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ChemEngineering, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 19 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Colloids in ionic liquids open many opportunities due to their new combination of properties. A [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Factors That Determine the Adhesive Strength in a Bioinspired Bone Tissue Adhesive
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010019 - 21 Mar 2020
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Phosphoserine-modified cements (PMCs) are a family of wet-field tissue adhesives that bond strongly to bone and biomaterials. The present study evaluated variations in the adhesive strength using a scatter plot, failure mode, and a regression analysis of eleven factors. All single-factor, continuous-variable correlations [...] Read more.
Phosphoserine-modified cements (PMCs) are a family of wet-field tissue adhesives that bond strongly to bone and biomaterials. The present study evaluated variations in the adhesive strength using a scatter plot, failure mode, and a regression analysis of eleven factors. All single-factor, continuous-variable correlations were poor (R2 < 0.25). The linear regression model explained 31.6% of variation in adhesive strength (R2 = 0.316 p < 0.001), with bond thickness predicting an 8.5% reduction in strength per 100 μm increase. Interestingly, PMC adhesive strength was insensitive to surface roughness (Sa 1.27–2.17 μm) and the unevenness (skew) of the adhesive bond (p > 0.167, 0.171, ANOVA). Bone glued in conditions mimicking the operating theatre (e.g., the rapid fixation and minimal fixation force in fluids) produced comparable adhesive strength in laboratory conditions (2.44 vs. 1.96 MPa, p > 0.986). The failure mode correlated strongly with the adhesive strength; low strength PMCs (<1 MPa) failed cohesively, while high strength (>2 MPa) PMCs failed adhesively. Failure occurred at the interface between the amorphous surface layer and the PMC bulk. PMC bonding is sufficient for clinical application, allowing for a wide tolerance in performance conditions while maintaining a minimal bond strength of 1.5–2 MPa to cortical bone and metal surfaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Indirect Dryers for Biomass Drying—Comparison of Experimental Characteristics for Drum and Rotary Configurations
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010018 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 245
Abstract
This paper focuses on indirect biomass drying. It compares the operating characteristics of a laboratory-scale drum dryer and a pilot-scale rotary dryer. Before the design of an industrial dryer for a specific material, it is important to experimentally prove the process and to [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on indirect biomass drying. It compares the operating characteristics of a laboratory-scale drum dryer and a pilot-scale rotary dryer. Before the design of an industrial dryer for a specific material, it is important to experimentally prove the process and to determine the drying characteristics of the material. To verify the portability of experimental results for indirect dryers, a drum dryer with indirect electric heating in a laboratory scale was designed and built to test and study the process of indirect drying. Based on the results obtained on a small-scale device, a prototype of a pilot steam-heated rotary dryer was designed and manufactured. A broad range of experiments with green wood chips and wet bark from open-air storage with moisture contents of 50 to 65 wt % were carried out on both dryers. The drying curves indicating the process, the square and volumetric evaporation capacities, and the drying energy consumption were obtained and compared, and the feasibility of indirect drying for these tested types of biomass was confirmed. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue “Advances in Biogas Desulfurization”
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010017 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 254
Abstract
This Special Issue contains three articles and two reviews. The biological reactors used in the studies were fed with real biogas from Landfill or STPs. One research article concerns the use of a pilot scale plant with a combined process with a chemical [...] Read more.
This Special Issue contains three articles and two reviews. The biological reactors used in the studies were fed with real biogas from Landfill or STPs. One research article concerns the use of a pilot scale plant with a combined process with a chemical and biological system. The other two studies concern anoxic biotrickling filters, with one study focused on the study of variable operation and its optimization through the response surface methodology, and the other focused on the selection of packing material. The reviews concern the current state of biogas desulfurization technologies, including an economic analysis, and the microbial ecology in biofiltration units. This Issue highlights some of the most relevant aspects about biogas desulfurization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biogas Desulfurization) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Dry Reforming of Methane over a Ruthenium/Carbon Nanotube Catalyst
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010016 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 270
Abstract
In this study, CH4 dry reforming was demonstrated on a novel microwave-synthesized ruthenium (Ru)/carbon nanotube (CNT) catalyst. The catalyst was tested in an isothermal laboratory-packed bed reactor, with gas analysis by gas chromatography/thermal conductivity detection. The catalyst demonstrated excellent dry-reforming activity at [...] Read more.
In this study, CH4 dry reforming was demonstrated on a novel microwave-synthesized ruthenium (Ru)/carbon nanotube (CNT) catalyst. The catalyst was tested in an isothermal laboratory-packed bed reactor, with gas analysis by gas chromatography/thermal conductivity detection. The catalyst demonstrated excellent dry-reforming activity at modest temperatures (773–973 K) and pressure (3.03 × 105 Pa). Higher reaction temperatures favored increased conversion of CH4 and CO2, and increased H2/CO product ratios. Slight coke deposition, estimated by carbon balance, was observed at higher temperatures and higher feed CH4/CO2. A robust global kinetic model composed of three reversible reactions—dry reforming, reverse water gas shift, and CH4 decomposition—simulates observed outlet species concentrations and reactant conversions using this Ru/CNT catalyst over the temperature range of this study. This engineering kinetic model for the Ru/CNT catalyst predicts a somewhat higher selectivity and yield for H2, and less for CO, in comparison to previously published results for a similarly prepared Pt_Pd/CNT catalyst from our group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Low-dimensional Materials and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated and Networked Systems and Processes—A Perspective for Digital Transformation in Thermal Process Engineering
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010015 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 266
Abstract
Separation technology as a sub-discipline of thermal process engineering is one of the most critical steps in the production of chemicals, essential for the quality of intermediate and end products. The discipline comprises the construction of facilities that convert raw materials into value-added [...] Read more.
Separation technology as a sub-discipline of thermal process engineering is one of the most critical steps in the production of chemicals, essential for the quality of intermediate and end products. The discipline comprises the construction of facilities that convert raw materials into value-added products along the value chain. Conversions typically take place in repeated reaction and separation steps—either in batch or continuous processes. The end products are the result of several production and separation steps that are not only sequentially linked, but also include the treatment of unused raw materials, by-products and wastes. Production processes in the process industry are particularly susceptible to fluctuations in raw materials and other influences affecting product quality. This is a challenge, despite increasing fluctuations, to deliver targeted quality and simultaneously meet the increasing dynamics of the market, at least for high value fine chemicals. In order to survive successfully in a changed environment, chemical companies must tread new paths. This includes the potential of digital technologies. The full integration and intelligent networking of systems and processes is progressing hesitantly. This contribution aims to encourage a more holistic approach to the digitalization in thermal process engineering by introduction of integrated and networked systems and processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Thermal Process Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Column Separation of Am(III) and Eu(III) by α-Zirconium Phosphate Ion Exchanger in Nitric Acid
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010014 - 24 Feb 2020
Viewed by 227
Abstract
The trivalent lanthanide-actinide separations are a major challenge in reprocessing of nuclear fuels. To achieve this, commonly organic extractants and solvents are utilized in elaborate processes. Here we report a simple new method that can perform a supportive or alternative role. A nanocrystalline [...] Read more.
The trivalent lanthanide-actinide separations are a major challenge in reprocessing of nuclear fuels. To achieve this, commonly organic extractants and solvents are utilized in elaborate processes. Here we report a simple new method that can perform a supportive or alternative role. A nanocrystalline α-zirconium phosphate ion exchanger was utilized for Eu(III)/Am(III) column separation. Comprehensive preliminary studies were done using batch experiments to optimize the final separation conditions. The distribution coefficients for Eu were determined as a function of pH (from 0 to 3) and salinity (Na, Sr). The distribution coefficients for Am were determined as a function of pH, and Eu concentration, from 1:40 to 10,000:1 Eu:Am molar ratio. The exchanger always preferred Eu over Am in our experimental conditions. Separation factors (Eu:Am) of up to 400 were achieved in binary Eu-Am solution in pH 1. The breakthrough capacity was determined in dynamic column conditions using Eu: 0.3 meq∙g−1, which is approximately 4% of the theoretical maximum capacity. Two types of hot column separation tests were conducted: (i) binary load (selective Am elution), and (ii) continuous equimolar binary feed. In both cases separation was achieved. In (i), the majority (82% of the recovered 93%) of Am could be purified from Eu with extremely high 99.999% molar purity, while alternatively even more (95% of the recovered 93%) at a lower purity of 99.7 mol %. In (ii), up to 330 L∙kg−1 of the equimolar solution per mass of the exchanger could be treated with Am purity above 99.5 mol % in the total eluate. Alternatively, up to 630 L∙kg−1 above 95 mol %, or up to 800 L∙kg−1 above 90 mol % purities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Numerical Implementation of the Soret Effect in Drying Processes
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010013 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Drying of porous media is strictly governed by heat and mass transfer. However, contrary to the definition that drying is simultaneous transport mechanisms of heat and mass, most past and current models either account for temperature or concentration gradient effects on drying. Even [...] Read more.
Drying of porous media is strictly governed by heat and mass transfer. However, contrary to the definition that drying is simultaneous transport mechanisms of heat and mass, most past and current models either account for temperature or concentration gradient effects on drying. Even though the complexity of computations of these processes varies with area of application, in most cases, the Dufour and Soret effects are neglected. This leads to deviations and uncertainties on the assumptions and interpretations of these and other relevant effects on drying. This paper covers the theoretical methods to derive the coupled transfer effects. In addition, this work proposes and formulates relevant heat and mass transfer equations, as well as the governing equations for drying processes with Dufour and Soret effects. The application of a numerical approach to solve the equations allows for studying of the influence of these effects on the design and operation of dryers. It is shown that the Soret effect can be highly relevant on drying operations with dynamic heating operation. While for drying processes where the steady state drying process predominates, the effect is deemed negligible. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Maltodextrin and Inulin on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Cranberry Juice Powders
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010012 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Cranberry juice has a high content of polyphenols, which makes it a valuable raw material with health-promoting properties. On the other hand, the bitter and astringent taste of cranberry limits its consumption in fresh form (fruit, juice). For this reason, new formulations of [...] Read more.
Cranberry juice has a high content of polyphenols, which makes it a valuable raw material with health-promoting properties. On the other hand, the bitter and astringent taste of cranberry limits its consumption in fresh form (fruit, juice). For this reason, new formulations of cranberry products based on natural additives are sought, e.g., in the form of carriers, which not only allow the drying of liquids to form powders, but which can also affect the retention of bioactive compounds. This study aimed at the evaluation of the influence of different carriers and concentrations applied to cranberry juice and their influence on the physico-chemical properties of the powders obtained. Freeze-dried powders had approximately eight times higher moisture content than products gained after the spray-drying process. The bulk density of freeze-dried product was approximately 11% higher when compared to spray-drying. Freeze-drying and spray-drying had a similar influence on the total polyphenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity. When the concentration of carriers was concerned, it was indicated that a higher content of carrier resulted in a lower moisture content, water activity, CIE L*a*b* coordinates, total polyphenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of the powders obtained, pointing to a strong influence of the juice composition on the final properties of the powders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Applied Process Simulation-Driven Oil and Gas Separation Plant Optimization Using Surrogate Modeling and Evolutionary Algorithms
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010011 - 06 Feb 2020
Viewed by 513
Abstract
In this article, the optimization of a realistic oil and gas separation plant has been studied. Using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) and rigorous process simulations, surrogate models using Kriging have been established for selected model responses. The surrogate models are used in combination [...] Read more.
In this article, the optimization of a realistic oil and gas separation plant has been studied. Using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) and rigorous process simulations, surrogate models using Kriging have been established for selected model responses. The surrogate models are used in combination with an evolutionary algorithm for optimizing the operating profit, mainly by maximizing the recoverable oil production. A total of 10 variables representing pressure and temperature at various key places in the separation plant are optimized to maximize the operational profit. The optimization is bounded in the variables and a constraint function is included to ensure that the optimal solution allows export of oil with a Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) < 12 psia. The main finding is that, while a high pressure is preferred in the first separation stage, apparently a unique optimal setting for the pressure in downstream separators does not appear to exist. In the second stage separator, apparently different, yet more or less equally optimal, settings are revealed. In the third and final separation stage a correlation between the separator pressure and the applied inlet temperature exists, where different combinations of pressure and temperature yields equally optimal results. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Obtaining Mn-Co Alloys in AISI 430 Steel from Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling: Application in SOFC Interconnectors
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010010 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 304
Abstract
The recycling of exhausted lithium-ion batteries from mobile phones originate five solutions with different Co and Mn proportions that were used as electrolytic solutions to obtain Mn-Co spinel coatings on the surface of AISI430 stainless steel. The coatings are intended to contain chromium [...] Read more.
The recycling of exhausted lithium-ion batteries from mobile phones originate five solutions with different Co and Mn proportions that were used as electrolytic solutions to obtain Mn-Co spinel coatings on the surface of AISI430 stainless steel. The coatings are intended to contain chromium volatility in the working conditions of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) metallic interconnectors. Potentiostatic electrodeposition was the technique used to obtain Mn-Co coatings from low concentration electrolytes at pH = 3.0 and potential applied −1.3 V. Charge efficiency data were used for sample optimization. Three optimized samples were subjected to oxidation heat treatment at 800 °C for 300 h and then characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS. The results showed that the addition of manganese ions instead of cobalt ions in the electrolytic bath produces more stable and well-distributed deposits as the ratio of the two ions becomes equal in the electrolytic bath. Thin, homogeneous and stable spinel coatings (Mn, Co)3O4 2.8 μm and 3.9 μm thick were able to block chromium volatility when exposed to SOFC operating temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2019 HYPOTHESIS XIV)
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Open AccessArticle
Drying-Induced Strain-Stress and Deformation of Thin Ceramic Plate
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010009 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 256
Abstract
Ceramic thin plates are applied to several industrial purposes including electronic materials and sensors. Drying-induced shrinkage and strain-stress formation of a ceramic thin plate were studied experimentally and theoretically. A kaolin thin plate molded into 10 mm × 30 mm × 1 mm [...] Read more.
Ceramic thin plates are applied to several industrial purposes including electronic materials and sensors. Drying-induced shrinkage and strain-stress formation of a ceramic thin plate were studied experimentally and theoretically. A kaolin thin plate molded into 10 mm × 30 mm × 1 mm was dried in a hot air stream, and the drying characteristics and deformation were examined. Modeling was also performed to predict the behavior. Heat and moisture transfer conservation equations and constitution equations based on viscoelastic strain-stress were simultaneously solved by a finite element method. A test piece of the thin plate was warped when only one side of the plate was dried, while it was almost flat when both sides were dried. The behaviors of drying and deformation were predicted with a reasonable agreement by the modeling. Parametric analyses by the modeling revealed that the drying conditions with faster drying rate in the beginning period resulted in formation of greater maximum principal stress, and drying on only one side of the plate induced stronger tensile stress in falling rate period than that with both sides drying. The larger thickness of the plate influenced the formation of significantly greater tensile stress but affected maximum compressive stress only a little. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High End Quality Measuring in Mango Drying through Multi-Spectral Imaging Systems
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010008 - 01 Feb 2020
Viewed by 239
Abstract
In modern fruit processing technology, non-destructive quality measuring techniques are sought for determining and controlling changes in the optical, structural, and chemical properties of the products. In this context, changes inside the product can be measured during processing. Especially for industrial use, fast, [...] Read more.
In modern fruit processing technology, non-destructive quality measuring techniques are sought for determining and controlling changes in the optical, structural, and chemical properties of the products. In this context, changes inside the product can be measured during processing. Especially for industrial use, fast, precise, but robust methods are particularly important to obtain high-quality products. In this work, a newly developed multi-spectral imaging system was implemented and adapted for drying processes. Further it was investigated if the system could be used to link changes in the surface spectral reflectance during mango drying with changes in moisture content and contents of chemical components. This was achieved by recovering the spectral reflectance from multi-spectral image data and comparing the spectral changes with changes of the total soluble solids (TSS), pH-value and the relative moisture content xwb of the products. In a first step, the camera was modified to be used in drying, then the changes in the spectra and quality criteria during mango drying were measured. For this, mango slices were dried at air temperatures of 40–80 °C and relative air humidities of 5%–30%. Samples were analyzed and pictures were taken with the multi-spectral imaging system. The quality criteria were then predicted from spectral data. It could be shown that the newly developed multi-spectral imaging system can be used for quality control in fruit drying. There are strong indications as well, that it can be employed for the prediction of chemical quality criteria of mangoes during drying. This way, quality changes can be monitored inline during the process using only one single measuring device. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of ChemEngineering in 2019
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010007 - 21 Jan 2020
Viewed by 219
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Economic Evaluation of Drying of Soot Sludge and Sawdust Mixture at Low Temperatures Using the Characteristic Drying Curve Method
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010006 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Soot sludge is a waste stream formed in the fuel oil gasification of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide production. The soot sludge has a high moisture content (95%) and is presently combusted with heavy fuel oil in order to dispose of the sludge. [...] Read more.
Soot sludge is a waste stream formed in the fuel oil gasification of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide production. The soot sludge has a high moisture content (95%) and is presently combusted with heavy fuel oil in order to dispose of the sludge. Experimental tests earlier conducted by the authors have shown that the sludge can be convectively dried with sawdust in a fixed bed. By upgrading the sludge from waste to fuel, the utilization of oil can be decreased. In this study, characteristic drying curves (CDC) are determined for the sludge and sawdust mixture. The CDCs are further used to evaluate the economy of the mixture drying in a belt dryer by using the payback period method. Results show that the linear CDCs of the mixture can be used to extrapolate drying data from specific drying conditions to another when the bed height is 200 or 300 mm, and the inlet air temperature 40–100 °C. The economic analysis shows that drying is economical for all inlet air temperatures if the oil price is ≥350 €/t-oil. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the heat, sawdust and emission prices have no remarkable influence on the economy of drying if the oil price does not fall below c. 300 €/t-oil. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Structural, Thermodiffusive and Thermoelectric Properties of Maghemite Nanoparticles Dispersed in Ethylammonium Nitrate
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010005 - 08 Jan 2020
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Ethylammonium nitrate (ionic liquid) based ferrofluids with citrate-coated nanoparticles and Na + counterions were synthesized for a wide range of nanoparticle (NP) volume fractions ( Φ ) of up to 16%. Detailed structural analyses on these fluids were performed using magneto-optical birefringence and [...] Read more.
Ethylammonium nitrate (ionic liquid) based ferrofluids with citrate-coated nanoparticles and Na + counterions were synthesized for a wide range of nanoparticle (NP) volume fractions ( Φ ) of up to 16%. Detailed structural analyses on these fluids were performed using magneto-optical birefringence and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) methods. Furthermore, the thermophoretic and thermodiffusive properties (Soret coefficient S T and diffusion coefficient D m ) were explored by forced Rayleigh scattering experiments as a function of T and Φ . They were compared to the thermoelectric potential (Seebeck coefficient, Se) properties induced in these fluids. The results were analyzed using a modified theoretical model on S T and Se adapted from an existing model developed for dispersions in more standard polar media which allows the determination of the Eastman entropy of transfer ( S ^ NP ) and the effective charge ( Z 0 e f f ) of the nanoparticles. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Clean Syn-Fuels via Hydrogenation Processes: Acidity–Activity Relationship in O-Xylene Hydrotreating
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010004 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 331
Abstract
Transition metal sulfide catalysts are actually the most performing catalytic materials in crude oil hydrotreating (HDT), for energetic purposes. However, these systems suffer from several drawbacks that limit their exploitation. Aiming to meet the even more stringent environmental requirement, through a remarkable improvement [...] Read more.
Transition metal sulfide catalysts are actually the most performing catalytic materials in crude oil hydrotreating (HDT), for energetic purposes. However, these systems suffer from several drawbacks that limit their exploitation. Aiming to meet the even more stringent environmental requirement, through a remarkable improvement of HDT performance in the presence of refractory feedstock (i.e., in terms of activity, selectivity, and stability), a deeper knowledge of the structure–activity relationship of catalysts must be achieved. Therefore, in this study, CoMo/γ-Al2O3 and NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were characterized and tested in the o-xylene hydrogenation model reaction, assessing the influence of both support acidity and catalyst acid strength on reaction pathway by employing γ-Al2O3 and Y-Type zeolite as acid reference materials. A clear relationship between concentration and strength of acid sites and the performance of the catalytic materials was established. Cobalt based catalyst (CoMoSx) proves a higher acidic character with respect to Nickel (NiMoSx), prompting isomerization reactions preferentially, also reflecting a greater o-xylene conversion. The different chemical properties of metals also affect the catalytic pathway, leading on the CoMoSx system to the preferential formation of p-xylene isomer with respect to m-xylene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2019 HYPOTHESIS XIV)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Lignin to Modify Starch-Based Adhesive Performance
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010003 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Unmodified kraft lignin was used to create a starch-based adhesive via the Stein Hall process. Lignin up to 35 wt% was used in several formulations. Lignin was incorporated in both the carrier and slurry portions of the formulations and the effect on adhesive [...] Read more.
Unmodified kraft lignin was used to create a starch-based adhesive via the Stein Hall process. Lignin up to 35 wt% was used in several formulations. Lignin was incorporated in both the carrier and slurry portions of the formulations and the effect on adhesive strength and water resistance was studied. The addition of lignin resulted in a significant increase in adhesive strength when the lignin was added solely to the slurry portion. When lignin was added solely to the carrier portion, the adhesive strength decreased. Other formulations, where lignin was present in both the carrier and slurry portions, showed moderate increases in adhesive strength. Finally, the addition of lignin increased the water-resistance of the adhesive bond in the paperboard. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Heterogeneous Phases Reaction Equilibrium in an Oxy-Thermal Carbide Furnace
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010002 - 03 Jan 2020
Viewed by 484
Abstract
This work focuses on revealing the chemical reaction equilibrium behaviors of gas–liquid–solid heterogeneous phases in an oxy-thermal carbide furnace. From a CaC2 formation mechanism investigation, it was determined that a one-step mechanism occurs when there is an excess of C and a [...] Read more.
This work focuses on revealing the chemical reaction equilibrium behaviors of gas–liquid–solid heterogeneous phases in an oxy-thermal carbide furnace. From a CaC2 formation mechanism investigation, it was determined that a one-step mechanism occurs when there is an excess of C and a high CO partial pressure, which inhibits the formation of Ca in the system, and a two-step mechanism occurs when there is insufficient C and a low CO partial pressure, which promotes the formation of Ca. Based on the calculated results of the equilibrium compositions at 100 kPa and different temperature conditions, the chemical reaction equilibrium behaviors of gas–liquid–solid heterogeneous phases in an oxy-thermal carbide furnace were analyzed at conditions of excess C and insufficient C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flavor Release from Spray-Dried Powders with Various Wall Materials
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010001 - 28 Dec 2019
Viewed by 466
Abstract
By using the ramping method for humidity at a constant temperature, the release rates of d-limonene were investigated from spray-dried powders with various wall materials, such as maltodextrin (MD) (dextrose equivalent (DE) = 25 and 19), lactose (Lac), and sucrose (Suc). Spray-dried [...] Read more.
By using the ramping method for humidity at a constant temperature, the release rates of d-limonene were investigated from spray-dried powders with various wall materials, such as maltodextrin (MD) (dextrose equivalent (DE) = 25 and 19), lactose (Lac), and sucrose (Suc). Spray-dried powders, which were sieved to the average powder size of 107–140 µm, contained d-limonene at about 90–97 mg/g-dry powder. d-limonene release profile was measured using a dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) system coupled gas chromatography at 30, 40, and 50 °C from 10% to 90% relative humidity (RH). The linear correlation was found between the release start humidity, sRH, of d-limonene release from the powder and the glass transition temperature of wall materials. The release rates for Suc and Lac increased rapidly at certain humidities and became the maximum rates. Then, these rates decreased gradually with increasing RH. This might have been due to the powder aggregation for Suc and to crystallization for Lac. The release behaviors significantly depended on the wall materials. Full article
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