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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 23 (December-1 2022) – 195 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, about 75 million tons of oranges were produced globally in 2020, making orange one of the most cultivated fruits. Industrial orange processing generates a high amount of waste (up to 60% weight of the fruit); these residues are rich in pectins and other high-value compounds. This study evaluates the integral valorization of orange byproduct flour (peel and pulp (OBF)) in the stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions and proposes artificial neural networks (ANNs) to optimize the emulsions stability. The OBF was compared with pure citrus pectins and combined with soy protein. The optimum emulsion was found to contain 3.14% of OBF and 0.14% of proteins, and its experimental characteristics closely matched those predicted by ANNs. View this paper
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Article
Modeling of Growth and Organic Acid Kinetics and Evolution of the Protein Profile and Amino Acid Content during Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ITM21B Fermentation in Liquid Sourdough
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3942; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233942 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 454
Abstract
The application of mathematical modeling to study and characterize lactic acid bacterial strains with pro-technological and functional features has gained attention in recent years to solve the problems relevant to the variabilities of the fermentation processes of sourdough. Since the key factors contributing [...] Read more.
The application of mathematical modeling to study and characterize lactic acid bacterial strains with pro-technological and functional features has gained attention in recent years to solve the problems relevant to the variabilities of the fermentation processes of sourdough. Since the key factors contributing to the sourdough quality are relevant to the starter strain growth and its metabolic activity, in this study, the cardinal growth parameters for pH, temperature (T), water activity (aw), and undissociated lactic acid of the sourdough strain Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ITM21B, were determined. The strain growth, pH, organic acids (lactic, acetic, phenyllactic, and hydroxy-phenyllactic), total free amino acids, and proteins were monitored during fermentation of a liquid sourdough based on wheat flour and gluten (Bio21B) after changing the starting T, pH, and inoculum load. Results demonstrated that the different fermentation conditions affected the strain growth and metabolite pattern. The organic acid production and growth performance were modeled in Bio21B, and the resulting predictive model allowed us to simulate in silico the strain performances in liquid sourdough under different scenarios. This mathematical predictive approach can be useful to optimize the fermentation conditions needed to obtain the suitable nutritional and technological characteristics of the L. plantarum ITM21B liquid sourdough. Full article
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Review
A Review of the Effects of Puerarin on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Metabolic Syndrome: Mechanisms and Opportunities
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3941; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233941 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Chronic diseases, including metabolic syndrome related to sugar and lipid metabolic disorders, are the leading causes of premature death around the world. Novel treatment strategies without undesirable effects are urgently needed. As a natural functional ingredient, puerarin is a promising alternative for the [...] Read more.
Chronic diseases, including metabolic syndrome related to sugar and lipid metabolic disorders, are the leading causes of premature death around the world. Novel treatment strategies without undesirable effects are urgently needed. As a natural functional ingredient, puerarin is a promising alternative for the treatment of sugar and lipid metabolic disorders. However, the applications of puerarin are limited due to its poor solubility and short half-life. Various drug delivery systems have been investigated to improve the bioavailability of puerarin. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in the beneficial action of puerarin: suppressing the release of glucose and FFA; regulating the transport of glucose and fatty acids; acting on the PI3K–Akt and AMPK signaling pathways to decrease the synthesis of glucose and fatty acids; acting on the PPAR signaling pathway to promote β-oxidation; and improving insulin secretion and sensitivity. In addition, the preparation technologies used to improve the bioavailability of puerarin are also summarized in this review, in the hope of helping to promote the application of puerarin. Full article
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Perspective
An Overview on the Application of Chemometrics Tools in Food Authenticity and Traceability
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3940; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233940 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
The use of advanced chemometrics tools in food authenticity research is crucial for managing the huge amount of data that is generated by applying state-of-the-art analytical methods such as chromatographic, spectroscopic, and non-targeted fingerprinting approaches. Thus, this review article provides description, classification, and [...] Read more.
The use of advanced chemometrics tools in food authenticity research is crucial for managing the huge amount of data that is generated by applying state-of-the-art analytical methods such as chromatographic, spectroscopic, and non-targeted fingerprinting approaches. Thus, this review article provides description, classification, and comparison of the most important statistical techniques that are commonly employed in food authentication and traceability, including methods for exploratory data analysis, discrimination, and classification, as well as for regression and prediction. This literature revision is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a general overview to non-expert readers in the use of chemometrics in food science. Overall, the available literature suggests that the selection of the most appropriate statistical technique is dependent on the characteristics of the data matrix, but combining complementary tools is usually needed for properly handling data complexity. In that way, chemometrics has become a powerful ally in facilitating the detection of frauds and ensuring the authenticity and traceability of foods. Full article
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Article
Lipid Profile Quantification and Species Discrimination of Pine Seeds through NIR Spectroscopy: A Feasibility Study
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3939; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233939 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Pine seeds are known for their richness in lipid compounds and other healthy substances. However, the reference procedures that are commonly applied for their analysis are quite laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. Therefore, it is important to develop rapid, accurate, multi-parametric, cost-effective and, essentially, [...] Read more.
Pine seeds are known for their richness in lipid compounds and other healthy substances. However, the reference procedures that are commonly applied for their analysis are quite laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. Therefore, it is important to develop rapid, accurate, multi-parametric, cost-effective and, essentially, environmentally friendly analytical techniques that are easily implemented at an industrial scale. The viability of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to analyse the seed lipid content and profile of three different pine species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus brutia and Pinus pinaster) was investigated. Moreover, species discrimination using NIR was also attempted. Different chemometric models, namely partial least squares (PLS) regression, for lipid analysis, and partial least square—discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), for pine species discrimination, were applied. In relation to the discrimination of pine seed species, a total of 90.5% of correct classification rates were obtained. Regarding the quantification models, most of the compounds assessed yielded determination coefficients (R2P) higher than 0.80. The best PLS models were obtained for total fat, vitamin E, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, C20:2, C20:1n9, C20, C18:2n6c, C18:1n9c, C18 and C16:1. Globally, the obtained results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy is a suitable analytical technique for lipid analysis and species discrimination of pine seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid and Non-destructive Determination of Food Quality Control)
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Article
Hypoglycemic Effects and Mechanisms of Buckwheat–Oat–Pea Composite Flour in Diabetic Rats
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3938; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233938 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Nutritional intervention is a basic way to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus. Appropriate whole grain intake daily is recommended. The study aimed to explore the feasibility of a kind of buckwheat–oat–pea composite flour (BOP, quality ratio of buckwheat:oats:peas = 6:1:1) as a stable [...] Read more.
Nutritional intervention is a basic way to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus. Appropriate whole grain intake daily is recommended. The study aimed to explore the feasibility of a kind of buckwheat–oat–pea composite flour (BOP, quality ratio of buckwheat:oats:peas = 6:1:1) as a stable food substitution and its underlying mechanisms. High-fat food (HFD) and streptozotocin injection were used to induce diabetes in rats, and buckwheat, oats, and three different doses of BOP were added to the HFD separately for diet intervention. The whole study lasted for 10 weeks, and the glucose tolerance test, lipids, liver injury, and gut microbiota were evaluated in the last week. The diabetic rat model was successfully induced. The BOP significantly changed the glucose and lipids metabolism, decreased liver injury, and changed the composition of the gut microbiota of diabetic rats. The outcomes of the current study revealed that BOP is a potential stable food substitution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intervention Effect of Natural Food Products on Chronic Diseases)
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Article
Non-Conventional Induction Heat Treatment: Effect of Design and Electrical Parameters on Apple Juice Safety and Quality
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3937; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233937 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
The proposed non-conventional induction heating, which combines an MSCP and VDC structure, was proved to have excellent thermal effect. Different from other electric field sterilization, this electrotechnology operates with no electrodes, and it is a continuous-flow process with short-duration (about 20 s). In [...] Read more.
The proposed non-conventional induction heating, which combines an MSCP and VDC structure, was proved to have excellent thermal effect. Different from other electric field sterilization, this electrotechnology operates with no electrodes, and it is a continuous-flow process with short-duration (about 20 s). In current study, the parameters related to temperature rise were investigated, including applied voltage, frequency, the diameter of the secondary coil and heating tube, as well as their length, etc. It was demonstrated that a smaller diameter of the heating tube, parallel connection sample coils, and higher frequency were beneficial for the inactivation of microorganisms. At 500 Hz, the optimal condition is 800 V, d1 = 2 mm, and L1 = 10 cm. Notably, the system could inactivate all microorganisms and maintained the physicochemical properties of apple juice at 40 kHz. It suggests that this structural design has the potential for industrial applications and the proposed induction heating can realize the rapid sterilization of liquid food without applying electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-thermal Processing for Improving the Quality and Safety of Foods)
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Article
Gastrointestinal Digestion and Microbial Hydrolysis of Alkyl Gallates: Potential Sustained Release of Gallic Acid
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3936; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233936 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Phenolipids such as alkyl gallates (A-GAs) have been approved by the food industry as non-toxic antioxidant additives, which are also regarded as an emerging source of functional food ingredients. However, comprehensive understanding of their digestive absorption is needed. Thus, the models of live [...] Read more.
Phenolipids such as alkyl gallates (A-GAs) have been approved by the food industry as non-toxic antioxidant additives, which are also regarded as an emerging source of functional food ingredients. However, comprehensive understanding of their digestive absorption is needed. Thus, the models of live mice and anaerobic fermentation were used to clarify the distribution and microbial hydrolysis characteristics of A-GAs in the gastrointestinal tract. HPLC-UV results demonstrated that A-GAs could be hydrolyzed by intestinal lipases and gut microorganisms including Lactobacillus to produce free gallic acid (GA). Through regulating the chain length of the lipid part in A-GAs, the sustained and controllable release of the GA can be easily achieved. Furthermore, A-GAs were also able to reach the colon and the cecum, which would lead to potential gastrointestinal protective effects. Therefore, A-GAs may be applied as possible ingredient for functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Researches on Functional Lipids)
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Article
A New Approach in Meat Bio-Preservation through the Incorporation of a Heteropolysaccharide Isolated from Lobularia maritima L.
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3935; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233935 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 635
Abstract
In this study, a new heteropolysaccharide extracted from Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. (LmPS), a halophyte harvested in Tunisia, was evaluated as an antioxidant and antibacterial additive in the bio-preservation of raw minced meat. For antibacterial testing, Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus [...] Read more.
In this study, a new heteropolysaccharide extracted from Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. (LmPS), a halophyte harvested in Tunisia, was evaluated as an antioxidant and antibacterial additive in the bio-preservation of raw minced meat. For antibacterial testing, Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19,117 and Gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella enterica ATCC 43,972 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25,922 were used. The results indicate that this polymer had a significant antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens. Additionally, the effects of LmPS at 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6% on refrigerated raw ground beef were investigated from a microbiological, chemical, and sensory perspective. Microbiological analysis of the meat showed that treatment with LmPS significantly (p < 0.05) improved its shelf life, while the biochemical analysis evidenced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in lipid oxidation. LmPS at 0.6% significantly reduced by 61% and 48% metmyoglobin accumulation at the end of the storage period when compared to BHT and control samples, respectively. The chemometric approach highlighted the relationships among the different meat quality parameters. LmPS can be introduced in the food industry as a powerful natural additive and could be an alternative to synthetic antioxidant compounds. Full article
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Review
The Effects of Soluble Dietary Fibers on Glycemic Response: An Overview and Futures Perspectives
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3934; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233934 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 710
Abstract
The properties of each food, composition, and structure affect the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Dietary fiber (DF), especially viscous DF, can contribute to a reduction in the glycemic response resulting from the consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods. Target and control of postprandial glycemic [...] Read more.
The properties of each food, composition, and structure affect the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Dietary fiber (DF), especially viscous DF, can contribute to a reduction in the glycemic response resulting from the consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods. Target and control of postprandial glycemic values are critical for diabetes prevention and management. Some mechanisms have been described for soluble DF action, from the increase in chyme viscosity to the production of short-chain fatty acids resulting from fermentation, which stimulates gastrointestinal motility and the release of GLP-1 and PYY hormones. The postprandial glycemic response due to inulin and resistant starch ingestion is well established. However, other soluble dietary fibers (SDF) can also contribute to glycemic control, such as gums, β-glucan, psyllium, arabinoxylan, soluble corn fiber, resistant maltodextrin, glucomannan, and edible fungi, which can be added alone or together in different products, such as bread, beverages, soups, biscuits, and others. However, there are technological challenges to be overcome, despite the benefits provided by the SDF, as it is necessary to consider the palatability and maintenance of their proprieties during production processes. Studies that evaluate the effect of full meals with enriched SDF on postprandial glycemic responses should be encouraged, as this would contribute to the recommendation of viable dietary options and sustainable health goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Article
Effects of Drying Methods on Taste Components and Flavor Characterization of Cordyceps militaris
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3933; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233933 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 577
Abstract
The influences of four drying methods (hot air drying (HAD), vacuum freeze drying (VFD), vacuum drying (VD) and intermittent microwave combined with hot air drying (MW-HAD)) on the taste profile and flavor characteristic of Cordyceps militaris were investigated. MW-HAD samples had the highest [...] Read more.
The influences of four drying methods (hot air drying (HAD), vacuum freeze drying (VFD), vacuum drying (VD) and intermittent microwave combined with hot air drying (MW-HAD)) on the taste profile and flavor characteristic of Cordyceps militaris were investigated. MW-HAD samples had the highest levels of umami taste 5′-nucleotides, bitter taste amino acids, and equivalent umami concentration (EUC) value. The aroma fingerprints and differences of dried Cordyceps militaris were established by GC-MS with odor activity values (OAVs) and GC-IMS with principal component analysis (PCA). GC-MS data showed that the predominant volatiles of dried samples were aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones. VFD samples had the highest amount of total aroma compounds and C8 compounds. Moreover, 21 aroma-active components (OAVs ≥ 1) were the main contributors to the flavor of dried Cordyceps militaris. The OAVs of 1-octen-3-one and 3-octanone associated with mushroom-like odor in VFD were significantly higher than other samples. Furthermore, a significant difference in flavor compounds of four dried samples was also clearly demonstrated by GC-IMS analysis with PCA. GC-IMS analysis revealed that VFD samples had the most abundant flavor compounds. Overall, MW-HAD was an effective drying method to promote umami taste, and VFD could superiorly preserve volatiles and characteristic aroma compounds in dried Cordyceps militaris. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Optimization of Cellulosic Fiber Extraction from Parsley Stalks and Utilization as Filler in Composite Biobased Films
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3932; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233932 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Food waste is an abundant source of cellulose which can be extracted via mild alkali treatment. The extraction conditions of cellulose fibers can be optimized for reduced chemical and energy use and optimal functionality. This study focused on the optimization of alkali extraction [...] Read more.
Food waste is an abundant source of cellulose which can be extracted via mild alkali treatment. The extraction conditions of cellulose fibers can be optimized for reduced chemical and energy use and optimal functionality. This study focused on the optimization of alkali extraction of lignocellulosic fiber from parsley stalks by building an experimental design with the response surface method with alkali concentration (2, 6, and 10%, w/v), fiber:alkali ratio (0.02, 0.035, and 0.05; w/v) and extraction temperature (40, 70, and 100 °C) as independent variables, in order to evaluate the effects of extraction conditions on fiber yield and composition of parsley stalks extract (PSE). Following the optimization, PSE and untreated fibers (PF) were incorporated as filler into gum Arabic–sodium alginate-based films, and film properties such as water vapor permeability, optical and thermal properties, Fourier transform infrared spectra and surface morphology of the films were analyzed for evaluating the compatibility of these fillers with the composite film matrix. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as 2% alkali, sample:alkali ratio of 0.0276 and extraction temperature of 40 °C. PSE extracted at optimal conditions was added to the composite films, and water vapor permeability and optical properties were improved by up to 10% PSE compared to films with PF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Food Systems and Design of Experiments)
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Article
Integrated Evaluation of Dual-Functional DPP-IV and ACE Inhibitory Effects of Peptides Derived from Sericin Hydrolysis and Their Stabilities during In Vitro-Simulated Gastrointestinal and Plasmin Digestions
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3931; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233931 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Sericin, a byproduct of the silk industry, is an underutilized protein derived from the yellow silk cocoon. This research aimed to produce and characterize the bioactive peptides from sericin using various enzymatic hydrolysis methods. Alcalase, papain, neutrase, and protease were tested under their [...] Read more.
Sericin, a byproduct of the silk industry, is an underutilized protein derived from the yellow silk cocoon. This research aimed to produce and characterize the bioactive peptides from sericin using various enzymatic hydrolysis methods. Alcalase, papain, neutrase, and protease were tested under their respective digestion conditions. Among the enzymes tested, neutrase-catalyzed sericin into specific peptides with the strongest dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties. The peptides were subjected to a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion in order to determine their stability. The GI peptides that were produced by neutrase hydrolysis continued to have the highest DPP-IV and ACE inhibitory activities. The neutrase -digested peptides were then fractionated via ultrafiltration; the peptide fraction with a molecular weight <3 kDa (UF3) inhibited DPP-IV and ACE activities. After being subjected to in vitro blood plasma hydrolysis, the UF3 was slightly degraded but retained its bioactivity. As a result of these findings, sericin peptides can be utilized as novel dietary ingredients that may alleviate some metabolic syndromes via the dual inhibitory properties of DPP-IV and ACE. Full article
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Review
New Perspectives on Sleep Regulation by Tea: Harmonizing Pathological Sleep and Energy Balance under Stress
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3930; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233930 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Sleep, a conservative evolutionary behavior of organisms to adapt to changes in the external environment, is divided into natural sleep, in a healthy state, and sickness sleep, which occurs in stressful environments or during illness. Sickness sleep plays an important role in maintaining [...] Read more.
Sleep, a conservative evolutionary behavior of organisms to adapt to changes in the external environment, is divided into natural sleep, in a healthy state, and sickness sleep, which occurs in stressful environments or during illness. Sickness sleep plays an important role in maintaining energy homeostasis under an injury and promoting physical recovery. Tea, a popular phytochemical-rich beverage, has multiple health benefits, including lowering stress and regulating energy metabolism and natural sleep. However, the role of tea in regulating sickness sleep has received little attention. The mechanism underlying tea regulation of sickness sleep and its association with the maintenance of energy homeostasis in injured organisms remains to be elucidated. This review examines the current research on the effect of tea on sleep regulation, focusing on the function of tea in modulating energy homeostasis through sickness sleep, energy metabolism, and damage repair in model organisms. The potential mechanisms underlying tea in regulating sickness sleep are further suggested. Based on the biohomology of sleep regulation, this review provides novel insights into the role of tea in sleep regulation and a new perspective on the potential role of tea in restoring homeostasis from diseases. Full article
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Article
Amanitins in Wild Mushrooms: The Development of HPLC-UV-EC and HPLC-DAD-MS Methods for Food Safety Purposes
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3929; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233929 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Mushroom poisoning remains a serious food safety and health concern in some parts of the world due to its morbidity and mortality. Identification of mushroom toxins at an early stage of suspected intoxication is crucial for a rapid therapeutic decision. In this study, [...] Read more.
Mushroom poisoning remains a serious food safety and health concern in some parts of the world due to its morbidity and mortality. Identification of mushroom toxins at an early stage of suspected intoxication is crucial for a rapid therapeutic decision. In this study, a new extraction method was developed to determine α- and β-amanitin in mushroom samples collected from central Portugal. High-performance liquid chromatography with in-line ultraviolet and electrochemical detection was implemented to improve the specificity of the method. The method was fully validated for linearity (0.5–20.0 µg·mL−1), sensitivity, recovery, and precision based on a matrix-matched calibration method. The limit of detection was 55 µg mL−1 (UV) and 62 µg mL−1 (EC) for α-amanitin and 64 µg mL−1 (UV) and 24 µg mL−1 (EC) for β–amanitin. Intra- and inter-day precision differences were less than 13%, and the recovery ratios ranged from 89% to 117%. The developed method was successfully applied to fourteen Amanita species (A. sp.) and compared with five edible mushroom samples after extraction with Oasis® PRIME HLB cartridges without the conditioning and equilibration step. The results revealed that the A. phalloides mushrooms present the highest content of α- and β-amanitin, which is in line with the HPLC-DAD-MS. In sum, the developed analytical method could benefit food safety assessment and contribute to food-health security, as it is rapid, simple, sensitive, accurate, and selectively detects α- and β-amanitin in any mushroom samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Article
Effects of Sous Vide Cooking on the Physicochemical and Volatile Flavor Properties of Half-Shell Scallop (Chlamys farreri) during Chilled Storage
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3928; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233928 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 434
Abstract
This study explored the effects of sous vide (SV) cooking treatments on the physicochemical quality and volatile flavor of half-shell scallop (Chlamys farreri) during 30 d of chilled storage. The vacuum-packed scallop samples were cooked at 70 °C (SV-70) and 75 [...] Read more.
This study explored the effects of sous vide (SV) cooking treatments on the physicochemical quality and volatile flavor of half-shell scallop (Chlamys farreri) during 30 d of chilled storage. The vacuum-packed scallop samples were cooked at 70 °C (SV-70) and 75 °C (SV-75) and maintained for 30 min. The samples were compared with the positive control (cooked at 100 °C for 10 min, CK). The results indicate that the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), pH, texture, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content gradually increased, while the myofibrillar protein (MP) extraction rate of the CK, SV-70, and SV-75 samples significantly decreased with increasing chilled storage time. Significantly, the SV cooking treatments maintained a much higher water-holding capacity of scallop muscle, compared with the conventional cooking process at 100 °C. Additionally, the SV-75 cooking treatment maintained relatively stable TVBN, pH, and MDA content, springiness, and shearing force properties of scallop samples, especially during 0–20 d of storage. Volatile flavor analysis showed that a total of 42 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in the scallop samples, and there were no considerable differences in these VOCs between the CK and SV-75 cooked samples (0 d). Overall, the SV cooking treatments effectively maintained acceptable and stable physicochemical and volatile flavor properties of half-shell scallop samples during chilled storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Preservation of Aquatic Products)
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Article
Techno-Functional Performance of Emmer, Spelt and Khorasan in Spontaneously Fermented Sourdough Bread
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3927; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233927 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 689
Abstract
The aim of this study was to test the suitability of three different ancient wheat varieties (emmer, spelt and khorasan) to produce spontaneously fermented sourdough bread and to evaluate the impact on the dough rheological properties, ultrastructure and baking quality. Modern wheat sourdough [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to test the suitability of three different ancient wheat varieties (emmer, spelt and khorasan) to produce spontaneously fermented sourdough bread and to evaluate the impact on the dough rheological properties, ultrastructure and baking quality. Modern wheat sourdough bread and bakery yeast fermented bread were used as controls. Sourdoughs produced from modern and ancient wheats exerted different effects on dough viscoelastic properties, bread specific volume, texture, firming rate, colour and sensory properties, while there was no influence on bread water activity. Both khorasan sourdough, being characterised with the highest dough strength and dense gluten protein matrix, and emmer sourdough, with loose and thin gluten strands of low strength, yielded breads characterised by low specific volume and hard crumb texture. Spelt and modern wheat sourdough were characterised by foam-like dough structures with entrapped gas cells leading to breads of similar specific volume and texture. Although the yeast-fermented wheat flour exerted a higher specific volume and the lowest firmness, the sourdough wheat flour bread had a lower firming rate. A comparison of sourdough bread prepared with modern and ancient wheats revealed that breads based on ancient varieties possess a less noticeable sour taste, odour and flavour, thus contributing to more sensory-appealing sourdough bread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Article
Bioaccessibility and Intestinal Transport of Tebuconazole in Table Grape by Using In Vitro Digestion Models
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3926; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233926 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 343
Abstract
In this study, the effects of various digestive models, influencing factors and dietary supplements on the bioaccessibility of tebuconazole in table grapes were compared. The Caco-2 cell model was employed to reveal the transfer behavior of tebuconazole. The results indicated that digestion time [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of various digestive models, influencing factors and dietary supplements on the bioaccessibility of tebuconazole in table grapes were compared. The Caco-2 cell model was employed to reveal the transfer behavior of tebuconazole. The results indicated that digestion time is the main factor affecting bioaccessibility. With an increase in time, the tebuconazole in grapes was almost completely dissolved, with bioaccessibility reaching 98.5%, whereas dietary fiber reduced bioaccessibility. Tebuconazole undergoes carrier-free passive transport in permeable cells in the Caco-2 cell model. These findings have practical application value for correctly evaluating the harmful level of pollutants in the matrix to human body. Full article
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Review
Emerging Postharvest Technologies to Enhance the Shelf-Life of Fruit and Vegetables: An Overview
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3925; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233925 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Quality losses in fresh produce throughout the postharvest phase are often due to the inappropriate use of preservation technologies. In the last few decades, besides the traditional approaches, advanced postharvest physical and chemical treatments (active packaging, dipping, vacuum impregnation, conventional heating, pulsed electric [...] Read more.
Quality losses in fresh produce throughout the postharvest phase are often due to the inappropriate use of preservation technologies. In the last few decades, besides the traditional approaches, advanced postharvest physical and chemical treatments (active packaging, dipping, vacuum impregnation, conventional heating, pulsed electric field, high hydrostatic pressure, and cold plasma) and biocontrol techniques have been implemented to preserve the nutritional value and safety of fresh produce. The application of these methodologies after harvesting is useful when addressing quality loss due to the long duration when transporting products to distant markets. Among the emerging technologies and contactless and non-destructive techniques for quality monitoring (image analysis, electronic noses, and near-infrared spectroscopy) present numerous advantages over the traditional, destructive methods. The present review paper has grouped original studies within the topic of advanced postharvest technologies, to preserve quality and reduce losses and waste in fresh produce. Moreover, the effectiveness and advantages of some contactless and non-destructive methodologies for monitoring the quality of fruit and vegetables will also be discussed and compared to the traditional methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Post-harvest Preservation Technology)
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Article
Identification of Genetic Markers for the Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains of Interest for Food Safety
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3924; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233924 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), belonging to the Bacillus cereus (Bc) group, is commonly used as a biopesticide worldwide due to its ability to produce insecticidal crystals during sporulation. The use of Bt, especially subspecies aizawai and kurstaki, to control pests such as Lepidoptera, [...] Read more.
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), belonging to the Bacillus cereus (Bc) group, is commonly used as a biopesticide worldwide due to its ability to produce insecticidal crystals during sporulation. The use of Bt, especially subspecies aizawai and kurstaki, to control pests such as Lepidoptera, generally involves spraying mixtures containing spores and crystals on crops intended for human consumption. Recent studies have suggested that the consumption of commercial Bt strains may be responsible for foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). However, its genetic proximity to Bc strains has hindered the development of routine tests to discriminate Bt from other Bc, especially Bacillus cereus sensu stricto (Bc ss), well known for its involvement in FBOs. Here, to develop tools for the detection and the discrimination of Bt in food, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 286 complete genomes of Bc group strains to identify and validate in silico new molecular markers specific to different Bt subtypes. The analyses led to the determination and the in silico validation of 128 molecular markers specific to Bt, its subspecies aizawai, kurstaki and four previously described proximity clusters associated with these subspecies. We developed a command line tool based on a 14-marker workflow, to carry out a computational search for Bt-related markers from a putative Bc genome, thereby facilitating the detection of Bt of interest for food safety, especially in the context of FBOs. Full article
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Article
Emulsion Properties during Microencapsulation of Cannabis Oil Based on Protein and Sucrose Esters as Emulsifiers: Stability and Rheological Behavior
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3923; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233923 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 588
Abstract
The effects of different emulsifiers, such as soy protein isolate–sucrose ester (SPI-SE) and whey protein isolate–sucrose ester (WPI-SE), on the properties of the emulsion during the microencapsulation of cannabis oil were studied. The influence of SE concentration on the emulsion properties of the [...] Read more.
The effects of different emulsifiers, such as soy protein isolate–sucrose ester (SPI-SE) and whey protein isolate–sucrose ester (WPI-SE), on the properties of the emulsion during the microencapsulation of cannabis oil were studied. The influence of SE concentration on the emulsion properties of the two emulsifying systems was analyzed. The results of the adsorption kinetics show that SE can decrease the interfacial tension, particle size and zeta potential of the emulsions. The results of the interfacial protein concentration show that SE could competitively replace the protein at the oil-water interface and change the strength of the interfacial film. The results of the viscoelastic properties show that the emulsion structure of the two emulsion systems results in the maximum value when the concentration of SE is 0.75% (w/v), and the elastic modulus (G’) of the emulsion prepared with SPI-SE is high. The viscosity results show that all emulsions show shear-thinning behavior and the curve fits well with the Ostwald–Dewaele model. The addition of SE in the emulsions of the two emulsion systems can effectively stabilize the emulsion and change the composition and strength of the oil–water interface of the emulsion. The cannabis oil microcapsules prepared with protein-SE as an emulsion system exhibit high quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Powder Properties and Influencing Factors)
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Article
Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Three Types of Milk from Xinjiang, China, and the Risk of Exposure for Milk Consumers in Different Age-Sex Groups
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3922; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233922 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a group 1 carcinogen, is a risk factor to be monitored in milk. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of AFM1 in milk in Xinjiang, China, and to assess the risk of exposure for milk consumers in different age-sex [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a group 1 carcinogen, is a risk factor to be monitored in milk. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of AFM1 in milk in Xinjiang, China, and to assess the risk of exposure for milk consumers in different age-sex groups. A total of 259 milk samples including pasteurized milk (93 samples), extended-shelf-life (ESL) milk (96), and raw donkey milk (70) were collected in Xinjiang from January to March in 2022. The AFM1 content of the milk samples was detected using a validated ELISA method. Of the 259 total samples analyzed for AFM1, 84 (32.4%) samples were contaminated at levels greater than the detection limit of 5 ng/L, with the maximum level of 16.5 ng/L. The positive rates of AFM1 in pasteurized milk and ESL milk were 43.0% (n = 40) and 45.8% (n = 44), respectively, and AFM1 was undetectable in donkey milk. The estimated daily intakes of AFM1 in each age group were lower than the hazard limits and were similar between male and female milk consumers. Therefore, the AFM1 contamination of milk in Xinjiang is low but still needs to be continuously monitored considering that children are susceptible to AFM1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Hazards of Ready-to-Eat Food)
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Article
Characterisation of a High Fibre Flour Prepared from Soy Milk By-Product and Its Potential Use in White Wheat Bread
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3921; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233921 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 544
Abstract
The commercial production of soy milk renders a large quantity of wet soybean by-product (SMB), which is typically dumped, incinerated, or partially used as animal fodder. This wet SMB has a high moisture content that is rich in nutritional and biologically active compounds. [...] Read more.
The commercial production of soy milk renders a large quantity of wet soybean by-product (SMB), which is typically dumped, incinerated, or partially used as animal fodder. This wet SMB has a high moisture content that is rich in nutritional and biologically active compounds. This study aimed to characterise the composition and properties of a flour milled from SMB dried at 100 °C (SMB100) and assess its possible application as a fibre substitute in white bread. The results showed that SMB100 has high levels of dietary fibre (40.6%) and protein (26.5%). It also contains high levels of saponins (31.4 mg/g) and isoflavones (698.0 µg/g). SMB100 has a light-yellow colour with low moisture content and water activity (8.2% and 0.55, respectively). The results also indicated that replacement of wheat flour with SMB100 at 10 or 12.5% by flour weight negatively impacted the raising volume, density, and texture of white bread. Alternatively, substituting wheat flour with 5% of SMB100, did not significantly impact the physical properties of white bread, while significantly improving its dietary fibre content in comparison with the control, revealing that SMB100 is a potential substitute of wheat flour for improvement of dietary fibre in bread. Future studies are needed to optimise bread formulation and improve the processing condition which produces quality white bread with high dietary fibre using SMB100. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Recycling of Food Waste and Its Valorisation)
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Article
Effect of Storage Time and Floral Origin on the Physicochemical Properties of Beeswax and the Possibility of Using It as a Phase Changing Material in the Thermal Storage Energy Technology
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3920; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233920 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Beeswax is a natural product that is primarily produced by honey bees of the genus Apis. It has many uses in various kinds of industries, including pharmacy and medicine. This study investigated the effect of storage and floral origin on some physicochemical [...] Read more.
Beeswax is a natural product that is primarily produced by honey bees of the genus Apis. It has many uses in various kinds of industries, including pharmacy and medicine. This study investigated the effect of storage and floral origin on some physicochemical properties of four beeswax samples. The floral origin of the beeswax samples was determined microscopically and the investigated physical properties were the melting point, color, surface characteristics and thermal behavior. The studied chemical constituents were the acid value, ester value, saponification value and the ester/acid ratio. The FT-IR, SEM, EDX, XRD and TGF techniques were applied to meet the objectives of this study. The physical properties of the beeswax were affected by the storage period and floral origin. The melting point of the beeswax samples significantly increased with the increase in the storage time, from 61.5 ± 2.12 °C for the 3 month sample to 74.5 ± 3.54 °C for the 2 year stored sample (p-value = 0.027). The acid values of the 3 month, 6 month, 1 year and 2 years stored samples were 19.57 ± 0.95, 22.95 ± 1.91, 27 ± 1.91 and 34.42 ± 0.95 mgKOH/g, respectively. The increase in the acid value was significant (p-value = 0.002). The ester values of the studied beeswax samples significantly increased with the increase in storage time as follows: 46.57 ± 2.86 mgKOH/g for the 3 month stored sample, 66.14 ± 3.82 mgKOH/g for the 6 month stored sample, 89.77 ± 0.95 mgKOH/g for the one year stored sample and 97.19 ± 1.91 mgKOH/g for the 2 year stored sample (p-value ≤ 0.001). Similarly, the saponification value and the carbon percentages increased with the increase in storage time. Unlike the results of the chemical components, the oxygen percentage decreased with the increase in storage time as follows: 11.24% (3 month), 10.31% (6 month), 7.97% (one year) and 6.74% (two year). The storage and floral origin of beeswax significantly affected its physicochemical properties in a way that qualify it to act as a phase changing material in the thermal storage energy technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honeybee Products: Analysis, Authenticity and Health Impact)
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Article
Food Acquisition, Hygiene, and Generation of Domestic Waste in an Academic Community during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3919; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233919 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 568
Abstract
In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic, and the closure of universities as a measure to prevent contamination directly affected academic communities. Access to food, though a basic need and a human right, was seriously affected. This study evaluated [...] Read more.
In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic, and the closure of universities as a measure to prevent contamination directly affected academic communities. Access to food, though a basic need and a human right, was seriously affected. This study evaluated the locations and frequency of food acquisition; hand, food, and packaging hygiene habits; and household waste generation in an academic community during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research was cross-sectional and performed through an online questionnaire. Data (n = 1472) were analyzed using descriptive statistics; statistical tests were also applied, and p values < 0.01 were considered significant. Most of the population continued to purchase food in supermarkets (89.5%). The frequency of product orders from markets by delivery placed by professors and graduate students was also verified (31.7% and 24.2%). There was an increase in packaging hygiene in the studied population, as well as in fruit and vegetable hygiene; however, use of inappropriate methods was noted. This paper highlights important data on the behavior of an academic community dealing with the problem of solid waste generation during the pandemic. Moreover, there were no changes in waste generation during the pandemic, although there was an increase in packaging consumption (44%). Identifying the behavior of the university community regarding hygiene and food acquisition can help societies from the perspective of transforming habits related to food. Therefore, this research provides support for future investigations and interventions in the field of foods and post-pandemic sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice—Volume II)
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Article
The Effect of Household Food Processing on Pesticide Residues in Oranges (Citrus sinensis)
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3918; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233918 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 647
Abstract
In this study, the effect of various household food-processing methods (washing, peeling, processing into jam and fruit juice, freezing, storage) on pesticide residues (abamectin, buprofezin, ethoxazole, imazalil, and thiophanate-methyl) in oranges was investigated. Residue analyses were performed by quick-easy-cheap-efficient-rugged-safe (QuEChERS) extraction and liquid [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of various household food-processing methods (washing, peeling, processing into jam and fruit juice, freezing, storage) on pesticide residues (abamectin, buprofezin, ethoxazole, imazalil, and thiophanate-methyl) in oranges was investigated. Residue analyses were performed by quick-easy-cheap-efficient-rugged-safe (QuEChERS) extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The limit of quantification of the method for each pesticide was 10 µg/kg. Physicochemical properties of the pesticides and the type of the food process had a considerable effect on the fate of pesticide residue. Pesticide residues were mostly dispersed on orange peels and washing with tap water decreased the residue levels by 26–84%. The amount of residue in oranges was reduced by 63–100% during fruit juice processing, while residues were removed by 90–100% after jam processing. Pesticides with a high octanol–water coefficient were absorbed by the wax of the orange peel, therefore they remained on the peel and could not easily be removed by washing. Moreover, pesticides with lower water solubility did not diffuse easily through the fruit juices from the pulp section of the fruit. The processing factor was greater than 1 for the separation of the orange peel and less than 1 for the washing step and jam and fruit juice productions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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Article
Effects of Surface Treatment with Thymol on the Lipid Oxidation Processes, Fatty Acid Profile and Color of Sliced Salami during Refrigerated Storage
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3917; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233917 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
The oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and the adverse transformation of pigments from meat and spices are the primary causes of chemical degradation in processed meat products. Thymol is found in a variety of plant extracts that have been proven to effectively inhibit [...] Read more.
The oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and the adverse transformation of pigments from meat and spices are the primary causes of chemical degradation in processed meat products. Thymol is found in a variety of plant extracts that have been proven to effectively inhibit or slow down oxidative processes. The objective of our study was to determine whether thymol treatment of the surface of sliced paprika salami could be applied to inhibit lipid oxidation and color change during refrigerated storage. During eight weeks of storage, the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the ratios of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and n6/n3 in thymol-treated salami remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05), whereas in the controls, the MDA levels increased by approximately twelvefold and the ratio of SFAs in the lipid fraction increased (p < 0.001), while the ratio of PUFAs decreased (p < 0.001). The application of thymol prevented decrease in yellowness (b*) of the slices and reduced decreases in redness (a*) and brightness (chroma). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Lipids — Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology)
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Article
Volatile Compound Abundance Correlations Provide a New Insight into Odor Balances in Sauce-Aroma Baijiu
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3916; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233916 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Sauce-aroma Baijiu (SAB) is one of the most famous Baijius in China; SAB has more than 500 aroma compounds in it. However, the key aroma compound in SAB flavor remains unclear. Volatiles play an important role in SAB aroma and are highly correlated [...] Read more.
Sauce-aroma Baijiu (SAB) is one of the most famous Baijius in China; SAB has more than 500 aroma compounds in it. However, the key aroma compound in SAB flavor remains unclear. Volatiles play an important role in SAB aroma and are highly correlated to SAB quality. In the present study, 63 volatile compounds were quantified among 66 SAB samples using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The authors analyzed odor contributions and volatile compound correlations in two quality groups of SAB samples. Moreover, an odor activity value (OAV) ratio-based random forest classifier was used to explain the volatile compound relationship differentiations between the two quality groups. Our results proved higher quality SABs had richer aromas and indicated a set of fruity-like ethyl valerate, green- and malt-like isobutyraldehyde and malt-like 3-methylbutyraldehyde and sweet-like furfural, had closer co-abundance correlations in higher quality SABs. These results indicated that the aroma and contributions of volatile compounds in SABs should be analyzed not only with compound odor activity values, but also the correlations between different aroma compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Research on Aroma Interactions of Alcoholic Beverages)
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Review
Food Security Review Based on Bibliometrics from 1991 to 2021
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3915; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233915 - 04 Dec 2022
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Food security is related to human wellbeing and sustainable development and an important guarantee for world peace. In the context of global climate change, increased food demand, resource depletion, conflicts, and frequent public health emergencies, food security is widely seen as one of [...] Read more.
Food security is related to human wellbeing and sustainable development and an important guarantee for world peace. In the context of global climate change, increased food demand, resource depletion, conflicts, and frequent public health emergencies, food security is widely seen as one of the top challenges. Food security research has obvious interdisciplinary characteristics, involving a wide range of fields. We analyzed the literature on food security in the Web of Science core collection from 1991 to 2021, using bibliometric methods with the aid of the Biblioshiny software package. By collecting, screening, analyzing, and visually expressing the literature data, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) In the past 30 years, the annual number of publications on food security increased. The period can be divided into three stages: 1991–2003 as the budding period, 2004–2012 as the development period, and 2013–2020 as the high-yield and active period. The top three journals discussing food security issues are Food Security, Sustainability, and Food Policy, and these journals focus on the publication of comprehensive views from interdisciplinary perspectives. (2) Studies on food security cover 138 countries or regions. The top three countries in terms of the number of published articles are the United States, the United Kingdom, and China. Among the top 20 countries in terms of the number of published articles, European countries are highlighted. (3) Climate change, food security, agriculture, policy, and management are the other high-frequency keywords in the field of food security; climate change occurred 321 times. The word sub-Saharan Africa also occurred more frequently, indicating that food security in sub-Saharan Africa has attracted wide attention. (4) The food security theme mapping clearly showed the research status and future development trends of various topics in the field. Currently, food production, climate change, and sustainable development are the most popular themes. Research on food sovereignty, ecological agriculture, child obesity, and other aspects is an emerging field. (5) We predict that in the future, the field of food security may focus on the expansion and improvement of the food security evaluation system, the balance between sustainable development and food security goals, the improvement of agricultural production and management efficiency, and the research on government policies and strategies. Our results provide a reference for grasping the current situation, key research direction, and development trend in the field of food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Challenges and Strategies of Food Security under Global Change)
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Article
Feature Mapping for Rice Leaf Defect Detection Based on a Custom Convolutional Architecture
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3914; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233914 - 04 Dec 2022
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Rice is a widely consumed food across the world. Whilst the world recovers from COVID-19, food manufacturers are looking to enhance their quality inspection processes for satisfying exportation requirements and providing safety assurance to their clients. Rice cultivation is a significant process, the [...] Read more.
Rice is a widely consumed food across the world. Whilst the world recovers from COVID-19, food manufacturers are looking to enhance their quality inspection processes for satisfying exportation requirements and providing safety assurance to their clients. Rice cultivation is a significant process, the yield of which can be significantly impacted in an adverse manner due to plant disease. Yet, a large portion of rice cultivation takes place in developing countries with less stringent quality inspection protocols due to various reasons including cost of labor. To address this, we propose the development of lightweight convolutional neural network architecture for the automated detection of rice leaf smut and rice leaf blight. In doing so, this research addresses the issue of data scarcity via a practical variance modeling mechanism (Domain Feature Mapping) and a custom filter development mechanism assisted through a reference protocol for filter suppression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Effects of Concentration and Heating/Cooling Rate on Rheological Behavior of Sesamum indicum Seed Hydrocolloid
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3913; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233913 - 04 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
Hydrocolloids are known as natural hydrophilic biopolymers that can contribute viscosity and gelation in solution, as well as nutritional benefits, thus, they are widely used in the food industry. In our work, hydrocolloid was isolated by aqueous extraction of Sesamum indicum seed at [...] Read more.
Hydrocolloids are known as natural hydrophilic biopolymers that can contribute viscosity and gelation in solution, as well as nutritional benefits, thus, they are widely used in the food industry. In our work, hydrocolloid was isolated by aqueous extraction of Sesamum indicum seed at 80 °C and pH 8.0. The chemical composition and functional properties of Sesamum indicum seed hydrocolloid (SISH) were characterized, and the effects of concentration including 1%, 2%, and 3% as well as heating/cooling rate (1, 5, and 10 °C/min) on the rheological behavior of SISH dispersions in aqueous solution were investigated. The viscoelastic properties of SISH dispersions were characterized by small-amplitude oscillatory shear measurement. The resultant SISH consisted of 60.95% carbohydrate and 23.32% protein, and was thus endowed with a relatively high water-holding capacity, solubility, appropriate emulsifying and foaming properties. Rheological results revealed that the aqueous dispersion of SISH exhibited a non-Newtonian shear-thinning flow behavior. The viscoelastic moduli changes were found to be dependent on SISH concentration, temperature, and heating/cooling rate. Increasing SISH concentrations from 1% to 3% promoted the development of stronger cross-link network. The mechanical spectra derived from strain and frequency sweep measurements showed that the storage moduli were always higher than the loss moduli, and the loss tangent was calculated to be above 0.1 and below 1.0. Furthermore, both moduli had slight frequency dependency, and the complex viscosity exhibited an almost linear reduction with the increase of frequency. Therefore, SISH dispersion behaved as a weak gel-like system. The hysteresis of viscoelastic moduli during heating and cooling reduced with decreasing the heating-cooling rates from 10 to 1 °C/min, suggesting that SISH molecules had enough time to develop a stable and thermally irreversible network. Overall, SISH can be regarded as an acceptable hydrocolloid for generating natural food components with intriguing functional and rheological qualities in the formulation of microstructured goods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Statics and Dynamics of Food Hydrocolloids)
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