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Separations, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Profiling Identifies Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Belonging to Clonal Complex 258
Separations 2019, 6(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020032
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is one of the most extensively antibiotic-resistant pathogens encountered in the clinical setting today. A few studies to-date suggest that CRKP and carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae (CSKP) differ from one another not only with respect to their underlying genetics, but [...] Read more.
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is one of the most extensively antibiotic-resistant pathogens encountered in the clinical setting today. A few studies to-date suggest that CRKP and carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae (CSKP) differ from one another not only with respect to their underlying genetics, but also their transcriptomic and metabolomic fingerprints. Within this context, we characterize the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of these pathogens in vitro. Specifically, we evaluated the FAME profiles of six Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing isolates belonging to the CC258 lineage (KPC+/258+), six KPC-producing isolates belonging to non-CC258 lineages (KPC+/258), and six non-KPC-producing isolates belonging to non-CC258 lineages (KPC/258). We utilized a single-step sample preparation method to simultaneously lyse bacterial cells and transesterify the lipid fraction, and identified 14 unique FAMEs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest identified four FAMEs that were highly discriminatory between CC258 and non-CC258 isolates (9(Z)-octadecenoate, 2-phenylacetate, pentadecanoate, and hexadecanoate), of which three were also significantly different in relative abundance between these two groups. These findings suggest that distinct differences exist between CC258 and non-CC258 K. pneumoniae isolates with respect to the metabolism of both fatty acids and amino acids, a hypothesis that is supported by previously-acquired transcriptomic data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatography and Chemometrics)
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Open AccessArticle
Zerumbone and Kaempferol Derivatives from the Rhizomes of Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr. from Bangladesh
Separations 2019, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020031
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr. (Zingiberaceae) is known as “Banada” in Bangladesh, and the rhizomes are frequently used in traditional medicines for the treatment of constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, stomach bloating, and as mosquito repellant. In this study, dried rhizomes were [...] Read more.
Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr. (Zingiberaceae) is known as “Banada” in Bangladesh, and the rhizomes are frequently used in traditional medicines for the treatment of constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, stomach bloating, and as mosquito repellant. In this study, dried rhizomes were extracted successively with 95% and 50% ethanol and the combined extract was then subjected to various column chromatographic methods to isolate one sesquiterpenoid derivative, zerumbone (1) and five kaempferol derivatives, i.e., kaempferol 3-O-methyl ether (2), kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (3), kaempferol 3-O-α-(4”-O-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside (4), kaempferol 3-O-α-(3”-O-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside (5), and kaempferol 3-O-α-(3”,4”-di-O-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside (6). All compounds except 1 were isolated for the first time from the title plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Miniaturized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion for the Analysis of Ultraviolet Filters and Other Cosmetic Ingredients in Personal Care Products
Separations 2019, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020030
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
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Abstract
A method based on micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (μ-MSPD) followed by gas-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) was developed to analyze UV filters in personal care products. It is the first time that MSPD is employed to extract UV filters from cosmetics samples. This technique [...] Read more.
A method based on micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (μ-MSPD) followed by gas-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) was developed to analyze UV filters in personal care products. It is the first time that MSPD is employed to extract UV filters from cosmetics samples. This technique provides efficient and low-cost extractions, and allows performing extraction and clean-up in one step, which is one of their main advantages. The amount of sample employed was only 0.1 g and the extraction procedure was performed preparing the sample-sorbent column in a glass Pasteur pipette instead of the classic plastic columns in order to avoid plastizicer contamination. Factors affecting the process such as type of sorbent, and amount and type of elution solvent were studied by a factorial design. The method was validated and extended to other families of cosmetic ingredients such as fragrance allergens, preservatives, plasticizers and synthetic musks, including a total of 78 target analytes. Recovery studies in real sample at several concentration levels were also performed. Finally, the green extraction methodology was applied to the analysis of real cosmetic samples of different nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Five Years of Separations: Feature Paper 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Recycling of 1,2-Dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquid by Stacked Cation and Anion Exchange Adsorption-Desorption
Separations 2019, 6(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020029
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
There are many advantages to using ionic liquids as solvents or catalysts in chemical processes. Their non-volatile characteristic and high cost, however, can pose economic, environmental, and long-term health concerns. As such, the recovery and recycling of ionic liquids have become essential to [...] Read more.
There are many advantages to using ionic liquids as solvents or catalysts in chemical processes. Their non-volatile characteristic and high cost, however, can pose economic, environmental, and long-term health concerns. As such, the recovery and recycling of ionic liquids have become essential to mitigate their environmental impact and to reduce costs. Numerous recovery and recycling methods have been reported, including distillation, extraction, membrane separation (a.k.a. filtration), adsorption, crystallization, gravity, and electrochemical separation. Whereas most of these methods recover both cations and anions of the ionic liquid as ion pairs, recycling methods such as single-phase ion exchange or mixed-ion exchange/non-ionic adsorption methods recover only one of the ionic liquid ions, typically the cation. These methods are frequently used for the recycling of ionic liquids having simple anions such as chloride or acetate, but are seldom employed for ionic liquids consisting of larger and more complex anions due to the added time and reagent costs necessary for the regeneration of the original ionic liquid. Herein, a combined cation and anion exchange adsorption-desorption method is presented that can effectively separate 1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonimide) [DMPIm][NTf2] ionic liquid from neutral impurities. More importantly, the method is capable of recovery and recycling of the original ionic liquid. Concomitant desorption of both ionic liquid ions was achieved using 0.1 M NaCl: methanol (90:10 v/v) eluent followed by isolation using liquid–liquid extraction to afford high purity products and yields of approximately 60%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Balancing Resolution with Analysis Time for Biodiesel–Diesel Fuel Separations Using GC, PCA, and the Mahalanobis Distance
Separations 2019, 6(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020028
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
In this work, a statistical metric called the Mahalanobis distance (MD) is used to compare gas chromatography separation conditions. In the two-sample case, the MD computes the distance between the means of the multivariate probability distributions of two groups. Two gas chromatography columns [...] Read more.
In this work, a statistical metric called the Mahalanobis distance (MD) is used to compare gas chromatography separation conditions. In the two-sample case, the MD computes the distance between the means of the multivariate probability distributions of two groups. Two gas chromatography columns of the same polarity but differing length and film thickness were utilized for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel fuels. Biodiesel feedstock samples representing classes of canola, coconut, flaxseed, palm kernal, safflower, soy, soyabean, sunflower, tallow, and waste grease were used in our experiments. Data sets measured from each column were aligned with the correlated optimized warping (COW) algorithm prior to principal components analysis (PCA). The PC scores were then used to compute the MD. Differences between the data produced by each column were determined by converting the MD to its corresponding p-value using the F-distribution. The combination of COW parameters that maximized the p-value were determined for each feedstock separately. The results demonstrate that chromatograms from each column could be optimally aligned to minimize the MD derived from the PC-transformed data. The corresponding p-values for each feedstock type indicated that the two column conditions could produce data that were not statistically different. As a result, the slight loss of resolution using a faster column may be acceptable based on the application for which the data are used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatography and Chemometrics)
Open AccessReview
The Development of Silica Hydride Stationary Phases for High-Performance Liquid Chromatography from Conception to Commercialization
Separations 2019, 6(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020027
Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
The development of a stationary phase material for high-performance liquid chromatography based on a surface of silica hydride as opposed to silanols on ordinary silica is discussed including synthetic approaches, characterization, and applications. There are several synthetic approaches available to create a silica [...] Read more.
The development of a stationary phase material for high-performance liquid chromatography based on a surface of silica hydride as opposed to silanols on ordinary silica is discussed including synthetic approaches, characterization, and applications. There are several synthetic approaches available to create a silica hydride surface. Modification of the Si–H moiety on the silica surface can be accomplished through the use of a hydrosilation reaction. Both the intermediate silica hydride and the material modified with an organic moiety can be characterized by a number of spectroscopic as well as a variety of other methods. Further insights into the retention mechanism are provided through chromatographic measurements. The ultimate utility of any chromatographic stationary phase material is determined by its success in solving challenging analytical problems. A broad range of applications is reviewed to illustrate the versatility and usefulness of silica hydride-based stationary phases. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Chromatographic Techniques in the Research Area of Lithium Ion Batteries: Current State-of-the-Art
Separations 2019, 6(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020026
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Abstract
Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are widely used in numerous application areas, including portable consumer electronics, medicine, grid storage, electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. One major challenge during operation and storage is the degradation of the cell constituents, which is called aging. This [...] Read more.
Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are widely used in numerous application areas, including portable consumer electronics, medicine, grid storage, electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. One major challenge during operation and storage is the degradation of the cell constituents, which is called aging. This phenomenon drastically reduces both storage lifetime and cycle lifetime. Due to numerous aging effects, originating from both the individual LIB cell constituents as well as their interactions, a wide variety of instruments and methods are necessary for aging investigations. In particular, chromatographic methods are frequently applied for the analysis of the typically used liquid non-aqueous battery electrolytes based on organic solvents or ionic liquids. Moreover, chromatographic methods have also been recently used to investigate the composition of electrode materials. In this review, we will give an overview of the current state of chromatographic methods in the context of LIB cell research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytic Techniques for Lithium Ion Batteries Analysis)
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Open AccessCommunication
Gateway of Landfilled Plastic Waste Towards Circular Economy in Europe
Separations 2019, 6(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020025
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
For decades, significant work has been conducted regarding plastic waste by dealing with rejected materials in waste masses through their accumulation, sorting and recycling. Important political and technical challenges are involved, especially with respect to landfilled waste. Plastic is popular and, notwithstanding decrease [...] Read more.
For decades, significant work has been conducted regarding plastic waste by dealing with rejected materials in waste masses through their accumulation, sorting and recycling. Important political and technical challenges are involved, especially with respect to landfilled waste. Plastic is popular and, notwithstanding decrease policies, it will remain a material widely used in most economic sectors. However, questions of plastic waste recycling in the contemporary world cannot be solved without knowing the material, which can be achieved by careful sampling, analysis and quantification. Plastic is heterogeneous, but usually all plastic waste is jointly handled for recycling and incineration. Separation before processing waste through the analytical approach must be applied. Modern landfill mining and site clean-up projects in contemporary waste management systems require comprehensive material studies ranging from the macro-characterization of waste masses to a more detailed analysis of hazardous constituents and properties from an energy calorific standpoint—where, among other methods, thermogravimetric research coupled with life cycle assessment (LCA) and economic assessment is highly welcomed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation New Technology for Separation of Plastic Wastes)
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Open AccessReview
Applications of Gas Chromatography for the Analysis of Tricyclic Antidepressants in Biological Matrices
Separations 2019, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020024
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract
Tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCAs) are a main category of antidepressants, which are until today widely used for the treatment of psychological disorders due to their low cost and their high efficiency. Therefore, there is a great demand for method development for the determination [...] Read more.
Tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCAs) are a main category of antidepressants, which are until today widely used for the treatment of psychological disorders due to their low cost and their high efficiency. Therefore, there is a great demand for method development for the determination of TCAs in biofluids, especially for therapeutic drug monitoring. Gas chromatography (GC) was the first chromatographic technique implemented for this purpose. With the recent development in the field of sample preparation, many novel GC applications have been developed. Herein, we aim to report the recent application of GC for the determination of tricyclic antidepressants in biofluids. Emphasis is given to novel extraction techniques and novel materials used for sample preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Five Years of Separations: Feature Paper 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Ion Exchange Properties of Caesium-Selective Ammonium Phosphomolybdate-Polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) Composites under Spent Fuel Recycling Conditions
Separations 2019, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020023
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
The caesium radioisotopes 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs are highly problematic medium-lived species produced during nuclear fission, due to their high radioactivity and environmental mobility. While many ion exchange materials can readily isolate Cs+ ions from neutral or basic aqueous [...] Read more.
The caesium radioisotopes 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs are highly problematic medium-lived species produced during nuclear fission, due to their high radioactivity and environmental mobility. While many ion exchange materials can readily isolate Cs+ ions from neutral or basic aqueous solutions, only ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) functions effectively in acidic conditions, removing caesium even down to trace levels. Composites of AMP in a porous polymeric support such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN) can be used to selectively remove Cs+ ions from acidic aqueous decontamination liquors as well as other liquid wastes, and are promising for the isolation of Cs+ isotopes in spent fuel reprocessing. While both AMP and PAN have demonstrable acid stability, and PAN has known resistance to gamma radiation, AMP-PAN composites have received only a limited analysis of their physiochemical and ion exchange performance following irradiation. In this publication, we explore the effect of high levels of gamma irradiation on the ion exchange properties of AMP and AMP-PAN as a Cs+-selective adsorbent under spent fuel dissolver liquor concentrations and acidity. We demonstrate no significant reduction in performance with respect to uptake kinetics or capacity upon irradiation, abiding by the same absorption mechanism observed in the established literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Polymeric Materials for Application in Liquid Phase Separations)
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Open AccessArticle
An On-Line Flow-Injection Sorbent Extraction System Coupled with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Thallium Determination Using a PTFE Turning-Packed Column
Separations 2019, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020022
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
A novel time-based flow-injection–solid-phase extraction system (FI–SPE) coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for automatic on-line preconcentration and determination of thallium was developed. The efficiency of poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) turnings packed into a column as sorbent material was investigated for thallium extraction. Total [...] Read more.
A novel time-based flow-injection–solid-phase extraction system (FI–SPE) coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for automatic on-line preconcentration and determination of thallium was developed. The efficiency of poly-tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) turnings packed into a column as sorbent material was investigated for thallium extraction. Total thallium was determined by oxidizing thallium(I) to thallium(III), adding bromine in acidic solution. The formed [TlBr4] anionic bromo complex was retained onto the PTFE turnings by on-line mixing with sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDTC). The preconcentrated Tl(III)-DDTC complex was then effectively eluted with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and introduced into the flame atomizer for measurement and quantification. The column proved to be effective, stable, and reproducible, with a long lifetime. The enrichment factor was 105 for 60 s preconcentration time, and the sampling frequency 40 h−1. The detection limit was 1.93 μg L−1, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.2% at 50.0 μg L−1 concentration. The accuracy of the proposed method was estimated by analyzing certified reference materials and environmental and biological samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research as Development Perspective 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection Method for the Determination of Four Tetracycline Residues in Milk by Using QuEChERS Dispersive Extraction
Separations 2019, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020021
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
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Abstract
QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) dispersive extraction was applied for the extraction of tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlorotetracycline and doxycycline) from milk. Target analytes were determined by an accurate and sensitive chromatographic analytical method, which was validated in terms of 2002/6572/EC [...] Read more.
QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) dispersive extraction was applied for the extraction of tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlorotetracycline and doxycycline) from milk. Target analytes were determined by an accurate and sensitive chromatographic analytical method, which was validated in terms of 2002/6572/EC decision. The analytes were separated on an Orbit 100C4 (5 μm, 250 × 4.0 mm) analytical column under a gradient mobile phase composed of a mixture of 0.01 M oxalic acid, 10−4 M Na2EDTA and acetonitrile. For the extraction of isolated compounds from sorbent, a methanol and 0.01 M oxalic acid mixture (1:1 v/v) was used, leading to relative recovery rates from 83.07% to 106.3% at concentration levels in the range 100–200 μg/kg. The within-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as a relative standard deviation, was <15.5%. Decision limits ranged between 100.3 μg/kg and 105.6 μg/kg and the detection capability varied between 100.6 μg/kg and 109.7 μg/kg. Ruggedness was evaluated by following the Youden approach, in terms of milk mass, sorbent mass, centrifugation time, vortex time, type and volume of organic solvents and evaporation temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research as Development Perspective 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Treatment of Tannery Wastewater with Vibratory Shear-Enhanced Processing Membrane Filtration
Separations 2019, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020020
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
The performance of a vibratory shear-enhanced process (VSEP) combined with an appropriate membrane unit for the treatment of simulated or industrial tannery wastewaters was investigated. The fundamental operational and pollution parameters were evaluated, i.e., the membrane type, the applied vibration amplitude, as well [...] Read more.
The performance of a vibratory shear-enhanced process (VSEP) combined with an appropriate membrane unit for the treatment of simulated or industrial tannery wastewaters was investigated. The fundamental operational and pollution parameters were evaluated, i.e., the membrane type, the applied vibration amplitude, as well as the removal rates (%) of tannins, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Ntotal, turbidity and color. Regarding the system’s treatment efficiency, specific emphasis was given towards the removal of organics (expressed as COD values), suspended solids (SS), conductivity (as an index of dissolved solids’ presence) and total nitrogen. The removal of organic matter in terms of COD exceeded 75% for all the examined cases. The quality of treated wastewater was affected not only by the membrane specific type (i.e., the respective pore diameters), but also by the applied vibration amplitude. Furthermore, an average 50% removal rate, regarding the aforementioned parameters, was observed both for the simulated and the industrial tannery wastewaters during the microfiltration (MF) experiments. That removal rate was further increased up to 85%, when ultrafiltration (UF) was applied, and up to 99% during the Reverse Osmosis (RO) experiments, considering the maximum applied vibration amplitude (31.75 mm). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Five Years of Separations: Feature Paper 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Adsorbed Water Layer on Polar Stationary Phases for Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC)
Separations 2019, 6(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020019
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
The water-rich liquid layer immobilized on the surface of the polar stationary phases is critical to the retention of polar compounds in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). Although the presence of the adsorbed water layer has been investigated and confirmed by multiple techniques, there [...] Read more.
The water-rich liquid layer immobilized on the surface of the polar stationary phases is critical to the retention of polar compounds in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). Although the presence of the adsorbed water layer has been investigated and confirmed by multiple techniques, there is a lack of quantitative measures that can be easily determined and linked to chromatographic parameters. This study proposes a simple measure termed volume ratio (the ratio of the adsorbed water layer volume and the mobile phase volume) that can be easily determined using toluene elution volume. The volume ratio values measured using the proposed method indicate that the volume of the adsorbed water layer varies in a wide range in the stationary phases commonly used in HILIC separation. It was observed that the volume ratio increases with the acetonitrile content and ammonium acetate concentration in the mobile phase. In addition, increasing the column temperature had the effect of reducing the volume ratio and diminishing the adsorbed water layer. Full article
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