Special Issue "Material and Structural Design of Novel Adhesives and Adhesive Systems"

A special issue of ChemEngineering (ISSN 2305-7084).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 March 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Erol Sancaktar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA
Interests: mechanical behavior of adhesives, polymers, composites; design and manufacture with novel materials; excimer laser applications in polymers; electrically conductive adhesives and polymers; nanoprocessing, nanocomposites, and nanodevices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chemical and architectural design of adhesives and adhesive systems for creative applications in engineering and medicine is the focus of this Special Issue. Highly demanding and often very specific engineering and medical applications of our current technology require complicated chemistries, morphologies, and structures in composite/hybrid and organic/inorganic combinations. Thus, precise control over various material and process properties is needed for such “tailor-made” adhesives. Applications may involve novel considerations for “wetting-and-setting”, underwater adhesives, de-adhesion, adhesion/de-adhesion reversible adhesives, impact resistance, replacement of current connection/joining methods by adhesive bonding and design methodologies for that purpose, electrical and thermal conductivity, radar-absorption, controlled release, and medical functions. The associated design processes may involve and even require biomimetics, functional/smart adhesives, self-healing adhesives, biomedical adhesives for clinical applications, multiresponse adhesives, interphase design, reversible sacrificial bonds, hydrogel applications, and advanced manufacturing of and with adhesives and novel toughening mechanisms. As always, the challenge is the proper balance of adhesive properties which change with specific application. Such properties may involve the traditional concerns of mechanical performance with acceptable cohesive and shear strength, chemical inertness, tackiness, stable aging and chemical/structural balance, and low toxicity.

With these considerations, I would like to invite research articles, review articles, as well as short communications for this Special Issue on “Material and Structural Design of Novel Adhesives and Adhesive Systems”. Please note that manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline and will be published continuously in the journal as soon as accepted, and they will be listed together on the Special Issue website.

Prof. Dr. Erol Sancaktar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ChemEngineering is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Novel adhesive chemistries
  • Morphologies, nanostructures
  • Composite/hybrid systems and structures
  • Organic/inorganic combinations
  • Biomimetic designs
  • Functional/smart adhesives
  • Self-healing adhesives
  • Biomedical adhesives for clinical applications
  • Multiresponse adhesives
  • Interphase design
  • Reversible sacrificial bonds
  • Hydrogel applications
  • Advanced manufacturing of and with adhesives
  • Novel toughening mechanisms, impact resistance
  • Novel considerations for “wetting-and-setting”
  • Underwater adhesives
  • De-adhesion
  • Adhesion/de-adhesion reversible adhesives
  • Design methodologies for current connection/joining methods replacement by adhesive bonding
  • Design of structure-function relationships
  • Electrical and thermal conductivity
  • Radar-absorption
  • Controlled release and medical functions

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Advances in Photoreactive Tissue Adhesives Derived from Natural Polymers
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4020032 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
To stop blood loss and accelerate wound healing, conventional wound closure techniques such as sutures and staples are currently used in the clinic. These tissue-piercing wound closure techniques have several disadvantages such as the potential for causing inflammation, infections, and scar formation. Surgical [...] Read more.
To stop blood loss and accelerate wound healing, conventional wound closure techniques such as sutures and staples are currently used in the clinic. These tissue-piercing wound closure techniques have several disadvantages such as the potential for causing inflammation, infections, and scar formation. Surgical sealants and tissue adhesives can address some of the disadvantages of current sutures and staples. An ideal tissue adhesive will demonstrate strong interfacial adhesion and cohesive strength to wet tissue surfaces. Most reported studies rely on the liquid-to-solid transition of organic molecules by taking advantage of polymerization and crosslinking reactions for improving the cohesive strength of the adhesives. Crosslinking reactions triggered using light are commonly used for increasing tissue adhesive strength since the reactions can be controlled spatially and temporally, providing the on-demand curing of the adhesives with minimum misplacements. In this review, we describe the recent advances in the field of naturally derived tissue adhesives and sealants in which the adhesive and cohesive strengths are modulated using photochemical reactions. Full article
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Article
Nickel Nanofibers Manufactured via Sol-Gel and Electrospinning Processes for Electrically Conductive Adhesive Applications
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4020026 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 781
Abstract
The electrospun fibers of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP)-nickel acetate (Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O) composite were successfully prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. Nickel oxide (NiO) nanofibers were obtained afterwards by high temperature calcinations of the precursor fibers, PVP/Ni acetate [...] Read more.
The electrospun fibers of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP)-nickel acetate (Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O) composite were successfully prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. Nickel oxide (NiO) nanofibers were obtained afterwards by high temperature calcinations of the precursor fibers, PVP/Ni acetate composite nanofibers, at 700 °C for 10 h. Following with the reduction of NiO nanofibers at 400 °C using hydrogen gas (H2) under inert atmosphere, the metallic nickel (Ni) nanofibers were subsequently produced. In addition, as-prepared Ni nanofibers were chemically coated with silver (Ag) nanoparticles to enhance their electrical property and prevent the surface oxidation. The characteristics of as-prepared fibers, such as surface morphology, fiber diameters, purity, the amount of NiO nanofibers, and metal crystallinity, were determined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a wide-angle x-ray diffractometer (WAXD). The volume resistivity of epoxy nanocomposite filled with Ag-coated short Ni nanofibers was lower than the one containing short Ni nanofibers with no coating due to the synergetic effect of Ag nanoparticles created during the coating process. We also demonstrated that the volume resistivity of epoxy nanocomposite filled with Ni nanofibers could be dramatically decreased by using Ni nanofibers in the non-woven mat form due to their small fiber diameter and high fiber aspect ratio, which yield a high specific surface area, and high interconnecting network. Full article
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Article
Factors That Determine the Adhesive Strength in a Bioinspired Bone Tissue Adhesive
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010019 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Phosphoserine-modified cements (PMCs) are a family of wet-field tissue adhesives that bond strongly to bone and biomaterials. The present study evaluated variations in the adhesive strength using a scatter plot, failure mode, and a regression analysis of eleven factors. All single-factor, continuous-variable correlations [...] Read more.
Phosphoserine-modified cements (PMCs) are a family of wet-field tissue adhesives that bond strongly to bone and biomaterials. The present study evaluated variations in the adhesive strength using a scatter plot, failure mode, and a regression analysis of eleven factors. All single-factor, continuous-variable correlations were poor (R2 < 0.25). The linear regression model explained 31.6% of variation in adhesive strength (R2 = 0.316 p < 0.001), with bond thickness predicting an 8.5% reduction in strength per 100 μm increase. Interestingly, PMC adhesive strength was insensitive to surface roughness (Sa 1.27–2.17 μm) and the unevenness (skew) of the adhesive bond (p > 0.167, 0.171, ANOVA). Bone glued in conditions mimicking the operating theatre (e.g., the rapid fixation and minimal fixation force in fluids) produced comparable adhesive strength in laboratory conditions (2.44 vs. 1.96 MPa, p > 0.986). The failure mode correlated strongly with the adhesive strength; low strength PMCs (<1 MPa) failed cohesively, while high strength (>2 MPa) PMCs failed adhesively. Failure occurred at the interface between the amorphous surface layer and the PMC bulk. PMC bonding is sufficient for clinical application, allowing for a wide tolerance in performance conditions while maintaining a minimal bond strength of 1.5–2 MPa to cortical bone and metal surfaces. Full article
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Article
Using Lignin to Modify Starch-Based Adhesive Performance
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4010003 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Unmodified kraft lignin was used to create a starch-based adhesive via the Stein Hall process. Lignin up to 35 wt% was used in several formulations. Lignin was incorporated in both the carrier and slurry portions of the formulations and the effect on adhesive [...] Read more.
Unmodified kraft lignin was used to create a starch-based adhesive via the Stein Hall process. Lignin up to 35 wt% was used in several formulations. Lignin was incorporated in both the carrier and slurry portions of the formulations and the effect on adhesive strength and water resistance was studied. The addition of lignin resulted in a significant increase in adhesive strength when the lignin was added solely to the slurry portion. When lignin was added solely to the carrier portion, the adhesive strength decreased. Other formulations, where lignin was present in both the carrier and slurry portions, showed moderate increases in adhesive strength. Finally, the addition of lignin increased the water-resistance of the adhesive bond in the paperboard. Full article
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Review

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Review
Mechanical Behavior of Toughened Epoxy Structural Adhesives for Impact Applications
ChemEngineering 2020, 4(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering4020038 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
The focus of our study is to identify physical properties of different impact-resistant/toughened structural adhesives and identify/develop an elastic-viscoelastic-plastic model as a function of loading rate by using Ludwik-type equations to be able to predict adhesive behavior at higher loading rates and to [...] Read more.
The focus of our study is to identify physical properties of different impact-resistant/toughened structural adhesives and identify/develop an elastic-viscoelastic-plastic model as a function of loading rate by using Ludwik-type equations to be able to predict adhesive behavior at higher loading rates and to make cars more crashworthy. For this purpose, we first characterized eight different commercial toughened epoxy structural adhesives to provide detailed information about their constituents using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS). Most (but not all) of the model adhesives contained organic tougheners in the form of carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) copolymer, as well as polyurethane adducts. The main crystalline inorganic phases were found as calcite (CaCO3), wollastonite (CaSiO3) or calcium silicate (CaSiO3), talc (Mg3Si4O10 (OH)2), zeolite which is an alumina silicate based mineral and has many different elements in its composition (M2/nO·Al2O3·xSiO2·yH2O, M can be Mg, Na, Ca, K, Li). The total amount of inorganic fillers was found to be different in each adhesive. Material behavior of the model adhesives were determined via tensile tests and Single Lap Joint (SLJ) tests in shear. Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was also used to measure the strain and stress values at higher strain rates in the order of 102 s−1, which is generally encountered in impact related loading situations. Toughness values in the range ~0.5 to ~1.35 MJ/m3 were observed with the model adhesives tested in tensile mode within the ~3 × 10−3 to 0.18 m/m/s strain rate range. The softening behavior of the elastic moduli at higher strain rates observed during tensile testing was also observed with SHPB testing. It is remarkable that, overall, the modulus magnitudes seem to be similar between the tensile test and SHPB specimens within this softening range of the initial bilinear elastic behavior observed. When the results from bulk (tensile) and bonded (shear) specimens were compared, it was clearly seen that the toughness responses of the adhesives to (tensile/shear) strain rates in the bulk and bonded forms, respectively, were different, with the bonded shear toughness values in the ~25 to ~120 MJ/m3 range within ~1.25 to ~25 mm/mm/s shear strain range. The model adhesive which included just inorganic fillers had the lowest tensile toughness at the lowest tensile strain rate, but the highest slope in its tensile toughness regression line, exhibited the second highest bonded shear toughness. When tested at the extension rates of 25 mm/min and 100 mm/min in bonded lap shear, the same adhesive exhibited limited interfacial failure areas, however the dominant failure mode was cohesive failure. When the extension rate increased further, transition to interfacial (adhesive) failure was observed revealing that interfacial failures do not necessarily diminish adhesive bond toughness. Our observations point to the fact that cohesive deformation/failure processes indicating interfacial separations, inter-particle interactions as well as polymer matrix deformation in high deformation loading scenario as in bonded shear loadings may provide the highest toughness. Apparently, a large inorganic filler weight fraction is not necessary to obtain high shear toughness in bonded form since the highest bonded shear toughness was obtained with the adhesive which had the least amount of inorganic fillers among the model adhesives with 14.72 wt %. Full article
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