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Processes, Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2021) – 159 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Salmonella enterica is a major cause of the foodborne diseases associated with fresh produce. The rate of contamination via irrigation water and disinfection efficiency are closely related to plant surface properties such as wettability, which is influenced by epicuticular wax that makes it hydrophobic. Surfactants are widely used in the pre- and postharvest period for various purposes. This study tested and reported the attachment of Salmonella increases as pesticides (surfactants) denature epicuticular wax crystals, and the antibacterial effect of ozonated water on waxy produce can be improved by adding surfactant. View this paper
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Article
A Doubly Green Separation Process: Merging Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Processes 2021, 9(4), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040727 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) is a green separation technique which uses mixtures of water and environmentally benign polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) as solvents. One of the challenges in implementing this extraction on an industrial scale is finding a suitable method for [...] Read more.
Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) is a green separation technique which uses mixtures of water and environmentally benign polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) as solvents. One of the challenges in implementing this extraction on an industrial scale is finding a suitable method for the isolation of target compounds from water-polymer solutions after the extraction, without diminishing ecological benefits of the method. In this paper, we propose using another green separation technique, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), for the back-extraction of low molecular weight medium polarity compounds from ATPE solutions. Experiments with two model compounds, caffeine and benzoic acid, showed principal applicability of SFE for this task. Pressure (100–300 bar) and temperature (35–75 °C) of supercritical carbon dioxide play a major role in defining extraction capability. Extraction ratios of 35% for caffeine and 42% for benzoic acid were obtained at high fluid pressure and moderate temperature at 1:6 volume phase ratio. That gives an estimation of 10–20 theoretical steps required for complete exhaustive extraction from the ATPE solution, which is readily achievable in standard counter-current column SFE. Combining these two green methods together not only serves as an environmentally friendly method for the isolation of valuable low molecular weight compounds from diluted water solutions, but also allows for simple, energy effective recuperation of ATPE solvents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental and Green Processes)
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Article
Utilization of Barley Straw as Feedstock for the Production of Different Energy Vectors
Processes 2021, 9(4), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040726 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
During the bioethanol production process, vast amounts of residues are generated as process waste. To extract more value from lignocellulosic biomass and improve process economics, these residues should be used as feedstock in additional processes for the production of energy or fuels. In [...] Read more.
During the bioethanol production process, vast amounts of residues are generated as process waste. To extract more value from lignocellulosic biomass and improve process economics, these residues should be used as feedstock in additional processes for the production of energy or fuels. In this paper, barley straw was used for bioethanol production and the residues were valorized using anaerobic digestion (AD) or used for the production of heat and power by combustion. A traditional three-step bioethanol production process was used, and the biomass residues obtained from different stages of the process were analyzed. Finally, mass and energy balances were calculated to quantify material flow and assess the different technological routes for biomass utilization. Up to 90 kg of ethanol could be produced from 1 t of biomass and additional biogas and energy generated from processing residues can increase the energy yield to over 220%. The results show that in terms of energy output, combustion was the preferable route for processing biomass residues. However, the production of biogas is also an attractive solution to increase revenue in the bioethanol production process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Waste towards Green Growth)
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Article
Influence of the Application of a Sound Field on the Flow State Reduction of Newman Fine Iron Ore
Processes 2021, 9(4), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040725 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 594
Abstract
To improve the fluidization of the fluidized bed in ironmaking, the particle loss and bonding during the fluidized bed are largely removed by changing the properties of the particle surface or by adding an external field. Currently, the vibration, magnetic, sound, and electric [...] Read more.
To improve the fluidization of the fluidized bed in ironmaking, the particle loss and bonding during the fluidized bed are largely removed by changing the properties of the particle surface or by adding an external field. Currently, the vibration, magnetic, sound, and electric fields have been commonly applied to provide external energy to the fluidization bed systems. In this work, experiments are conducted for Newman ore particles under the application of an external sound field at a reduction temperature of 1023 K, linear velocity of 0.6 m/s, duration of 60 min, pressure of 0.2 MPa, and typical mineral powder particle size of 80–100 mesh, with H2 used as the reducing gas. The power and frequency of the ultrasonic field are varied, and the effects of sound field are evaluated by the comparative analysis of the effects of the sound field with different powers of sound fields and application times on the metallization rate and binder ratio of the samples. The acoustic pressure and frequency were varied to determine the critical speed and influence on the bed and to study the interactions of the iron ore powder particles in the sound field and the bonding mechanism of the particles. The results of this paper reproduce the actual particle fluidization process and analysis of the interactions of the particles in the sound field well. The influence of the external sound field on the gas-solid flow was studied from the perspective of macroscopic motion and force analysis. Full article
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Article
Mead Production Using Immobilized Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Reuse of Sodium Alginate Beads
Processes 2021, 9(4), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040724 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 853
Abstract
This work studied the production of mead using second category honey and the immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sodium alginate, with concentrations of 2% and 4%, and their reuse in five successive fermentations. The immobilized cells with 4% alginate beads were mechanically [...] Read more.
This work studied the production of mead using second category honey and the immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sodium alginate, with concentrations of 2% and 4%, and their reuse in five successive fermentations. The immobilized cells with 4% alginate beads were mechanically more stable and able to allow a greater number of reuses, making the process more economical. The fermentation’s consumption of sugars with free cells (control) and immobilized cells showed a similar profile, being completed close to 72 h, while the first use of immobilized cells finished at 96 h. The immobilized cells did not significantly influence some oenological parameters, such as the yield of the consumed sugars/ethanol, the alcohol content, the pH and the total acidity. There was a slight increase in the volatile acidity and a decrease in the production of SO2. The alginate concentrations did not significantly influence either the parameters used to monitor the fermentation process or the characteristics of the mead. Mead fermentations with immobilized cells showed the release of cells into the wort due to the disintegration of the beads, indicating that the matrix used for the yeast’s immobilization should be optimized, considering the mead production medium. Full article
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Article
Novel Strategy for the Calorimetry-Based Control of Fed-Batch Cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Processes 2021, 9(4), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040723 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
Typical controllers for fed-batch cultivations are based on the estimation and control of the specific growth rate in real time. Biocalorimetry allows one to measure a heat signal proportional to the substrate consumed by cells. The derivative of this heat signal is usually [...] Read more.
Typical controllers for fed-batch cultivations are based on the estimation and control of the specific growth rate in real time. Biocalorimetry allows one to measure a heat signal proportional to the substrate consumed by cells. The derivative of this heat signal is usually used to evaluate the specific growth rate, introducing noise to the resulting estimate. To avoid this, this study investigated a novel controller based directly on the heat signal. Time trajectories of the heat signal setpoint were modelled for different specific growth rates, and the controller was set to follow this dynamic setpoint. The developed controller successfully followed the setpoint during aerobic cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, preventing the Crabtree effect by maintaining low glucose concentrations. With this new method, fed-batch cultivations of S. cerevisiae could be reliably controlled at specific growth rates between 0.075 h−1 and 0.20 h−1, with average root mean square errors of 15 ± 3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioreactor System: Design, Modeling and Continuous Production Process)
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Review
Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields and Ultrasound Processing on Proteins and Enzymes: A Review
Processes 2021, 9(4), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040722 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
There is increasing demand among consumers for food products free of chemical preservatives, minimally processed and have fresh-like natural flavors. To meet these growing demands, the industries and researchers are finding alternative processing methods, which involve nonthermal methods to obtain a quality product [...] Read more.
There is increasing demand among consumers for food products free of chemical preservatives, minimally processed and have fresh-like natural flavors. To meet these growing demands, the industries and researchers are finding alternative processing methods, which involve nonthermal methods to obtain a quality product that meets the consumer demands and adheres to the food safety protocols. In the past two decades’ various research groups have developed a wide range of nonthermal processing methods, of which few have shown potential in replacing the traditional thermal processing systems. Among all the methods, ultrasonication (US) and pulsed electric field (PEF) seem to be the most effective in attaining desirable food products. Several researchers have shown that these methods significantly affect various major and minor nutritional components present in food, including proteins and enzymes. In this review, we are going to discuss the effect of nonthermal methods on proteins, including enzymes. This review comprises results from the latest studies conducted from all over the world, which would help the research community and industry investigate the future pathway for nonthermal processing methods, especially in preserving the nutritional safety and integrity of the food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in Section "Food Processes")
Article
Multi-Objective Nonlinear Programming Model for Reducing Octane Number Loss in Gasoline Refining Process Based on Data Mining Technology
Processes 2021, 9(4), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040721 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 628
Abstract
To simultaneously reduce automobile exhaust pollution to the environment and satisfy the demand for high-quality gasoline, the treatment of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline is urgently needed to minimize octane number (RON) loss. We presented a new systematic method for determining an optimal [...] Read more.
To simultaneously reduce automobile exhaust pollution to the environment and satisfy the demand for high-quality gasoline, the treatment of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline is urgently needed to minimize octane number (RON) loss. We presented a new systematic method for determining an optimal operation scheme for minimising RON loss and operational risks. Firstly, many data were collected and preprocessed. Then, grey correlative degree analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were used to reduce the dimensionality, and the major variables with representativeness and independence were selected from the 367 variables. Then, the RON and sulfur (S) content were predicted by multiple nonlinear regression. A multi-objective nonlinear optimization model was established with the maximum reduction in RON loss and minimum operational risk as the objective function. Finally, the optimal operation scheme of the operating variable corresponding to the sample with a RON loss reduction greater than 30% in 325 samples was solved in Python. Full article
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Article
Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solution Using Internal Microelectrolysis with Fe-Cu: Optimization and Application on Real Coking Wastewater
Processes 2021, 9(4), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040720 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
Fe-Cu materials were synthesized using the chemical plating method from Fe powder and CuSO4 5% solution and then characterized for surface morphology, composition and structure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The as-synthesized [...] Read more.
Fe-Cu materials were synthesized using the chemical plating method from Fe powder and CuSO4 5% solution and then characterized for surface morphology, composition and structure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The as-synthesized Fe-Cu material was used for removal of phenol from aqueous solution by internal microelectrolysis. The internal electrolysis-induced phenol decomposition was then studied with respect to various parameters such as pH, time, Fe-Cu material weight, phenol concentration and shaking speed. The optimal phenol decomposition (92.7%) was achieved under the conditions of (1) a pH value of phenol solution of 3, (2) 12 h of shaking at the speed of 200 rpm, (3) Fe-Cu material weight of 10 g/L, (4) initial phenol concentration of 100.98 mg/L and (5) at room temperature (25 ± 0.5 °C). The degradation of phenol using Fe-Cu materials obeyed the second-order apparent kinetics equation with a reaction rate constant of k of 0.009 h−1L mg−1. The optimal process was then tested against real coking wastewater samples, resulting in treated wastewater with favorable water indicators. Current findings justify the use of Fe-Cu materials in practical internal electrolysis processes. Full article
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Review
Sustainable Removal of Contaminants by Biopolymers: A Novel Approach for Wastewater Treatment. Current State and Future Perspectives
Processes 2021, 9(4), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040719 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Naturally occurring substances or polymeric biomolecules synthesized by living organisms during their entire life cycle are commonly defined as biopolymers. Different classifications of biopolymers have been proposed, focusing on their monomeric units, thus allowing them to be distinguished into three different classes with [...] Read more.
Naturally occurring substances or polymeric biomolecules synthesized by living organisms during their entire life cycle are commonly defined as biopolymers. Different classifications of biopolymers have been proposed, focusing on their monomeric units, thus allowing them to be distinguished into three different classes with a huge diversity of secondary structures. Due to their ability to be easily manipulated and modified, their versatility, and their sustainability, biopolymers have been proposed in different fields of interest, starting from food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries, (i.e., as excipients, gelling agents, stabilizers, or thickeners). Furthermore, due to their sustainable and renewable features, their biodegradability, and their non-toxicity, biopolymers have also been proposed in wastewater treatment, in combination with different reinforcing materials (natural fibers, inorganic micro- or nano-sized fillers, antioxidants, and pigments) toward the development of novel composites with improved properties. On the other hand, the improper or illegal emission of untreated industrial, agricultural, and household wastewater containing a variety of organic and inorganic pollutants represents a great risk to aquatic systems, with a negative impact due to their high toxicity. Among the remediation techniques, adsorption is widely used and documented for its efficiency, intrinsic simplicity, and low cost. Biopolymers represent promising and challenging adsorbents for aquatic environments’ decontamination from organic and inorganic pollutants, allowing for protection of the environment and living organisms. This review summarizes the results obtained in recent years from the sustainable removal of contaminants by biopolymers, trying to identify open questions and future perspectives to overcome the present gaps and limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Nanocomposites in Bioremediation Processes)
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Article
Effect of Gas Diffusion Layer Thickness on the Performance of Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Processes 2021, 9(4), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040718 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) play a critical role in anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) water management. In this work, the effect of GDL thickness on the cell performance of the AEMFC was experimentally investigated. Three GDLs with different thicknesses of 120, 260, [...] Read more.
Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) play a critical role in anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) water management. In this work, the effect of GDL thickness on the cell performance of the AEMFC was experimentally investigated. Three GDLs with different thicknesses of 120, 260, and 310 µm (denoted as GDL-120, GDL-260, and GDL-310, respectively) were prepared and tested in a single H2/O2 AEMFC. The experimental results showed that the GDL-260 employed in both anode and cathode electrodes exhibited the best cell performance. There was a small difference in cell performance for GDL-260 and GDL-310, while water flooding was observed in the case of using GDL-120 operated at current densities greater than 1100 mA cm−2. In addition, it was found that the GDL thickness had more sensitivity to the AEMFC performance as used in the anode electrode rather than in the cathode electrode, indicating that water removal at the anode was more challenging than water supply at the cathode. The strategy of water management in the anode should be different from that in the cathode. These findings can provide a further understanding of the role of GDLs in the water management of AEMFCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Fuel Cells)
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Article
Analysis of the Surface Subsidence Induced by Mining Near-Surface Thick Lead-Zinc Deposit Based on Numerical Simulation
Processes 2021, 9(4), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040717 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 708
Abstract
This paper describes a case study of surface subsidence in the Hongling Lead-Zinc Mine. Hongling Lead-Zinc Mine is located in Inner Mongolia, China, about 240 km away from the border between China and Mongolia. There is a batch of outcrops of the near-surface [...] Read more.
This paper describes a case study of surface subsidence in the Hongling Lead-Zinc Mine. Hongling Lead-Zinc Mine is located in Inner Mongolia, China, about 240 km away from the border between China and Mongolia. There is a batch of outcrops of the near-surface thick steep-dip metamorphic orebody. The large-scale surface subsidence induced by underground excavation has brought some impact on the safety of herdsmen and their daily husbandry activities nearby. The requirements of reclamation for subsidence areas in the relevant laws and regulations, raise enormous pressure and risk on safe and economic operation. In this paper, a 3D numerical model of this mine was built by 3DMine and FLAC3D to analyse the excavation procedure and mechanism. The results of the simulation were in good agreement with the field subsidence data collected by satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles from 2009 to 2019. The analysis showed that the current mining method—an integrated underground method of stoping and caving—accelerated the surface subsidence, and some measures of monitoring, controlling and management were expected to take in order to improve economic and ecological benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modeling in Civil and Mining Geotechnical Engineering)
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Article
Gene Expression of Mouse Hippocampal Stem Cells Grown in a Galactose-Derived Molecular Gel Compared to In Vivo and Neurospheres
Processes 2021, 9(4), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040716 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Background: N-heptyl-D-galactonamide (GalC7) is a small synthetic carbohydrate derivative that forms a biocompatible supramolecular hydrogel. In this study, the objective was to analyze more in-depth how neural cells differentiate in contact with GalC7. Method: Direct (ex vivo) cells of the fresh hippocampus and [...] Read more.
Background: N-heptyl-D-galactonamide (GalC7) is a small synthetic carbohydrate derivative that forms a biocompatible supramolecular hydrogel. In this study, the objective was to analyze more in-depth how neural cells differentiate in contact with GalC7. Method: Direct (ex vivo) cells of the fresh hippocampus and culture (In vitro) of the primary cells were investigated. In vitro, investigation performed under three conditions: on culture in neurospheres for 19 days, on culture in GalC7 gel for 7 days, and on culture in both neurospheres and GalC7 gel. Total RNA was isolated with TRIzol from each group, Sox8, Sox9, Sox10, Dcx, and Neurod1 expression levels were measured by qPCR. Result: Sox8 and Sox10, oligodendrocyte markers, and Sox9, an astrocyte marker, were expressed at a much higher level after 7 days of culture in GalC7 hydrogel compared to all other conditions. Dcx, a marker of neurogenesis, and Neurod1, a marker of neuronal differentiation, were expressed at better levels in the GalC7 gel culture compared to the neurosphere. Conclusions: These results show that the GalC7 hydrogel brings different and interesting conditions for inducing the differentiation and maturation of neural progenitor cells compared with polymer-based scaffolds or cell-only conditions. The differences observed open new perspectives in tissue engineering, induction, and transcript analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogel Scaffolding of Stem Cells)
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Article
A Molecular Dynamics Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement during Phase Change from a Nanoengineered Solid Surface
Processes 2021, 9(4), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040715 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
This study investigates the enhancement of the rate of evaporation from a nanoengineered solid surface using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Four different types of surface modifications were introduced to examine the thermal transportation behavior. The surface modification includes: (1) transformation of surface wetting [...] Read more.
This study investigates the enhancement of the rate of evaporation from a nanoengineered solid surface using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Four different types of surface modifications were introduced to examine the thermal transportation behavior. The surface modification includes: (1) transformation of surface wetting condition from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, (2) implementing nanostructures on the smooth surface, (3) cutting nano slots on the smooth surface and (4) introducing nano-level surface roughness. Evaporation behavior from the same effective surface area was also studied. The simulation domain consisted of three distinct zones: solid base wall made of copper, a few layers of liquid argon, and a vapor zone made of argon. All the nano-level surface modifications were introduced on the solid base surface. The few layers of liquid argon representing the liquid zone of the domain take heat from the solid surface and get evaporated. Outside this solid and liquid zone, there is argon vapor. The simulation began at the initial time t = 0 ns and then was allowed to reach equilibrium. Immediately after equilibrium was achieved on all three-phase systems, the temperature of the solid wall was raised to a higher value. In this way, thermal transportation from the solid wall to liquid argon was established. As the temperature of the solid wall was high enough, the liquid argon tended to evaporate. From the simulation results, it is observed that during the transformation from hydrophobic to hydrophilic conditions, enhancement of evaporation takes place due to the improvement of thermal transportation behavior. At the nanostructure surface, the active nucleation sites and effective surface area increase which results in evaporation enhancement. With nano slots and nano-level surface roughness, the rate of evaporation increases due to the increase of solid-liquid contact area and effective surface area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rheological Study of Nanofluids)
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Article
Revealing of Supercritical Water Gasification Process of Lignin by Reactive Force Field Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Processes 2021, 9(4), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040714 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1138
Abstract
Gasification with supercritical water is an efficient process that can be used for the valorization of biomass. Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer in biomass and its conversion is fundamental for future energy and value-added chemicals. In this paper, the supercritical water [...] Read more.
Gasification with supercritical water is an efficient process that can be used for the valorization of biomass. Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer in biomass and its conversion is fundamental for future energy and value-added chemicals. In this paper, the supercritical water gasification process of lignin by employing reactive force field molecular dynamics simulations (ReaxFF MD) was investigated. Guaiacyl glycerol-β-guaiacyl ether (GGE) was considered as a lignin model to evaluate the reaction mechanism and identify the components at different temperatures from 1000 K to 5000 K. The obtained results revealed that the reactions and breaking of the lignin model started at 2000 K. At the primary stage of the reaction at 2000 K the β-O-4 bond tends to break into several compounds, forming mainly guaiacol and 1,3-benzodioxole. In particular, 1,3-benzodioxole undergoes dissociation and forms cyclopentene-based ketones. Afterward, dealkylation reaction occurred through hydroxyl radicals of water to form methanol, formaldehyde and methane. Above 2500 K, H2, CO and CO2 are predominantly formed in which water molecules contributed hydrogen and oxygen for their formation. Understanding the detailed reactive mechanism of lignin’s gasification is important for efficient energy conversion of biomass. Full article
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Article
Efficient Two-Step Parametrization of a Control-Oriented Zero-Dimensional Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Model Based on Measured Stack Data
Processes 2021, 9(4), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040713 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 925
Abstract
This paper proposes a new efficient two-step method for parametrizing control-oriented zero-dimensional physical polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) models with measured stack data. Parametrizations of these models are computationally intensive due to the numerous unknown parameters and the typically nonlinear, stiff model [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new efficient two-step method for parametrizing control-oriented zero-dimensional physical polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) models with measured stack data. Parametrizations of these models are computationally intensive due to the numerous unknown parameters and the typically nonlinear, stiff model properties. This work reduces an existing model to decrease its stiffness for accelerated numerical simulations. Subdividing the parametrization into two consecutive subproblems (thermodynamic and electrochemical ones) reduces the solution space significantly. A parameter sensitivity analysis further reduces each sub-solution space by excluding non-significant parameters. The method results in an efficient parametrization process. The two-step approach minimizes each sub-solution space’s dimension by two-thirds, respectively three-fourths, compared to the global one. An achieved R2 value between simulation and measurement of 91% on average provides the required accuracy for control-oriented models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Fuel Cells)
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Article
Recovery of Valuable Materials from the Waste Crystalline-Silicon Photovoltaic Cell and Ribbon
Processes 2021, 9(4), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040712 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
With the dramatic increase of photovoltaic (PV) module installation in solar energy-based industries, the methods for recovering waste solar generators should be emphasized as the backup of the PV market for environmental protection. Crystalline-silicon accounts for most of the worldwide PV market and [...] Read more.
With the dramatic increase of photovoltaic (PV) module installation in solar energy-based industries, the methods for recovering waste solar generators should be emphasized as the backup of the PV market for environmental protection. Crystalline-silicon accounts for most of the worldwide PV market and it contains valuable materials such as high purity of silicon (Si), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), tin (Sn), and lead (Pb). This study can provide an efficient recycling process for valuable materials resourced from waste crystalline-silicon PV module, including Si in the PV cell, and Ag, Cu, Pb, Sn, in PV ribbon. As tempered glass and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) resin were removed, the module was separated into two materials, PV ribbon and PV cell. For PV cell purification, Si with purity at 99.84% was recovered by removing impurities such as aluminum (Al) and Ag by two-step leaching and dissolving the impurities. For PV ribbon recovering, purified metal or metal oxide was obtained through the processes of leaching/polishing, extraction, and chemical precipitation. In the polishing process, 99.5% of copper wire was collected. The purities of final products are 99.7% for CuO, 99.47% for PbO, 99.68% for SnO2, and 98.85% for Ag respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry: From Wastes to Value-Added Products)
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Article
Analysis of the Physical Properties of Seeds of Selected Viburnum Species for the Needs of Seed Sorting Operations
Processes 2021, 9(4), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040711 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 596
Abstract
Viburnum is a genus of colorful and ornamental plants popular in landscape design on account of their high esthetic appeal. The physical properties of viburnum seeds have not been investigated in the literature to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Viburnum is a genus of colorful and ornamental plants popular in landscape design on account of their high esthetic appeal. The physical properties of viburnum seeds have not been investigated in the literature to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the seeds of selected Viburnum species and to search for potential relationships between their physical attributes for the needs of seed sorting operations. The basic physical parameters of the seeds of six Viburnum species were measured, and the relationships between these attributes were determined in correlation and regression analyses. The average values of the evaluated parameters were determined in the following range: terminal velocity—from 5.6 to 7.9 m s−1, thickness—from 1.39 to 1.87 mm, width—from 3.59 to 6.33 mm, length—from 5.58 to 7.44 mm, angle of external friction—from 36.7 to 43.8°, mass—from 16.7 to 35.0 mg. The seeds of V. dasyanthum, V. lentago and V. sargentii should be sorted in air separators, and the seeds of V. lantana and V. opulus should be processed with the use of mesh screens with round apertures to obtain uniform size fractions. The seeds of V. rhytodophyllum cannot be effectively sorted into batches with uniform seed mass, but they can be separated into groups with similar dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Food Processing)
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Article
Ripple Attenuation for Induction Motor Finite Control Set Model Predictive Torque Control Using Novel Fuzzy Adaptive Techniques
Processes 2021, 9(4), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040710 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 664
Abstract
Finite control set model predictive torque control (FCS-MPTC) strategy has been widely used in induction motor (IM) control due to its fast response characteristic. Although the dynamics of the FCS-MPTC method are highly commended, its steady-state performance—ripple deserves attention in the meantime. To [...] Read more.
Finite control set model predictive torque control (FCS-MPTC) strategy has been widely used in induction motor (IM) control due to its fast response characteristic. Although the dynamics of the FCS-MPTC method are highly commended, its steady-state performance—ripple deserves attention in the meantime. To improve the steady-state performance of the IM drives, this paper proposes an improved FCS-MPTC strategy, based on a novel fuzzy adaptive speed controller and an adaptive weighting factor, tuning strategy to reduce the speed, torque and flux ripples caused by different factors. Firstly, a discrete predicting plant model (PPM) with a new flux observer is established, laying the ground for achieving an FCS-MPTC algorithm accurately. Secondly, after analyzing the essential factors in establishing a fuzzy adaptive PI controller, with high ripple suppression capacity, an improved three-dimensional controller is designed. Simultaneously, the implementation procedures of the fuzzy adaptive PI controller-based FCS-MPTC are presented. Considering that a weighting factor must be employed in the cost function of an FCS-MPTC method, system ripples increase if the value of the weighting factor is inappropriate. Then, on that basis, a novel fuzzy adaptive theory-based weighting factor tuning strategy is proposed, with the real-time torque and flux performance balanced. Finally, both simulation and hardware-in-loop (HIL) test are conducted on a 1.1 kW IM drive to verify the proposed ripple reduction algorithms. Full article
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Article
Purification and Characterization of Fractions Containing Polysaccharides from Talinum triangulare and Their Immunomodulatory Effects
Processes 2021, 9(4), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040709 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 691
Abstract
Previous studies identified that extracts of Talinum triangulare rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids showed antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities. In this study, the L9 orthogonal array was used to determine the optimal extraction conditions for water-extracted polysaccharides of T. triangulare (TTP) by hot [...] Read more.
Previous studies identified that extracts of Talinum triangulare rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids showed antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities. In this study, the L9 orthogonal array was used to determine the optimal extraction conditions for water-extracted polysaccharides of T. triangulare (TTP) by hot reflux extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) methods. Results showed that while both extraction methods obtained a maximum polysaccharide yield of 3.1%, the optimal conditions for obtaining TTP was by UAE method. TTP was separated into large (LTTP) and small (STTP) molecular weights by dialysis. Since LTTP showed better effects than STTP in inducing macrophages to produce nitric oxide (NO) and indirectly inhibiting human cervical cancer HeLa cells, six different LTTP fractions were separated using anion-exchange chromatography. Contents of polysaccharides, triterpenoids, polyphenols, and proteins and molecular weights of major polysaccharide in each fraction were analyzed. The F1 fraction of LTTP, which showed the highest inducing ability of mouse RAW264.7 macrophages to secrete NO and tumor necrosis factor-α, showed the most significant indirect inhibitory effect of human colon cancer SW620 cells. These results suggest that LTTP, especially the F1 fraction, of T. triangulare may be used in health foods or Chinese medicine for its immunomodulatory potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity Evaluation Process of Natural Antioxidants)
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Article
Development of TLC Chromatographic-Densitometric Procedure for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Ceftobiprole
Processes 2021, 9(4), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040708 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 616
Abstract
Currently, there is still a need for broad-spectrum antibiotics. The new cephalosporin antibiotics include, among others, ceftobiprole, a fifth-generation gram-positive cephalosporin, active against Staphylococcus aureus methicillin agonist (MRSA). The main focus of the work was to optimize the conditions of ceftobiprole qualitative determination [...] Read more.
Currently, there is still a need for broad-spectrum antibiotics. The new cephalosporin antibiotics include, among others, ceftobiprole, a fifth-generation gram-positive cephalosporin, active against Staphylococcus aureus methicillin agonist (MRSA). The main focus of the work was to optimize the conditions of ceftobiprole qualitative determination and to validate the developed procedure according to ICH guidelines. As a result of the optimization process, HPTLC Cellulose chromatographic plates as a stationary phase and a mixture consisting of ethanol:2-propanol: glacial acetic acid: water (4:4:1:3, v/v/v/v) as a mobile phase were chosen. The densitometric detection was carried out at maximum absorbance of ceftobiprole (λ = 232 nm). Next, the validation process of the developed procedure was carried out. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for precision was less than 1.65%, which proves the high compatibility of the results, as well as the LOD = 0.0257 µg/spot and LOQ = 0.0779 µg/spot values, which also confirm the high sensitivity of the procedure. The usefulness of the developed method for the stability studies of ceftobiprole was analyzed. Study was carried out under stress conditions, i.e., acid and alkaline environments, exposure to radiation imitating sunlight and high temperature (40–60 °C). It was found that cefotbiprole is unstable in an alkaline environment and during exposure to UV-VIS radiation. Moreover, the lipophilicity parameter, as a main physicochemical property of the biologically active compound, was determined using experimental and computational methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Chromatography in Drug Analysis and Development)
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Article
A Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture Using Schiff Bases Containing a Trimethoprim Unit
Processes 2021, 9(4), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040707 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
Environmental problems associated with the growing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to the burning of fossil fuels to satisfy the high demand for energy are a pressing concern. Therefore, the design of new materials for carbon dioxide storage has received [...] Read more.
Environmental problems associated with the growing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to the burning of fossil fuels to satisfy the high demand for energy are a pressing concern. Therefore, the design of new materials for carbon dioxide storage has received increasing research attention. In this work, we report the synthesis of three new Schiff bases containing a trimethoprim unit and the investigation of their application as adsorbents for carbon dioxide capture. The reaction of trimethoprim and aromatic aldehydes in acid medium gave the corresponding Schiff bases in 83%–87% yields. The Schiff bases exhibited surface areas ranging from 4.15 to 20.33 m2/g, pore volumes of 0.0036–0.0086 cm3/g, and average pore diameters of 6.64–1.4 nm. An excellent carbon dioxide uptake (27–46 wt%) was achieved at high temperature and pressure (313 K and 40 bar, respectively) using the Schiff bases. The 3-hydroxyphenyl-substituted Schiff base, which exhibited a meta-arrangement, provided the highest carbon dioxide uptake (46 wt%) due to its higher surface area, pore volume, and pore diameter compared with the other two derivatives with a para-arrangement. Full article
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Article
Tuning Metal–Support Interactions on Ni/Al2O3 Catalysts to Improve Catalytic Activity and Stability for Dry Reforming of Methane
Processes 2021, 9(4), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040706 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Ni-based catalysts supported on alumina derived from the pseudo-boehmite prepared by the impregnation method were employed for catalytic dry reforming of methane reaction at the temperature of 550–750 °C. The effect of calcination temperature on physicochemical properties such as the Ni dispersion, reduction [...] Read more.
Ni-based catalysts supported on alumina derived from the pseudo-boehmite prepared by the impregnation method were employed for catalytic dry reforming of methane reaction at the temperature of 550–750 °C. The effect of calcination temperature on physicochemical properties such as the Ni dispersion, reduction degree, nickel crystallite sizes, and metal–support interaction of the catalysts was investigated. The characterization results show that increasing the catalyst calcination temperature leads to the formation of nickel-alumina spinel, which enhances the metal–support interaction and increases the reduction temperature. The nickel nanoparticle size decreases and the effective dispersion increases with the increasing calcination temperature from 450 °C to 750 °C due to the formation of nickel aluminate. The catalyst calcined at 750 °C exhibits the highest CH4 and CO2 conversion owing to the small Ni0 active sites and high Ni dispersion. In a 200 h stability test in dry reforming of methane at 700 °C, the Ni/Al2O3-750 catalyst exhibits excellent catalytic stability and anti-coking ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redesign Processes in the Age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution)
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Article
A Proper Shape of the Trailing Edge Modification to Solve a Housing Damage Problem in a Gas Turbine Power Plant
Processes 2021, 9(4), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040705 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
To solve the housing damage problem of a fractured compressor blade (CB) caused by an impact on the inner casing of a gas turbine in the seventh stage (from 15 stages), modifications of the trailing edge (TE) of the CB have been proposed, [...] Read more.
To solve the housing damage problem of a fractured compressor blade (CB) caused by an impact on the inner casing of a gas turbine in the seventh stage (from 15 stages), modifications of the trailing edge (TE) of the CB have been proposed, namely 6.5 mm curved cutting and a combination of 4 mm straight cutting with 6.5 mm curved cutting. The simulation results of the modifications in both aerodynamics variables Cl and Cd and the pressure ratio, including structural dynamics such as a normalized power spectrum, frequency, total deformation, equivalent stress, and the safety factor, found that 6.5 mm curved cutting could deliver the aerodynamics and structural dynamics similar to the original CB. This result also overcomes the previous work that proposed 5.0 mm straight cutting. This work also indicates that the operation of a CB gives uneven pressure and temperature, which get higher in the TE area. The slightly modified CB can present the difference in the properties of both the aerodynamics and the structural dynamics. Therefore, any modifications of the TE should be investigated for both properties simultaneously. Finally, the results from this work can be very useful information for the modification of the CB in the housing damage problem of the other rotating types of machinery in a gas turbine power plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Article
Hybrid Process Models in Electrochemical Syntheses under Deep Uncertainty
Processes 2021, 9(4), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040704 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Chemical process engineering and machine learning are merging rapidly, and hybrid process models have shown promising results in process analysis and process design. However, uncertainties in first-principles process models have an adverse effect on extrapolations and inferences based on hybrid process models. Parameter [...] Read more.
Chemical process engineering and machine learning are merging rapidly, and hybrid process models have shown promising results in process analysis and process design. However, uncertainties in first-principles process models have an adverse effect on extrapolations and inferences based on hybrid process models. Parameter sensitivities are an essential tool to understand better the underlying uncertainty propagation and hybrid system identification challenges. Still, standard parameter sensitivity concepts may fail to address comprehensive parameter uncertainty problems, i.e., deep uncertainty with aleatoric and epistemic contributions. This work shows a highly effective and reproducible sampling strategy to calculate simulation uncertainties and global parameter sensitivities for hybrid process models under deep uncertainty. We demonstrate the workflow with two electrochemical synthesis simulation studies, including the synthesis of furfuryl alcohol and 4-aminophenol. Compared with Monte Carlo reference simulations, the CPU-time was significantly reduced. The general findings of the hybrid model sensitivity studies under deep uncertainty are twofold. First, epistemic uncertainty has a significant effect on uncertainty analysis. Second, the predicted parameter sensitivities of the hybrid process models add value to the interpretation and analysis of the hybrid models themselves but are not suitable for predicting the real process/full first-principles process model’s sensitivities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Hybrid Modelling of Chemical and Biochemical Processes)
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Article
Effect of Drying on Nutritional Composition of Atlantic Sea Cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa) Viscera Derived from Newfoundland Fisheries
Processes 2021, 9(4), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040703 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 644
Abstract
Cucumaria frondosa is the main sea cucumber species harvested from Newfoundland waters. During processing, the viscera of sea cucumber are usually discarded as waste. As a matter of fact, sea cucumber viscera are abundant in various nutrients and promising for valorization. In the [...] Read more.
Cucumaria frondosa is the main sea cucumber species harvested from Newfoundland waters. During processing, the viscera of sea cucumber are usually discarded as waste. As a matter of fact, sea cucumber viscera are abundant in various nutrients and promising for valorization. In the present study, sea cucumber viscera were pretreated by air drying and freeze drying, and the nutritional compositions of the dried products were investigated, including proximate composition, lipid class, fatty acid profile, and amino acid composition. The dried viscera had similar levels of ash, lipids, and proteins compared to fresh viscera. Both air- and freeze-dried viscera had total fatty acid composition similar to fresh viscera, with high levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (30–31%), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (27–28%), and low levels of omega-6 PUFAs (~1%). The dried samples were abundant in essential amino acids (46–51%). Compared to air-dried viscera, freeze-dried viscera contained a lower content of moisture and free fatty acids, and higher content of glycine and omega-3 PUFAs in phospholipid fraction. The high content of nutritious components in dried viscera of Cucumaria frondosa indicates their great potential for valorization into high-value products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Purification of Bioactive Compounds)
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Article
Impact of Binary Chemical Reaction and Activation Energy on Heat and Mass Transfer of Marangoni Driven Boundary Layer Flow of a Non-Newtonian Nanofluid
Processes 2021, 9(4), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040702 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
The flow and heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluids has an extensive range of applications in oceanography, the cooling of metallic plates, melt-spinning, the movement of biological fluids, heat exchangers technology, coating and suspensions. In view of these applications, we studied the steady Marangoni [...] Read more.
The flow and heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluids has an extensive range of applications in oceanography, the cooling of metallic plates, melt-spinning, the movement of biological fluids, heat exchangers technology, coating and suspensions. In view of these applications, we studied the steady Marangoni driven boundary layer flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics of a nanofluid. A non-Newtonian second-grade liquid model is used to deliberate the effect of activation energy on the chemically reactive non-Newtonian nanofluid. By applying suitable similarity transformations, the system of governing equations is transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations. These reduced equations are tackled numerically using the Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg fourth-fifth order (RKF-45) method. The velocity, concentration, thermal fields and rate of heat transfer are explored for the embedded non-dimensional parameters graphically. Our results revealed that the escalating values of the Marangoni number improve the velocity gradient and reduce the heat transfer. As the values of the porosity parameter increase, the velocity gradient is reduced and the heat transfer is improved. Finally, the Nusselt number is found to decline as the porosity parameter increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics in Chemical Engineering)
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Article
Acute and Chronic Effects of a Glyphosate and a Cypermethrin-Based Pesticide on a Non-Target Species Eucypris sp. Vavra, 1891 (Crustacea, Ostracoda)
Processes 2021, 9(4), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040701 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Ostracoda species are indicators of their current and past environment (paleoenvironment). The study aims to evaluate the acute and chronic sensitivities of a freshwater ostracod species (Eucypris sp.) to agricultural pesticides (a cypermethrin-based insecticide and a glyphosate herbicide-based formulation). Lethal concentrations (LC [...] Read more.
Ostracoda species are indicators of their current and past environment (paleoenvironment). The study aims to evaluate the acute and chronic sensitivities of a freshwater ostracod species (Eucypris sp.) to agricultural pesticides (a cypermethrin-based insecticide and a glyphosate herbicide-based formulation). Lethal concentrations (LC50) of each pesticide for the species at 24 and 48 h were determined. The chronic exposure allowed assessing the effects of low concentrations of both pesticides; firstly, on the parthenogenetic reproduction of Eucypris sp., and, secondly, on its population growth. Then, individuals of Eucypris sp. were exposed to 0.536 ppb and 1.072 ppb of cypermethrin and 4.51 ppm and 9.03 ppm of glyphosate. These concentrations are respectively the 10%, and the 20% of the 48-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) of both pesticides for the species. The estimated 24-h LC50 of cypermethrin was 7.287 ppb. At 48-h, it was 5.361 ppb. For glyphosate, the 24-h LC50 was 50.521 ppm, while at 48-h it was 45.149 ppm. After 10 days of exposure to low concentrations of cypermehrin, only 30% of females reproduced parthenogenetically with 10% and 20% of LC50-48-h. For the control treatment, reproduction in 80% of females was observed. Eucypris sp. population growth after 28 days of exposure to low concentrations of cypermethrin showed significant retardation. Regarding glyphosate chronic exposure, 60%, 50%, and 90% of individuals were able to reproduce at 10% of LC50-48-h, 20% LC50-48-h, and the control treatment, respectively. The population growth was also affected by the tested low concentrations of glyphosate. The study showed high sensitivity of Eucypris sp. to cypermethrin compared to glyphosate. However, low concentrations of both pesticides affected the species at individual and population level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Risk Assessment Processes and Ecotoxicology)
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Article
Statistical Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Salmon Oil via Enzymatic Transesterification: Investigation of the Effects of Various Operational Parameters
Processes 2021, 9(4), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040700 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
The enzymatic transesterification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) oil was carried out using Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase from Candida antartica) to produce biodiesel. A response surface modelling design was performed to investigate the relationship between biodiesel yield and several critical [...] Read more.
The enzymatic transesterification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) oil was carried out using Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase from Candida antartica) to produce biodiesel. A response surface modelling design was performed to investigate the relationship between biodiesel yield and several critical factors, including enzyme concentration (5, 10, or 15%), temperature (40, 45, or 50 °C), oil/alcohol molar ratio (1:3, 1:4, or 1:5) and time (8, 16, or 24 h). The results indicated that the effects of all the factors were statistically significant at p-values of 0.000 for biodiesel production. The optimum parameters for biodiesel production were determined as 10% enzyme concentration, 45 °C, 16 h, and 1:4 oil/alcohol molar ratio, leading to a biodiesel yield of 87.23%. The step-wise addition of methanol during the enzymatic transesterification further increased the biodiesel yield to 94.5%. This is the first study that focused on Atlantic salmon oil-derived biodiesel production, which creates a paradigm for valorization of Atlantic salmon by-products that would also reduce the consumption and demand of plant oils derived from crops and vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Purification of Bioactive Compounds)
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Article
The Reversion of DNA Methylation at Coronary Heart Disease Risk Loci in Response to Prevention Therapy
Processes 2021, 9(4), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040699 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 578
Abstract
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is preventable, but the methods for assessing risk and monitoring response rely on imprecise lipid-based assessments. Recently, we have shown that an integrated genetic–epigenetic test that includes three methylation-sensitive digital PCR assays predicts 3-year risk for incident CHD better [...] Read more.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is preventable, but the methods for assessing risk and monitoring response rely on imprecise lipid-based assessments. Recently, we have shown that an integrated genetic–epigenetic test that includes three methylation-sensitive digital PCR assays predicts 3-year risk for incident CHD better than lipid-based methods. However, whether methylation sites change in response to therapies that alter CHD risk is not known. Therefore, we assessed methylation at these three incident CHD-related sites in DNA from 39 subjects before and after three months of biochemically verified smoking cessation, then analyzed the relationship between change in methylation at each of the sites to the change in smoking intensity as assessed by cg05575921 methylation. We found that, in those who quit smoking, methylation change at one CHD risk marker (cg00300879) was significantly associated with change in cg05575921 methylation (p < 0.04). We conclude that changes in incident CHD-related methylation occur within three months of cessation of smoking, a major risk factor for CHD. This suggests that the effectiveness of treatment of other CHD risk factors, such as high cholesterol, may be similarly quantifiable using epigenetic approaches. Further studies to determine the relationship of changes of methylation status in response to treatment of other CHD risk factors are indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Materials and Procedures for Precision Medicine)
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Article
Simulation of Diffusion Processes in Chemical and Thermal Processing of Machine Parts
Processes 2021, 9(4), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040698 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
To solve a number of technological issues, it is advisable to use mathematical modeling, which will allow us to obtain the dependences of the influence of the technological parameters of chemical and thermal treatment processes on forming the depth of the diffusion layers [...] Read more.
To solve a number of technological issues, it is advisable to use mathematical modeling, which will allow us to obtain the dependences of the influence of the technological parameters of chemical and thermal treatment processes on forming the depth of the diffusion layers of steels and alloys. The paper presents mathematical modeling of diffusion processes based on the existing chemical and thermal treatment of steel parts. Mathematical modeling is considered on the example of 38Cr2MoAl steel after gas nitriding. The gas nitriding technology was carried out at different temperatures for a duration of 20, 50, and 80 h in the SSHAM-12.12/7 electric furnace. When modeling the diffusion processes of surface hardening of parts in general, providing a specifically given distribution of nitrogen concentration over the diffusion layer’s depth from the product’s surface was solved. The model of the diffusion stage is used under the following assumptions: The diffusion coefficient of the saturating element primarily depends on temperature changes; the metal surface is instantly saturated to equilibrium concentrations with the saturating atmosphere; the surface layer and the entire product are heated unevenly, that is, the product temperature is a function of time and coordinates. Having satisfied the limit, initial, and boundary conditions, the temperature distribution equations over the diffusion layer’s depth were obtained. The final determination of the temperature was solved by an iterative method. Mathematical modeling allowed us to get functional dependencies for calculating the temperature distribution over the depth of the layer and studying the influence of various factors on the body’s temperature state of the body. Full article
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