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Chemosensors, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2022) – 31 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cellulose, the most abundant biobased polymer on earth, is considered the highest hallmark for green materials due to its inexhaustibility, lack of toxicity, biocompatibility, and renewability. Thanks to its unique nanoarchitecture, physicochemical properties, and ease on functionalization and formulation, cellulose stands out as a powerful alternative to replace petroleum-based polymers in the development of high-performance (bio)sensors, spanning from optical to electrochemical sensors. The fascinating properties of cellulose and cellulose derivatives are reviewed here, highlighting why this material is suitable to develop sensors and biosensors for detecting varied analytes and physical changes. View this paper
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13 pages, 2736 KiB  
Article
Model Development for Alcohol Concentration in Exhaled Air at Low Temperature Using Electronic Nose
by Lidong Tan, Jiexi Wang, Guiyou Liang, Zongwei Yao, Xiaohui Weng, Fangrong Wang and Zhiyong Chang
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090375 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Driving safety issues, such as drunk driving, have drawn a lot of attention since the advent of shared automobiles. We used an electronic nose (EN) detection device as an onboard system for shared automobiles to identify drunk driving. The sensors in the EN, [...] Read more.
Driving safety issues, such as drunk driving, have drawn a lot of attention since the advent of shared automobiles. We used an electronic nose (EN) detection device as an onboard system for shared automobiles to identify drunk driving. The sensors in the EN, however, can stray in cold winter temperatures. We suggested an independent component analysis (ICA) correction model to handle the data collected from the EN in order to lessen the impact of low temperature on the device. Additionally, it was contrasted with both the mixed temperature correction model and the single temperature model. As samples, alcohol mixed with concentrations of 0.1 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L were tested at (20 ± 2) °C, (−10 ± 2) °C, and (−20 ± 2) °C. The results showed that the ICA correction model outperformed the other models with an accuracy of 1, precision of 1, recall of 1, and specificity of 1. As a result, this model can be utilized to lessen the impact of low temperature on the EN’s ability to detect the presence of alcohol in the driver’s inhaled gas, strongly supporting its use in car-sharing drink driving. Other ENs that need to function in frigid conditions can also use this technique. Full article
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15 pages, 3706 KiB  
Article
Chitosan Homogenizing Coffee Ring Effect for Soil Available Potassium Determination Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
by Xiaolong Li, Rongqin Chen, Zhengkai You, Tiantian Pan, Rui Yang, Jing Huang, Hui Fang, Wenwen Kong, Jiyu Peng and Fei Liu
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090374 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
In order to rationally apply potassium fertilizer, it is very important to realize the rapid and accurate evaluation of soil available potassium (K). Conventional methods are time-consuming, consumables-consuming and laborious. A high-efficiency method was proposed in this study to meet the demand for [...] Read more.
In order to rationally apply potassium fertilizer, it is very important to realize the rapid and accurate evaluation of soil available potassium (K). Conventional methods are time-consuming, consumables-consuming and laborious. A high-efficiency method was proposed in this study to meet the demand for rapid evaluation, including rapid extraction, uniform evaporation and LIBS detection. To shorten the extraction time, we increased the oscillation frequency and removed the operation of dry filtration. Compared with the conventional extraction method of the Chinese national standard (CNS), the extraction time was reduced from 30 min to 2 min. In addition, we developed a uniform evaporation method for liquid–solid transformation on the batch-detection fixed area aluminum substrate. This method reduced the moisture interference. At the same time, increasing the liquid viscosity and restricting the liquid area and shape could reduce the coffee ring effect (CRE). The determination coefficient of the calibration curve by our method was 0.99, and the limit of quantitation reached 0.8 mg/kg. Real soil samples were taken as validation, and the average relative error between our method and the CNS method was 3.58%. The results indicate that our method combined with LIBS technology could provide a fast and accurate evaluation of soil available K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy)
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13 pages, 5898 KiB  
Article
Solvent Effect on the Synthesis of Oleylamine Modified Au Nanoparticles and Their Self-Assembled Film for SERS Substrate
by Junfang Hao, Min He, Bin Liu and Jianhui Yang
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090373 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
The preparation and self-assembling of monodisperse gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is of great significance for its SERS application. According to the oleylamine-reduced method, oleylamine (OAm) serves as the reducing agent and stabilizing agent, and the effects of different reaction parameters such as solvent [...] Read more.
The preparation and self-assembling of monodisperse gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is of great significance for its SERS application. According to the oleylamine-reduced method, oleylamine (OAm) serves as the reducing agent and stabilizing agent, and the effects of different reaction parameters such as solvent and temperature on the size and dispersity of Au NPs have been evaluated. The Au NPs synthesized with toluene as the solvent have the best dispersity and narrowest particle size distribution with adjustable sizes. The particle size gradually increases with the increase in reaction temperature. The highly ordered self-assembly film of Au NPs was employed as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for the probing molecule of rhodamine 6G. The Au substrate exhibits excellent spatial uniformity and SERS reproducibility, which indicates its practicability as a substrate. This study provides a simple synthesis strategy of highly ordered monodispersed Au NPs, which can serve as a SERS substrate with excellent spatial uniformity and SERS re-producibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites for SERS Sensing)
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10 pages, 1779 KiB  
Article
Self-Assembly of Ultrathin Nickel Oxysulfide for Reversible Gas Sensing at Room Temperature
by Nam Ha, Kai Xu, Yinfen Cheng, Rui Ou, Qijie Ma, Yihong Hu, Vien Trinh, Guanghui Ren, Hao Yu, Lei Zhang, Xiang Liu, Jiaru Zhang, Zhong Li and Jian Zhen Ou
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090372 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) or ultrathin metal sulfides have been emerging candidates in developing high-performance gas sensors given their physisorption-dominated interaction with target gas molecules. Their oxysulfide derivatives, as intermediates between oxides and sulfides, were recently demonstrated to have fully reversible responses at room temperature [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional (2D) or ultrathin metal sulfides have been emerging candidates in developing high-performance gas sensors given their physisorption-dominated interaction with target gas molecules. Their oxysulfide derivatives, as intermediates between oxides and sulfides, were recently demonstrated to have fully reversible responses at room temperature and long-term device stability. In this work, we explored the micro-scale self-assembly of ultrathin nickel oxysulfide through the calcination of nickel sulfide in a controllable air environment. The thermal treatment resulted in the replacement of most S atoms in the Ni-S frameworks by O atoms, leading to the crystal phase transition from original hexagonal to orthorhombic coordination. In addition, the corresponding bandgap was slightly expanded by ~0.15 eV compared to that of pure nickel sulfide. Nickel oxysulfide exhibited a fully reversible response towards H2 at room temperature for concentrations ranging from 0.25% and 1%, without the implementation of external stimuli such as light excitation and voltage biasing. The maximum response factor of ~3.24% was obtained at 1% H2, which is at least one order larger than those of common industrial gases including CH4, CO2, and NO2. Such an impressive response was also highly stable for at least four consecutive cycles. This work further demonstrates the great potential of metal oxysulfides in room-temperature gas sensing. Full article
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16 pages, 3901 KiB  
Article
Effects of Viscosity and Salt Interference for Planar Iridium Oxide and Silver Chloride pH Sensing Electrodes on Flexible Substrate
by Khengdauliu Chawang, Sen Bing and Jung-Chih Chiao
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090371 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
The equivalency of pH measurements between aqueous and non-aqueous or viscous solutions is of great interest in biomedical applications as well for processing food and pharmaceuticals. Commercial glass-type electrodes have practical limitations, such as bulky sizes and membrane clogging in viscous environments. In [...] Read more.
The equivalency of pH measurements between aqueous and non-aqueous or viscous solutions is of great interest in biomedical applications as well for processing food and pharmaceuticals. Commercial glass-type electrodes have practical limitations, such as bulky sizes and membrane clogging in viscous environments. In this study, planar and flexible electrochemical pH sensors with iridium oxide as the sensing film have been developed by sol-gel and oxidation processes. A reference electrode was prepared by screen printing Ag/AgCl ink on the same polyimide substrate. The small form factors of the planar flexible electrodes provide an advantage in small volume or conformal surface measurements. Cyclic voltammetry was performed in different pH solutions. The electrode originally produced a response of −70.1 mV/pH at room temperature in aqueous solutions. The sensitivities were reduced when salt was added into the buffer solutions, although output potentials were increased. Sensing performances in a wide range of viscous conditions with various concentrations of added salt have been analyzed to study their effects on pH-sensing responses. Suitable calibration techniques using aqueous buffer solutions were studied for output potentials and their respective pH readings in viscous salt-added solutions. The mechanisms affecting output potentials are explained and results matched well for two different thickening agents. Specificity to pH changes measured by the planar IrOx-Ag/AgCl pH electrodes showed how the potential-pH calibration should consider the interference effect of salt. The viscosity effects on pH reading errors became more pronounced as solution viscosity increased. Comparisons of pH readings to those from a commercial glass-bodied pH meter indicated that the planar electrodes provided predictable pH deviations that were confined to a limited range. The planar IrOx-Ag/AgCl electrodes on flexible polyimide substrates have mostly been demonstrated with aqueous solutions in various diagnostic and environmental monitoring applications. This work provides more insights into pH sensing performance when the fluid is viscous and contains salt, which often is the case in biomedical and food-processing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection pH Sensors, Biosensors and Systems)
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10 pages, 2936 KiB  
Article
Elemental Analysis of V, Mo, Cr, Mn, Al, Ni, and Cu in Steel Alloy with Femtosecond Laser Ablation Spark-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
by Xiaoyong He, Qi Yang, Dongxiong Ling, Dongshan Wei and Hongcheng Wang
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090370 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Femtosecond laser ablation spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (fs LA-SIBS) was developed to quantitatively analyze vanadium, molybdenum, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, and copper in a steel alloy. In the experiment, a femtosecond laser operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz was used as the [...] Read more.
Femtosecond laser ablation spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (fs LA-SIBS) was developed to quantitatively analyze vanadium, molybdenum, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, and copper in a steel alloy. In the experiment, a femtosecond laser operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz was used as the laser ablation source, and spark discharge was utilized to re-excite the plasma and enhance the atomic intensity. A compact fiber spectrometer was used to record and analyze the plasma emission spectra in a nongated signal-recording mode. The calibration curves of V, Mo, Cr, Mn, Al, Ni, and Cu elements in steel alloy samples were established, and the detection limits of these elements were determined to be 10.9, 12.6, 4.0, 5.7, 8.7, 7.9, and 3.1 ppm with fs LA-SIBS, respectively, which were 4–12-fold better than those achieved with femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (fs LIBS). Compared with conventional LIBS, the fs LA-SIBS technique provided a rapid and high spatial resolution approach to quantitative elemental analysis, with better analytical sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy)
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12 pages, 4930 KiB  
Article
Thermal, Physical, and Optical Properties of the Solution and Melt Synthesized Single Crystal CsPbBr3 Halide Perovskite
by Kirti Agrawal, Syed Mohammad Abid Hasan, Joanna Blawat, Nishir Mehta, Yuming Wang, Rafael Cueto, Miriam Siebenbuerger, Orhan Kizilkaya, Narasimha S. Prasad, James Dorman, Rongying Jin and Manas Ranjan Gartia
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090369 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
Inorganic lead-halide perovskite, cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3), shows outstanding optoelectronic properties. Both solution- and melt-based methods have been proposed for CsPbBr3 crystal growth. The solution-based growth was done at low-temperature, whereas the melt-based growth was done at high-temperature. However, the [...] Read more.
Inorganic lead-halide perovskite, cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3), shows outstanding optoelectronic properties. Both solution- and melt-based methods have been proposed for CsPbBr3 crystal growth. The solution-based growth was done at low-temperature, whereas the melt-based growth was done at high-temperature. However, the comparison of optical, physical, and defect states using these two different growth conditions has been scarcely studied. Here, we have compared the thermal and optical properties of solution-grown and melt-grown single crystals of CsPbBr3. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) analysis showed that melt-grown crystal has a relatively smaller number of defects than the chemical synthesis method. In addition, crystals grown using the chemical method showed a higher fluorescence lifetime than melt-grown CsPbBr3. Full article
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11 pages, 2527 KiB  
Article
Mo2C-Based Microfluidic Gas Sensor Detects SF6 Decomposition Components: A First-Principles Study
by Li Liu, Guozhi Zhang, Zengting Wang, Jiawei Yuan, Senyuan Tan and Yi Li
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090368 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Mo2C is a two-dimensional material with high electrical conductivity, low power consumption, and catalytic effect, which has promising applications in the field of microfluidic gas detection. First principles were used to study the adsorption characteristics of Mo2C monolayer on [...] Read more.
Mo2C is a two-dimensional material with high electrical conductivity, low power consumption, and catalytic effect, which has promising applications in the field of microfluidic gas detection. First principles were used to study the adsorption characteristics of Mo2C monolayer on four typical decomposition gases of SF6 (H2S, SO2, SOF2, and SO2F2), and to explore the feasibility of its application in the detection of SF6 decomposition components. The results showed that Mo2C chemisorbed all four gases, and the adsorption capacity was H2S < SO2 < SOF2 < SO2F2. The adsorption mechanism of Mo2C as a microfluidic sensor was analyzed in combination with its charge-density difference and density of states. On the other hand, the different work-function change trends after adsorbing gases provide the possibility for Mo2C to selectively detect gases as a low-power field-effect transistor sensor. All content can be used as theoretical guidance in the realization of Mo2C as a gas-sensitive material for the detection of SF6 decomposition components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application and Advance of Gas Sensors)
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29 pages, 9263 KiB  
Review
Nanocomposites of Carbon Quantum Dots and Graphene Quantum Dots: Environmental Applications as Sensors
by Ajaypal Kaur, Komal Pandey, Ramandeep Kaur, Nisha Vashishat and Manpreet Kaur
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090367 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5784
Abstract
Carbon-based quantum dots and their nanocomposites have sparked immense interest for researchers as sensors due to their attractive physico-chemical properties caused by edge effects and quantum confinement. In this review article, we have discussed the synthesis and application of nanocomposites of graphene quantum [...] Read more.
Carbon-based quantum dots and their nanocomposites have sparked immense interest for researchers as sensors due to their attractive physico-chemical properties caused by edge effects and quantum confinement. In this review article, we have discussed the synthesis and application of nanocomposites of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and carbon quantum dots (CQDs). Different synthetic strategies for CQDs, GQDs, and their nanocomposites, are categorized as top-down and bottom-up approaches which include laser ablation, arc-discharge, chemical oxidation, ultrasonication, oxidative cleavage, microwave synthesis, thermal decomposition, solvothermal or hydrothermal method, stepwise organic synthesis, carbonization from small molecules or polymers, and impregnation. A comparison of methodologies is presented. The environmental application of nanocomposites of CQDs/GQDs and pristine quantum dots as sensors are presented in detail. Their applications envisage important domains dealing with the sensing of pollutant molecules. Recent advances and future perspective in the use of CQDs, GQDs, and their nanocomposites as sensors are also explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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14 pages, 4752 KiB  
Article
Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles Based on Anthracene and Tetraphenylethene for Nitroaromatics Detection in Aqueous Phase
by Tianwen Ouyang, Xue Guo, Qihao Cui, Wei Zhang, Wenyue Dong and Teng Fei
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090366 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
The sensitive and selective detection of nitroaromatic explosives is of great significance to national security and human health. Herein, the novel linear polymer l-PAnTPE and cross-linked polymer PAnTPE nanoparticles based on anthracene and tetraphenylethene groups were designed and successfully synthesized via Suzuki-miniemulsion [...] Read more.
The sensitive and selective detection of nitroaromatic explosives is of great significance to national security and human health. Herein, the novel linear polymer l-PAnTPE and cross-linked polymer PAnTPE nanoparticles based on anthracene and tetraphenylethene groups were designed and successfully synthesized via Suzuki-miniemulsion polymerization. The particle sizes of the polymers are around 73 nm, making them well dispersible in water. The cross-linked polymer PAnTPE exhibits porous structure, which is beneficial for the diffusion/adsorption of analytes. The fluorescence sensing towards nitroaromatics was performed in the aqueous phase, and l-PAnTPE and PAnTPE nanoparticles showed different quenching degree towards different nitroaromatics. Among them, the quenching constant KSV values of l-PAnTPE and PAnTPE towards 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) reach 1.8 × 104 M−1 and 4.0 × 104 M−1, respectively, which are 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other nitroaromatic explosives, thus demonstrating the high sensitivity and selectivity of TNP detection in the aqueous phase. The sensing mechanism was further discussed to clarify this phenomenon by analyzing UV–Vis absorption, excitation, fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammograms and fluorescence decay measurements. In addition, the paper strips tests exhibit that l-PAnTPE and PAnTPE have great potential in the application of fast, low-cost and on-site nitroaromatics detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fluorescence Sensing)
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21 pages, 6013 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Organized Mesoporous Carbon and Laccase for the Detection of Serotonin in Food Supplements
by Dorin Dăscălescu and Constantin Apetrei
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090365 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Serotonin is a biogenic amine that has multiple roles in the human body and is mainly known as the happiness hormone. A new laccase (Lac)-based biosensor has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of serotonin in three dietary supplements from three [...] Read more.
Serotonin is a biogenic amine that has multiple roles in the human body and is mainly known as the happiness hormone. A new laccase (Lac)-based biosensor has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of serotonin in three dietary supplements from three different manufacturers. The enzyme was immobilized on an organized mesoporous carbon-modified carbon screen-printed electrode (OMC-SPE) by the drop-and-dry method, the active surface being pretreated with glutaraldehyde. With the new biosensor, serotonin was selectively detected from different solutions. Square-wave voltammetry was the technique used for the quantitative determination of serotonin, obtaining a detection limit value of 316 nM and a quantification limit value of 948 nM in the linearity range of 0.1–1.2 µM. The pH for the determinations was 5.2; at this value, the biocatalytic activity of the laccase was optimal. At the same time, the electrochemical performance of the OMC-SPE/Lac biosensor was compared with that of the unmodified sensor, a performance that highlighted the superiority of the biosensor and the very important role of the enzyme in electrodetection. The results obtained from the quantitative determination of serotonin by square-wave voltammetry were compared with those from the FTIR method, revealing a very good correlation between the results obtained by the two quantitative determination methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltammperometric Sensors)
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11 pages, 3236 KiB  
Article
Influence of Positive Ion (Al3+, Sn4+, and Sb5+) Doping on the Basic Resistance and Sensing Performances of ZnO Nanoparticles Based Gas Sensors
by Peng Zhang, Shuang Cao, Ning Sui, Yifeng Xu, Tingting Zhou, Yuan He and Tong Zhang
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090364 - 10 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Despite potential advantages of metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs)-based gas sensors, the limitation of very high baseline resistance is still unsatisfactory for practical application. By means of element doping, the performance of metal oxide materials used as gas sensors can be optimized. Herein, different [...] Read more.
Despite potential advantages of metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs)-based gas sensors, the limitation of very high baseline resistance is still unsatisfactory for practical application. By means of element doping, the performance of metal oxide materials used as gas sensors can be optimized. Herein, different cations (Al3+, Sn4+, and Sb5+) doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and used as the acetone sensing materials. Results show that the resistance of sensors based on Sn4+ doped ZnO was significantly reduced (from 5.18 to 0.28 MΩ) at 270 °C without sacrificing the acetone sensing responses. In addition, the gas sensor also exhibited the fast response/recovery time (1/10 s) and great long-term stability. The electron compensation and improved adsorbing oxygen ability for the Sn4+ doped ZnO nanoparticles contributed to the relatively low resistance and enhanced acetone sensing performances. Full article
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22 pages, 2092 KiB  
Review
Electrochemical Sensors and Their Applications: A Review
by Jaya Baranwal, Brajesh Barse, Gianluca Gatto, Gabriela Broncova and Amit Kumar
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090363 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 128 | Viewed by 33332
Abstract
The world of sensors is diverse and is advancing at a rapid pace due to the fact of its high demand and constant technological improvements. Electrochemical sensors provide a low-cost and convenient solution for the detection of variable analytes and are widely utilized [...] Read more.
The world of sensors is diverse and is advancing at a rapid pace due to the fact of its high demand and constant technological improvements. Electrochemical sensors provide a low-cost and convenient solution for the detection of variable analytes and are widely utilized in agriculture, food, and oil industries as well as in environmental and biomedical applications. The popularity of electrochemical sensing stems from two main advantages: the variability of the reporting signals, such as the voltage, current, overall power output, or electrochemical impedance, and the low theoretical detection limits that originate from the differences in the Faradaic and nonFaradaic currents. This review article attempts to cover the latest advances and applications of electrochemical sensors in different industries. The role of nanomaterials in electrochemical sensor research and advancements is also examined. We believe the information presented here will encourage further efforts on the understanding and progress of electrochemical sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Detection: Analytical and Biological Challenges)
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15 pages, 3701 KiB  
Article
Highly Specific Silver Ion Detection by Fluorescent Carbon Quantum Dots
by Lorenzo Gontrani, Elvira Maria Bauer, Alessandro Nucara, Pietro Tagliatesta and Marilena Carbone
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090362 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots are easily obtainable nanomaterials endowed with remarkable fluorescence properties for the detection of contaminations by heavy metals. In this report, we show that nanometric particles with high specificity for silver cations can be prepared by hydrothermal synthesis starting from [...] Read more.
Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots are easily obtainable nanomaterials endowed with remarkable fluorescence properties for the detection of contaminations by heavy metals. In this report, we show that nanometric particles with high specificity for silver cations can be prepared by hydrothermal synthesis starting from citric and folic acid solutions. Solutions of these N-CQDs give a strong fluorescence emission in the violet region (385 nm) when excited at 330 nm, which can be quenched selectively by silver (I) cations at sub-nanomolar concentrations, while other cations do not give any effect. This remarkable feature was tentatively correlated with the stronger interactions between silver ion and small portions of the nanomaterial surface by comparing Ag+ and the isoelectronic Cd2+. Full article
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15 pages, 5339 KiB  
Article
Spinel Magnesium Ferrite (MgFe2O4): A Glycine-Assisted Colloidal Combustion and Its Potentiality in Gas-Sensing Application
by Digambar Nadargi, Ahmad Umar, Jyoti Nadargi, Jayvant Patil, Imtiaz Mulla, Sheikh Akbar and Sharad Suryavanshi
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090361 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
Herein, we describe the facile synthesis of spinel MgFe2O4 ferrite and its potential use as a gas sensor using a straightforward and reliable sol–gel approach, i.e., the glycine-assisted auto-combustion route. The novelty in obtaining the sensing material via the auto-combustion [...] Read more.
Herein, we describe the facile synthesis of spinel MgFe2O4 ferrite and its potential use as a gas sensor using a straightforward and reliable sol–gel approach, i.e., the glycine-assisted auto-combustion route. The novelty in obtaining the sensing material via the auto-combustion route is its inherent simplicity and capability to produce the material at an industry scale. The said cost-effective process makes use of simple metal salts (Mg and Fe-nitrates) and glycine in an aqueous solution, which leads to the formation of spinel MgFe2O4 ferrite. A single-phase crystallinity with crystallite sizes ranging between 36 and 41 nm was observed for the synthesized materials using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The porous morphologies of the synthesized materials caused by auto-ignition during the combustion process were validated by the microscopic investigations. The EDS analysis confirmed the constituted elements such as Mg, Fe, and O, without any impurity peaks. The gas-sensing ability of the synthesized ferrites was examined to detect various reducing gases such as LPG, ethanol, acetone, and ammonia. The ferrite showed the highest response (>80%) toward LPG with the response and recovery times of 15 s and 23 s, respectively. Though the sensor responded low toward ammonia (~30%), its response and recovery times were very quick, i.e., 7 s and 9 s, respectively. The present investigation revealed that the synthesized ferrite materials are good candidates for fabricating high-performance sensors for reducing gases in real-world applications. Full article
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10 pages, 2388 KiB  
Communication
Poly(acrylic acid)/Dipeptide Double-Network Hydrogel to Achieve a Highly Stretchable Strain Sensor
by Xin Luo, Boya Ding and Xingcen Liu
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090360 - 09 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Flexible and stretchable strain sensors can be applied for human health monitoring and disease diagnoses via the output of multiple biophysical signals. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate short-peptide-based strain sensors. Here, we prepared a novel polymer-dipeptide double-network hydrogel with excellent [...] Read more.
Flexible and stretchable strain sensors can be applied for human health monitoring and disease diagnoses via the output of multiple biophysical signals. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate short-peptide-based strain sensors. Here, we prepared a novel polymer-dipeptide double-network hydrogel with excellent stretchability, responsiveness, and stability. The poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) gel, by cross-linking, maintains mechanical and flexible properties, and the fluorenyl methoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) network, by non-covalent interactions, is helpful for energy dissipation. With increasing tensile or compression strains, the PAA/Fmoc-FF hydrogel exhibited a high mechanical strength and fast recovery. Moreover, as the presence of KCl improves the electronic conductivity, the hybrid gel exhibited a cyclic strain-stress performance, which is the foundation of a strain sensor. Based on that, its application as a motion sensor was demonstrated by monitoring the movements of human joints, such as the forefinger, wrist, elbow, and knee. Consequently, the hybrid polymer-peptide gel could be an ideal candidate for wearable sensors in the future. Full article
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16 pages, 17014 KiB  
Article
Pd@Pt Nanodendrites as Peroxidase Nanomimics for Enhanced Colorimetric ELISA of Cytokines with Femtomolar Sensitivity
by Zhuangqiang Gao, Chuanyu Wang, Jiacheng He and Pengyu Chen
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090359 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
Colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been widely applied as the gold-standard method for cytokine detection for decades. However, it has become a critical challenge to further improve the detection sensitivity of ELISA, as it is limited by the catalytic activity of enzymes. [...] Read more.
Colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been widely applied as the gold-standard method for cytokine detection for decades. However, it has become a critical challenge to further improve the detection sensitivity of ELISA, as it is limited by the catalytic activity of enzymes. Herein, we report an enhanced colorimetric ELISA for ultrasensitive detection of interleukin-6 (IL-6, as a model cytokine for demonstration) using Pd@Pt core@shell nanodendrites (Pd@Pt NDs) as peroxidase nanomimics (named “Pd@Pt ND ELISA”), pushing the sensitivity up to femtomolar level. Specifically, the Pd@Pt NDs are rationally engineered by depositing Pt atoms on Pd nanocubes (NCs) to generate rough dendrite-like Pt skins on the Pd surfaces via Volmer–Weber growth mode. They can be produced on a large scale with highly uniform size, shape, composition, and structure. They exhibit significantly enhanced peroxidase-like catalytic activity with catalytic constants (Kcat) more than 2000-fold higher than those of horseradish peroxidase (HRP, an enzyme commonly used in ELISA). Using Pd@Pt NDs as the signal labels, the Pd@Pt ND ELISA presents strong colorimetric signals for the quantitative determination of IL-6 with a wide dynamic range of 0.05–100 pg mL−1 and an ultralow detection limit of 0.044 pg mL−1 (1.7 fM). This detection limit is 21-fold lower than that of conventional HRP-based ELISA. The reproducibility and specificity of the Pd@Pt ND ELISA are excellent. More significantly, the Pd@Pt ND ELISA was validated for analyzing IL-6 in human serum samples with high accuracy and reliability through recovery tests. Our results demonstrate that the colorimetric Pd@Pt ND ELISA is a promising biosensing tool for ultrasensitive determination of cytokines and thus is expected to be applied in a variety of clinical diagnoses and fundamental biomedical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress of Nanomaterials for Colorimetric Sensing)
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18 pages, 2633 KiB  
Article
Sustainable PVP-Capped Silver Nanoparticles as a Free-Standing Nanozyme Sensor for Visual and Spectrophotometric Detection of Hg2+ in Water Samples: A Green Analytical Method
by Mohamed A. Abdel-Lateef, Albandary Almahri, Eman Alzahrani, Rami Adel Pashameah, Ahmed A. Abu-Hassan and Mohamed A. El Hamd
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090358 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
In the proposed method, microwave-assist heating and AgNO3/trisodium citrate were used to create the polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) sensor. This sensor had a peroxidase-like activity that could catalytically oxidize O-phenylenediamine (OPD, colourless) into 2,3-diaminophenazine (ox-OPD, greenish-yellow colour) in the presence of H [...] Read more.
In the proposed method, microwave-assist heating and AgNO3/trisodium citrate were used to create the polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) sensor. This sensor had a peroxidase-like activity that could catalytically oxidize O-phenylenediamine (OPD, colourless) into 2,3-diaminophenazine (ox-OPD, greenish-yellow colour) in the presence of H2O2, otherwise, in the presence of Hg2+, this pass has been effectively inhibited. The degree of colour fading was directly correlated with Hg2+ concentration. These results indicated the selectivity of Hg2+ ions toward PVP-AgNPs after establishing the PVP-AgNPs/OPD/H2O2 system. This selectivity was proved by the negative results obtained from other mon-, di-, and trivalent ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+, instead of Hg2+. Consequently, a reliable, selective, and eco-effective spectrophotometric approach was designed for the detection of Hg2+ in various types of water samples. LOD was extended to lower than 0.1 µM, and a fading in the obtained colour was shown by the naked eye at a concentration higher than 1.5 µM of Hg2+. The elemental details for preparing the used PVP-AgNPs, such as particle size, morphology, polydispersity index (PdI), and their UV-visible spectrum, were identified by SEM technique, TEM, UV-visible spectrophotometer, and zeta-sizer device. Thus, the peroxidase mimicking the activity of OPD/H2O2 was confirmed by a fluorescence technique. The greenness profile of this work was confirmed after applying a reported assessment tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Methods, Instrumentation and Miniaturization)
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12 pages, 2513 KiB  
Article
Polyethylenimine-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Determination of Caffeic Acid in Aromatic Herbs
by Felipe Zamarchi, Tânia Regina Silva, João Paulo Winiarski, Edson Roberto Santana and Iolanda Cruz Vieira
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090357 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2140
Abstract
An electrochemical sensor based on carbon paste modified with polyethyleneimine was developed and employed for the determination of caffeic acid in aromatic herbs. The sensor was prepared by mixing polyethylenimine (1.5% v/v), graphite powder, and mineral oil. The polyethylenimine-based electrode [...] Read more.
An electrochemical sensor based on carbon paste modified with polyethyleneimine was developed and employed for the determination of caffeic acid in aromatic herbs. The sensor was prepared by mixing polyethylenimine (1.5% v/v), graphite powder, and mineral oil. The polyethylenimine-based electrode showed an enhancement of charge transfer at the electrode–solution interface and a higher current intensity for the electrochemical reaction of caffeic acid, in comparison to the unmodified electrode. The calibration plot of caffeic acid constructed in 0.1 mol L−1 acetate buffer (pH 5.0) by square wave voltammetry was linear in the range of 1.25 to 19.9 μmol L−1 with a limit of detection of 0.13 μmol L−1, respectively. Finally, the proposed sensor was employed to monitor the caffeic acid with accuracy in dried Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis samples, with recovery results from 93 to 105%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltammperometric Sensors)
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9 pages, 1631 KiB  
Communication
Polymer-Based High Diffraction Efficiency and High Resolution Volume Holographic Transmission Gratings
by Riccardo Castagna, Andrea Di Donato, Oriano Francescangeli and Daniele Eugenio Lucchetta
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090356 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
We report on the optical characterization of very high-efficiency and high-resolution holographic volume phase transmission gratings. The gratings are recorded in a new photo-polymerizable mixture made by epoxy-resin and multi-acrylate. The epoxy-resin used is known to make tenacious acrylate-based films. The holographic mixture [...] Read more.
We report on the optical characterization of very high-efficiency and high-resolution holographic volume phase transmission gratings. The gratings are recorded in a new photo-polymerizable mixture made by epoxy-resin and multi-acrylate. The epoxy-resin used is known to make tenacious acrylate-based films. The holographic mixture contains two photo-initiators, the synergic effect of which enables a reliable photo-polymerization process in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The recorded holograms are mechanically stable, show long-term temporal stability and very high values of diffraction efficiency, coupled with good angular selectivity due to a relatively narrow band of wavelengths. We measured the intensity of the transmitted beam and calculated the intensity of the diffracted beam at different wavelengths, deriving the refractive index modulation and the grating pitch by fitting the experimental data with a slightly modified theoretical approach. These kind of mixtures can be used in several fields of application, such as chemical or bio-sensors, high resolution optical sensors, high-density optical data storage, encryption and security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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29 pages, 2584 KiB  
Review
A Critical Review of the Use of Graphene-Based Gas Sensors
by Aniket Chakraborthy, Suresh Nuthalapati, Anindya Nag, Nasrin Afsarimanesh, Md. Eshrat E Alahi and Mehmet Ercan Altinsoy
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090355 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3420
Abstract
The employment of graphene for multifunctional uses has been a cornerstone in sensing technology. Due to its excellent electrochemical properties, graphene has been used in its pure and composite forms to detect target molecules over a wide range of surfaces. The adsorption process [...] Read more.
The employment of graphene for multifunctional uses has been a cornerstone in sensing technology. Due to its excellent electrochemical properties, graphene has been used in its pure and composite forms to detect target molecules over a wide range of surfaces. The adsorption process on the graphene-based sensors has been studied in terms of the change in resistance and capacitance values for various industrial and environmental applications. This paper highlights the performance of graphene-based sensors for detecting different kinds of domestic and industrial gases. These graphene-based gas sensors have achieved enhanced output in terms of sensitivity and working range due to specific experimental parameters, such as elevated temperature, presence of particular gas-specific layers and integration with specific nanomaterials that assist with the adsorption of gases. The presented research work has been classified based on the physical nature of graphene used in conjugation with other processed materials. The detection of five different types of gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ethanol (C2H5OH) has been shown in the paper. The challenges of the current graphene-based gas sensors and their possible remedies have also been showcased in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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9 pages, 3592 KiB  
Communication
Highly Photostable and pH−Sensitive Nanosensors
by Zhenzhen Lin, Fang Hu, Gang He, Youjun Yang, Yujun Liao, Xiao Luo and Xu-Dong Wang
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090354 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Determination of pH values has a vital influence in many chemical and biological processes. To accurately determine pH values, we fabricated a highly photostable ratiometric fluorescent pH−sensitive nanosensor by staining the core of mesoporous silica nanoparticle with a rhodol dye and chemically labelling [...] Read more.
Determination of pH values has a vital influence in many chemical and biological processes. To accurately determine pH values, we fabricated a highly photostable ratiometric fluorescent pH−sensitive nanosensor by staining the core of mesoporous silica nanoparticle with a rhodol dye and chemically labelling its outer shell with a rhodamine derivative dye. The two dyes possess opposite pH−responding directions, which increases the band of the signal change. There is a nine−fold change in fluorescence intensity ratios when the solution pH changes from 3.0 and 9.0. Meanwhile, the nanosensors displayed yellowish emission in low pH value, orange emission in mid pH value, and reddish emission in high pH value, which can be readily inspected by bare eyes. Last but not least, excellent photostability and reversibility features make the nanosensors useful for the continuous measuring of pH with high accuracy. Full article
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14 pages, 4415 KiB  
Article
Hydrothermal Synthesis and Annealing Effect on the Properties of Gas-Sensitive Copper Oxide Nanowires
by Martha Claros, Isabel Gràcia, Eduard Figueras and Stella Vallejos
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090353 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
In this study, we report a straightforward and reproducible hydrothermal synthesis of copper oxide nanowires, their morphological and chemical characterization, and their application in gas sensing. Results show that the hydrothermal process is mainly influenced by the reaction time and the concentration of [...] Read more.
In this study, we report a straightforward and reproducible hydrothermal synthesis of copper oxide nanowires, their morphological and chemical characterization, and their application in gas sensing. Results show that the hydrothermal process is mainly influenced by the reaction time and the concentration of the reducing agent, demonstrating the synthesis of fine and long nanowires (diameter of 50–200 nm and length of 25 µm) after 10 h of reaction with 0.1 M of pyrrole. Two different annealing temperatures were tested (205 and 450 °C) and their effect on the morphology, chemical composition, and crystal size of the nanowires was analyzed by SEM, XPS, and XRD techniques, respectively. The analysis shows that the Cu2+ oxidation state is mainly obtained at the higher annealing temperature, and the nanowires’ shape suffers a transformation due to the formation of agglomerated crystallites. The gas sensing tests for acetone, ethanol, toluene, and carbon monoxide show preferential response and sensitivity to acetone and ethanol over the other analytes. The annealing temperature proves to have a higher influence on the stability of the nanowires than on their gas sensitivity and selectivity, showing better medium-term stability for the nanowires annealed at 450 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanostructures for Chemical Sensing)
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34 pages, 4970 KiB  
Review
Cellulose-Based Functional Materials for Sensing
by Valeria Gabrielli and Marco Frasconi
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090352 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4965
Abstract
The growing bioeconomic demand for lightweight materials with combined sustainability, large-scale production, ease in functionalization and competitive mechanical properties has seen the revival of cellulose as a scaffold for several applications. In particular, due to its multifunctional features, cellulose has found application in [...] Read more.
The growing bioeconomic demand for lightweight materials with combined sustainability, large-scale production, ease in functionalization and competitive mechanical properties has seen the revival of cellulose as a scaffold for several applications. In particular, due to its multifunctional features, cellulose has found application in sensor and biosensor fabrication. Nonetheless, the great variety of cellulose properties and formulations makes the choice of the best suited cellulose-based material for a specific sensing strategy a difficult task. This review offers a critical discussion and guide for the reader towards the understanding of which of the multiple cellulose derivatives and properties can be exploited for the optimal performance of the desired sensing device. We introduce the unique molecular structure, nanoarchitecture and main properties of cellulose and its derivatives. The different functionalization approaches for anchoring receptors on cellulose derivatives and the processing methodologies for fabricating cellulose-based sensors are explored. As far as the use and performance of cellulose-based functional materials in sensors is concerned, we discuss the recent advances of optical and electrochemical sensors and biosensors for biomedical and environmental monitoring. Full article
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17 pages, 1798 KiB  
Article
Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping (AGNES): An Electroanalytical Technique for Chemical Speciation: A Tutorial Review
by Lucía López-Solis, Josep Galceran, Jaume Puy and Encarna Companys
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090351 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Free metal ion concentrations of amalgamating elements such as Zn, Cd, In, or Pb can be determined with absence of gradients and Nernstian equilibrium stripping(AGNES) in a variety of matrices, ranging from seawater to wine or dissolving nanoparticles. In this hands-on paper, we [...] Read more.
Free metal ion concentrations of amalgamating elements such as Zn, Cd, In, or Pb can be determined with absence of gradients and Nernstian equilibrium stripping(AGNES) in a variety of matrices, ranging from seawater to wine or dissolving nanoparticles. In this hands-on paper, we review the fundamental concepts and provide the practical steps to implement AGNES, including ready-to-run files for the software controlling the potentiostat, computation spreadsheets, step-by-step laboratory protocols, etc. Two case studies with a free Zn concentration determination are discussed: (i) a synthetic solution with the ligand oxalate and (ii) a natural sample of the Segre river (Catalonia, Spain). Suggestions for the extension of AGNES to other systems are indicated. Full article
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15 pages, 5515 KiB  
Article
On the Spectral Identification and Wavelength Dependence of Rare-Earth Ore Emission by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
by Muhammad Sher Afgan, Zongyu Hou, Weiran Song, Jiachen Liu, Yuzhou Song, Weilun Gu and Zhe Wang
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090350 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
The increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) requires faster analysis techniques for their rapid exploration. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has on-site and real time analysis capability. However, interference and the weaker emission of minor REEs are key challenges for the complex REE [...] Read more.
The increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) requires faster analysis techniques for their rapid exploration. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has on-site and real time analysis capability. However, interference and the weaker emission of minor REEs are key challenges for the complex REE emission spectra. Using simulations and experimental results, we presented essential principles for improved line identification in the transient spectra of complicated samples, such as those of REE ores (e.g., monazite). Knowledge of plasma conditions, spectral collection setup, and capability of the spectral system are key parameters to consider for the identification of an emission line in such spectra. Furthermore, emission intensity dependence on laser wavelength was analyzed for major and minor REEs using IR (1064 nm), visible (532 nm) and UV (266 nm) irradiation. A higher plasma temperature was found with the IR laser, while stronger material ablation was observed by UV irradiation. Higher particle density by UV laser ablation was the key factor in the higher signal intensity of the minor elements, and this laser can improve the emission signals for LIBS use as an REE analyzer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy)
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13 pages, 7230 KiB  
Article
Effects of Thermal Oxidation on Sensing Properties of Porous Silicon
by Nikola Baran, Sanja Renka, Matea Raić, Davor Ristić and Mile Ivanda
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090349 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
We report the effects of thermal oxidation on the sensing properties of porous silicon. Porous silicon substrates were prepared by electrochemical etching and thermally oxidized at different temperatures. A comparative EDS analysis shows that porous surfaces oxidized at higher temperatures have higher oxygen-to-silicon [...] Read more.
We report the effects of thermal oxidation on the sensing properties of porous silicon. Porous silicon substrates were prepared by electrochemical etching and thermally oxidized at different temperatures. A comparative EDS analysis shows that porous surfaces oxidized at higher temperatures have higher oxygen-to-silicon ratios. Our results indicate that the chemoresistive response due to the presence of isopropanol vapors at room temperature also increases with an increasing oxidation temperature. The presence of oxygen atoms in the PS layer could both protect the sensor from further atmospheric oxidation and increase its sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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14 pages, 2186 KiB  
Article
Malachite Green Optical Sensor Based on Electrospun Polyimide Nanofiber
by Fernando L. A. de Souza, Célia Gomes Amorim, Alberto da Nova Araújo, Dalibor Šatínský, Ana Paula Silveira Paim and Maria Conceição B. S. M. Montenegro
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090348 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Malachite green (MG) is a triphenylmethane cationic dye used in aquaculture practice, although it has been banned in several countries. The illegal use by fish producers, however, persists due to its effectiveness, and ready and cheap supply. To prevent indiscriminate applications, strict control [...] Read more.
Malachite green (MG) is a triphenylmethane cationic dye used in aquaculture practice, although it has been banned in several countries. The illegal use by fish producers, however, persists due to its effectiveness, and ready and cheap supply. To prevent indiscriminate applications, strict control measures with simple analytical approaches are therefore necessary. With this purpose, a novel, cheap and simple method applying electrospun polyimide nanofibers was developed and validated for MG control in water by color image analysis. For detection, a simple apparatus and ImageJ® software to treat images captured by common smartphones were used. A detection limit of 0.013 mg/L with a linear analytical response range within the concentration of 0.05 to 0.3 mg/ L of malachite green (MG) with a correlation coefficient of 0.997 and standard deviation (n = 9) varying from 1.01 to 3.92% was achieved with the proposed method. Accuracy was assessed by recovery assays in water samples and percentages of 96.6 to 102.0% were obtained. The method is robust and suitable for the rapid and reliable monitoring of MG in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Methods, Instrumentation and Miniaturization)
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15 pages, 7805 KiB  
Article
High-Temperature-Sensing Smart Bolt Based on Indium Tin Oxide/In2O3 Thin-Film Thermocouples with Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Superalloy via Screen Printing
by Zhongkai Zhang, Jiangjiang Liu, Rongfu Cai, Zhaojun Liu, Jiaming Lei, Ruolin Sun, Ningning Wu, Na Zhao, Bian Tian and Libo Zhao
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090347 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
In this study, thin-film thermocouples (TFTCs) were combined with a smart bolt to design a smart bolt that can directly test high temperature in service monitoring and parameter calculation for gas turbine structure design. The first-principles calculation was used to analyze the design [...] Read more.
In this study, thin-film thermocouples (TFTCs) were combined with a smart bolt to design a smart bolt that can directly test high temperature in service monitoring and parameter calculation for gas turbine structure design. The first-principles calculation was used to analyze the design of the surface properties of nickel-based alloys and insulating layers, and finite element analysis was used to optimize dimension parameters by controlling the thermal stress matching of insulating layers and sensitive layers. The effect of the glass powder with different particle sizes on the microstructure of the ITO and In2O3 films was studied via SEM. The preferred particle size of the additive glass powder is 400 nm. The XRD pattern shows the (222) peak has the highest intensity. The intensities of the (222) and (622) peaks increase after the heat treatment. The calibration results show that the average Seebeck coefficient of the TFTCs can reach 64.9 μV/°C at 1100 °C with a maximum voltage of 71.4 mV. The repeatability error of the cycles of the sensor after heat treatment is ±1.05%. The repeatability of the sensor is up to 98.95%. The smart bolts were tested for application in small aero engines. It can be seen that under the impact of 1000 °C, the thermal response of the prepared smart bolt is better than that of the K-type armored thermocouple, and the thermal balance is achieved faster. The intelligent bolt sensor proposed in this work has better engineering application prospects owing to its convenience of installation in harsh environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Materials for Sensing, Imaging and Energy Conversion/Storage)
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11 pages, 5481 KiB  
Article
Ba-Modified ZnO Nanorods Loaded with Palladium for Highly Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Methane at Low Temperatures
by Yijing Cai, Shirui Luo, Renjie Chen, Junxia Yu and Lan Xiang
Chemosensors 2022, 10(9), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10090346 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Exploring novel sensing materials to rapidly identify CH4 at low temperatures is crucial for various practical applications. Herein, a novel ZnO-xBa/Pd with Ba of cocatalyst loading from 0 to 2.0 wt% was facilely prepared using a two-step impregnation method to improve the [...] Read more.
Exploring novel sensing materials to rapidly identify CH4 at low temperatures is crucial for various practical applications. Herein, a novel ZnO-xBa/Pd with Ba of cocatalyst loading from 0 to 2.0 wt% was facilely prepared using a two-step impregnation method to improve the sensitivity of the CH4 gas sensor. The microstructure, chemical states of the elements, and surface properties of ZnO-Ba/Pd were characterized, and the gas-sensitive performance of ZnO-Ba/Pd sensors was investigated. Compared to methane sensors based on other inorganic and organic material sensors, the sensor based on ZnO-1.0Ba/Pd exhibited a faster response/recovery time (1.4 s/8.3 s) and higher response (368.2%) for 5000 ppm CH4 at a lower temperature (170 °C). Moreover, the ZnO-1.0Ba/Pd sensor exhibited full reversibility and long-term stability, as well as excellent selectivity at 170 °C. The excellent performance of the ZnO-Ba/Pd sensor was attributed to the electron donation by Ba, which increases the electron density around Pd, thus enhancing the catalytic activity of Pd and promoting oxygen adsorption on the ZnO surface. The present work provides a method for the rational design and synthesis of sensitive materials in practical CH4 detection. Full article
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