pages, 7795 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Heat Losses in a Pilot-Scale Multiple Dividing Wall Distillation Column with Three Parallel Sections
by Lena-Marie Ränger, Yannick Waibel and Thomas Grützner
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040068 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
For an in-depth investigation of the separation process in small-scale distillation columns, knowledge about the exact vapor load inside the column is highly important. However, since columns with small diameters have a comparatively high surface-to-volume ratio, heat losses have a significant impact on [...] Read more.
For an in-depth investigation of the separation process in small-scale distillation columns, knowledge about the exact vapor load inside the column is highly important. However, since columns with small diameters have a comparatively high surface-to-volume ratio, heat losses have a significant impact on fluid dynamics, as they lead to unwanted condensation, and thus, to changes in the internal flows. This work presents a procedure used to measure heat losses in a 9.6 m high distillation column with three partially parallel segments (multiple dividing wall column). The evaporator is made of stainless steel, and the column walls are made of double-walled, evacuated, mirrored glass, and additionally, these can be heated. It is found that significant amounts of heat are lost in the evaporator. Throughout the column height, around 0.8 kW are additionally lost, even with external wall heating. To determine the main reason for this significant loss, thermal images are taken, indicating that the problem mainly arises because of the flanges. Based on this, it can be concluded that proper insulation and additional heating jackets for the column walls are highly recommended for small-scale distillation columns in order to increase their thermal efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification for Chemical Engineering and Processing)
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11 pages, 1400 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Absolute Pressure of the Extraction System on the Yield and Composition of Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D.Hill and L.A.S.Johnson Leaf Essential Oil Extracted by Steam Distillation
by Juliana de Araujo, Wendel Paulo Silvestre, Gabriel Fernandes Pauletti and Luis Antonio Rezende Muniz
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040067 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the extraction of Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D.Hill and L.A.S.Johnson essential oil by steam distillation under reduced pressure. Yield and composition of the essential oils obtained at different system pressures were analyzed. System pressure had a significant influence on [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the extraction of Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D.Hill and L.A.S.Johnson essential oil by steam distillation under reduced pressure. Yield and composition of the essential oils obtained at different system pressures were analyzed. System pressure had a significant influence on essential oil yield, resulting in a reduction of 78.6% when the pressure was reduced from 690 Torr to 240 Torr. There were also changes in essential oil composition, with an increase in citronellol content (oxygenated monoterpene). However, the major compound (citronellal) remained at a high content in all tests. Regarding the extracted mass of the major compounds (citronellal, citronellol), there was a significant reduction for all when the system pressure was reduced. Although the reduction in the pressure of the system caused a reduction in oil yield, it was possible to carry out the steps of extraction and purification of the major compound simultaneously. Reduced pressure extraction may decrease process time, increasing its efficiency and reducing costs in the extraction of essential oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Green and Environmentally Sustainable Chemical Processes)
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45 pages, 14179 KiB  
Review
Functional Nanostructured Materials in the Cosmetics Industry: A Review
by Anjali Sharma, Pooja Agarwal, Zahra Sebghatollahi and Neelima Mahato
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040066 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4771
Abstract
Cosmetics have always been in demand across the globe among people of all age groups. In the modern cosmetic world, nanostructured materials have proven hugely advantageous in producing cosmeceuticals or ‘nano-cosmeceuticals’ and various beauty products. The application of nanostructured materials in cosmetic products [...] Read more.
Cosmetics have always been in demand across the globe among people of all age groups. In the modern cosmetic world, nanostructured materials have proven hugely advantageous in producing cosmeceuticals or ‘nano-cosmeceuticals’ and various beauty products. The application of nanostructured materials in cosmetic products possesses some challenges in terms of short- and long-term safety and environmental issues, despite their growing popularity. The nanostructured particles in cosmeceuticals provide a targeted route of administration due to their high penetrability, site selectivity, high effectiveness, prolonged activity, and drug encapsulation potential. However, standard methods for toxicity evaluation may not be relevant for cosmeceuticals, leading to the need for an alternative methodology. This review article compiles detailed descriptions of all significant aspects of nanostructured materials in the cosmetics industry, which include the synthesis and characterization of relevant nanostructured materials for cosmeceuticals, state-of-the-art practices, mechanisms for the synthesis of advanced materials, toxicological concerns in terms of health risks in humans, and environmental concerns. Also, a proposal for new approaches in terms of regulatory measures to mitigate these problems has been suggested. The primary focus of this article is to provide a comprehensive outlook on this subject area and contribute to the exploration of new prospects and emerging roles of nanostructured materials in the cosmetics industry. Full article
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19 pages, 6644 KiB  
Article
Process Optimization of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil in a Microwave Reactor: A Case of Machine Learning and Box–Behnken Design
by Achanai Buasri, Phensuda Sirikoom, Sirinan Pattane, Orapharn Buachum and Vorrada Loryuenyong
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040065 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
In the present investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) and machine learning (ML) are applied to the biodiesel production process via acid-catalyzed transesterification and esterification of triglyceride (TG). In order to optimize the production of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO) in a microwave [...] Read more.
In the present investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) and machine learning (ML) are applied to the biodiesel production process via acid-catalyzed transesterification and esterification of triglyceride (TG). In order to optimize the production of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO) in a microwave reactor, these models are also compared. During the process, Box–Behnken design (BBD) and an artificial neural network (ANN) were used to evaluate the effect of the catalyst content (3.0–7.0 wt.%), methanol/UCO mole ratio (12:1–18:1), and irradiation time (5.0–9.0 min). The process conditions were adjusted and developed to predict the highest biodiesel yield using BBD with the RSM approach and an ANN model. With optimal process parameters of 4.94 wt.% catalyst content, 16.76:1 methanol/UCO mole ratio, and 8.13 min of irradiation time, a yield of approximately 98.62% was discovered. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the BBD model was found to be 0.9988, and the correlation coefficient (R) for the ANN model was found to be 0.9994. According to the findings, applying RSM and ANN models is advantageous when optimizing the biodiesel manufacturing process as well as making predictions about it. This renewable and environmentally friendly process has the potential to provide a sustainable route for the synthesis of high-quality biodiesel from waste oil with a low cost and high acid value. Full article
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12 pages, 2085 KiB  
Article
Development of Mosquito-Repellent Camouflage Fabric Using Eucalyptus Oil with Moringa oleifera Gum
by Faiza Anwar, Mudassar Abbas, Mumtaz Hasan Malik, Amna Aziz Cheema, Suniya Tariq, Warda Afzal and Asfandyar Khan
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040064 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
Military personnel are exposed to several harsh conditions and mosquitos in mountains and wild forests. Mosquito-repellent textiles can help them to cope with such conditions. The present research work established a sustainable approach for fabricating microcapsules from Eucalyptus oil, Moringa oleifera, and [...] Read more.
Military personnel are exposed to several harsh conditions and mosquitos in mountains and wild forests. Mosquito-repellent textiles can help them to cope with such conditions. The present research work established a sustainable approach for fabricating microcapsules from Eucalyptus oil, Moringa oleifera, and Arabic gum via a complex coacervation method. Moringa oleifera and Arabic gums were utilized as the outer shell of the microcapsules, whereas the core part was made of Eucalyptus oil in different concentrations. The military camouflage-printed polyester/cotton (PC) blended fabric was coated with the as-prepared microcapsules using the pad–dry–cure technique. The surface morphology of the microcapsules was examined using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the coated fabric’s mosquito-repellent property was investigated using a specified cage test according to a standard testing protocol. The water absorbency and air permeability of the treated samples were also evaluated in order to learn about the comfort properties. The cage test results revealed that the coated fabric had a good tendency to repel the mosquitoes used in the cage test. In addition, the coated fabric showed significant durability even after several rigorous washing cycles. However, the application of microcapsules to the fabric slightly affected the water absorbency and air permeability of the fabric. This study presents a novel sustainable approach for fabricating microcapsules from the mentioned precursors and their application in the field of textiles, particularly for military purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Green and Environmentally Sustainable Chemical Processes)
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16 pages, 3399 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Jet Flooding in Distillation Column Olefins Plant on Naphtha to LPG Feed Substitution
by Albertus Wijanarko, Muslikhin Hidayat and Sutijan Sutijan
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040063 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 3154
Abstract
The naphtha cracking process is the most commonly used technology for the production of ethylene, propylene, mixed C4s (including 1,3-butadiene and other C4 components), and pygas (pyrolysis gasoline, a mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene), all of which are olefins. The cracking [...] Read more.
The naphtha cracking process is the most commonly used technology for the production of ethylene, propylene, mixed C4s (including 1,3-butadiene and other C4 components), and pygas (pyrolysis gasoline, a mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene), all of which are olefins. The cracking furnace and distillation columns are the primary operational units. The raw material is cracked and undergoes reactions in the cracking furnaces, while the distillation columns are responsible for separating the products. Raw material costs account for 80% of production costs. There is also the possibility of using LPG as a less expensive alternative to some of the naphtha. However, changing the raw material would affect the operability of the distillation columns and influence the yield on the cracking side. To determine the optimal naphtha substitution for LPG without causing hydraulic problems (such as jet flooding) in the distillation columns, analysis using simulation tools must be conducted. A reliability model is being developed to simulate the substitution of naphtha with other feed stocks by comparing simulation results with data from the actual plant. The LPG flow is a variable that is freely adjusted to substitute for naphtha. Simulation tools can be used to assess the effects of economically advantageous naphtha substitution for LPG without compromising plant operability. The optimum naphtha substitution rate is 21.14% from the base case, resulting in jet flooding occurring at Propylene Fractionator No. 2. By implementing this substitution, the benefits that can be obtained amount to USD 22,772.02 per hour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification for Chemical Engineering and Processing)
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16 pages, 2499 KiB  
Article
Using the Response Surface Methodology to Treat Tannery Wastewater with the Bicarbonate-Peroxide System
by Néstor A. Urbina-Suarez, Cristian J. Salcedo-Pabón, German L. López-Barrera, Janet B. García-Martínez, Andrés F. Barajas-Solano and Fiderman Machuca-Martínez
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040062 - 16 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1428
Abstract
A bicarbonate-peroxide (BAP) system was evaluated to improve the quality of industrial tannery wastewater using an I-optimal experimental design with four variables (temperature, initial pH, bicarbonate, and H2O2 concentration). The response variables were COD removal, ammonia nitrogen removal, and nitrate [...] Read more.
A bicarbonate-peroxide (BAP) system was evaluated to improve the quality of industrial tannery wastewater using an I-optimal experimental design with four variables (temperature, initial pH, bicarbonate, and H2O2 concentration). The response variables were COD removal, ammonia nitrogen removal, and nitrate concentration. The most critical variables were optimized using a The process was carried out in 500 mL reactors, the operational volume of 250 mL, and the agitation was at 550 rpm. A new I-optimal reaction surface design at two levels (bicarbonate concentration 0.01–0.3 mol/L and H2O2 0.05–0.35 mol/L) was used to obtain the optimal data of the experimental design. Optimal conditions were validated by one-way ANOVA statistical analysis using Prism software. Temperatures above 50 °C promote the efficiency of the BAP system, and slightly acidic initial pHs allow stabilization of the system upon inclusion of bicarbonate and peroxide in the concentration of bicarbonate, which is critical for the reaction with peroxide and formation of reactive oxygen species. With the validated optimal data, removal percentages above 78% were achieved for nitrites, ammonia nitrogen, chromium, TSS, BOD, conductivity, chromium, and chlorides; for COD and TOC, removal percentages were above 45%, these results being equal and even higher than other AOPs implemented for this type of water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering in Wastewater Treatment)
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17 pages, 1445 KiB  
Review
Innovations in Modern Nanotechnology for the Sustainable Production of Agriculture
by Rajiv Periakaruppan, Valentin Romanovski, Selva Kumar Thirumalaisamy, Vanathi Palanimuthu, Manju Praveena Sampath, Abhirami Anilkumar, Dinesh Kumar Sivaraj, Nihaal Ahamed Nasheer Ahamed, Shalini Murugesan, Divya Chandrasekar and Karungan Selvaraj Vijai Selvaraj
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040061 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3695
Abstract
Nanotechnology has an extensive series of applications in agronomy and has an important role in the future of sustainable agriculture. The agricultural industries should be supported by innovative active materials such as nanofertilizers, nanofungicides, and nanopesticides. It is necessary in the current situation [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology has an extensive series of applications in agronomy and has an important role in the future of sustainable agriculture. The agricultural industries should be supported by innovative active materials such as nanofertilizers, nanofungicides, and nanopesticides. It is necessary in the current situation to meet the dietary needs of the constantly expanding world population. Nearly one-third of crops grown conventionally suffer damage, mostly as a result of pest infestation, microbiological assaults, natural disasters, poor soil quality, and a lack of nutrients. To solve these problems, we urgently need more inventive technology. The application of nanotechnology in agriculture provides intelligent methods for delivering nutrients, herbicides, and genetic materials for improving soil fertility, stress tolerance, and protection. The world is currently confronting significant issues related to the rising demand for enough food and safe food as well as dealing with the environmental damage caused by traditional agriculture. Nanomaterials have important applications in agriculture for increasing plant growth and development and the quality and quantity of the crops and controlling and managing agricultural diseases. The major objective of this article is to describe the various applications and importance of nanoparticles in the agriculture sector. Full article
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14 pages, 2883 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of CO2 Removal from Inhalational Anesthesia System by Using Gas-Ionic Liquid Membrane
by Alon Davidy
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040060 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1310
Abstract
Inhalational anesthesia is supplied through an assisted ventilation system. It is mostly composed of xenon or nitrous oxide, halogenated hydrocarbons (HHCs), and oxygen. In order to reduce costs of the anesthesia compounds, the remaining anesthetics present in exhalation are recycled and reused, in [...] Read more.
Inhalational anesthesia is supplied through an assisted ventilation system. It is mostly composed of xenon or nitrous oxide, halogenated hydrocarbons (HHCs), and oxygen. In order to reduce costs of the anesthesia compounds, the remaining anesthetics present in exhalation are recycled and reused, in order to minimize the amount of fresh anesthesia. An alkali hydroxide mixture (called soda lime) is employed in order to remove CO2 from the exhalation. However toxic compounds may be formed during the reaction of soda lime with halogenated hydrocarbons. Ionic liquids (ILs) have several advantages such as non-volatility, functionality, high carbon solubility, and low energy requirements for regeneration. In the framework of this research, carbon dioxide removal with ionic liquids has been numerically studied. COMSOL multi-physics finite element software has been applied. It solves the continuity, fluid flow, and diffusion equations. A new algorithm has been developed for calculating the infrared (IR) radiation absorption of CO2. Its absorption coefficient has wavelength-dependent properties. The gaseous absorption coefficient has been calculated by using HITRAN spectral database. It has been found that the CO2 is absorbed almost completely by the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([emim][DCA]) ionic liquid after a period of 1000 s. It has been shown that the absorption coefficient of CO2 can be neglected in the interval below 1.565 μm, and then at 1.6 μm, it increases to the same order as that for CO. Thus, it is possible to detect CO2 by applying a laser diode which is capable to transmit IR radiation at a wavelength of 1.6 μm. This time period is a function of the diffusion coefficient of the CO2 in the membrane and in the ionic liquid. Full article
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13 pages, 1582 KiB  
Article
One-Dimensional Modeling of Mass Transfer Processes in an Annular Centrifugal Contactor
by Peter M. Ritzler, Clemens K. Weiss and Bernhard C. Seyfang
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040059 - 12 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Due to the importance of process intensification, modeling of Annular Centrifugal Contactors (ACCs) is becoming of increasing interest. By the current state of scientific knowledge, universal modeling without high computing power of these complex apparatuses is not possible to a satisfactory degree. In [...] Read more.
Due to the importance of process intensification, modeling of Annular Centrifugal Contactors (ACCs) is becoming of increasing interest. By the current state of scientific knowledge, universal modeling without high computing power of these complex apparatuses is not possible to a satisfactory degree. In this article, a one-dimensional model to describe the mass transfer during a physical extraction process in an ACC is presented. The model is based on solely geometrical data and operating conditions of the ACC, as well as physical properties of the components. Regarding the selection of physical properties, only physical properties that are easily accessible were used. With this model, mass transfer calculations are possible and therefore, the output concentrations can be predicted. Simulations of an ACC based on the model were done by creating and running a python code. Validation of the model was conducted by varying and comparing operating conditions in both the simulation and the experiments. Validation was completed successfully for a representative system of components and showed good agreement over a range of rotational frequencies and temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification for Chemical Engineering and Processing)
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25 pages, 2194 KiB  
Article
Optimizing the Sulfates Content of Cement Using Neural Networks and Uncertainty Analysis
by Dimitris C. Tsamatsoulis, Christos A. Korologos and Dimitris V. Tsiftsoglou
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7040058 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
This study aims to approximate the optimum sulfate content of cement, applying maximization of compressive strength as a criterion for cement produced in industrial mills. The design includes tests on four types of cement containing up to three main components and belonging to [...] Read more.
This study aims to approximate the optimum sulfate content of cement, applying maximization of compressive strength as a criterion for cement produced in industrial mills. The design includes tests on four types of cement containing up to three main components and belonging to three strength classes. We developed relationships correlating to 7- and 28-day strength with the sulfate and clinker content of the cement (CL), as well as the clinker mineral composition (tricalcium silicate, C3S, tricalcium aluminate, C3A). We correlated strength with the ratio %SO3/CL and the molecular ratios MSO3/C3S and MSO3/C3A. The data processing stage proved that artificial neural networks (ANNs) fit the results’ distribution better than a parabolic function, providing reliable models. The optimal %SO3/CL value for 7- and 28-day strength was 2.85 and 3.00, respectively. Concerning the ratios of SO3 at the mineral phases for 28-day strength, the best values were MSO3/C3S = 0.132–0.135 and MSO3/C3A = 1.55. We implemented some of the ANNs to gain a wide interval of input variables’ values. Thus, the approximations of SO3 optimum using ANNs had a relatively broad application in daily plant quality control, at least as a guide for experimental design. Finally, we investigated the impact of SO3 uncertainty on the 28-day strength variance using the error propagation method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)
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