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Healthcare, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2021) – 153 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study analyzes the temporal dynamics of public sentiment toward COVID-19 vaccines in the US. It demonstrates that despite increasing numbers of Americans being fully vaccinated, negative sentiment toward COVID-19 vaccines persists. This study employs sentiment analytics on vaccine tweets, monitors changes in public sentiment over time, discusses public opinion trends based on tweets’ synthesis, contrasts vaccination sentiment scores with actual vaccination data from CDC-USA and the Household Pulse Survey (HPS), explores the influence of maturity of Twitter user accounts, and generates geographic mapping of tweet sentiments by states. Additionally, the researchers leverage the emotional polarity-based Public Sentiment Scenarios (PSS) framework to posit implications for the development of public policy for pandemic management. View this paper.
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Article
Current Understanding of Pain Neurophysiology among Physiotherapists Practicing in Saudi Arabia
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091242 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
To ensure the effective management of patients’ pain, it is important that physiotherapists have a good understanding of the neuroscience behind pain. A major barrier to adequate pain management is that, for patients, there is limited access to clinicians who are knowledgeable about [...] Read more.
To ensure the effective management of patients’ pain, it is important that physiotherapists have a good understanding of the neuroscience behind pain. A major barrier to adequate pain management is that, for patients, there is limited access to clinicians who are knowledgeable about pain. This study examined the level of knowledge regarding pain neurophysiology among physiotherapists currently practicing in Saudi Arabia. Method: The study was a cross-sectional web-based survey that utilized the 12-item Revised Neurophysiology of Pain Questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe levels of knowledge regarding pain neurophysiology and to examine differences in knowledge based on the characteristics of the participating physiotherapists (gender, educational level, experience, practice region, and country where their highest educational level was attained). Results: One hundred and eleven physiotherapists (58.6% male) from various regions and educational backgrounds participated in the study. Out of a maximum Revised Neurophysiology of Pain Questionnaire score of 12, the mean ± standard deviation (SD) was 6.7 ± 2.2; 90% of physiotherapists scored 9 (75%) or less. None of the examined characteristics of the participants were associated with knowledge. Conclusion: Physiotherapists in Saudi Arabia showed limited knowledge of the neurophysiology of pain; however, this was not related to the personal characteristics that were examined. The continuation of education in modern pain science is recommended for physiotherapists, especially those dealing with patients suffering from chronic pain. Clinical Relevance: The physiotherapists who took part in this study displayed limited knowledge of pain neuroscience; this limited knowledge might suggest the need for a more bio-anatomical approach to pain management. There is a need for tailored medical education to address pain neuroscience knowledge in current physiotherapist practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Problems for Managing Chronic Pain)
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Article
A Retrospective Study on the Factors Associated with Long-Stay Hospitalization in a Child Neuropsychiatry Unit
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091241 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 288
Abstract
The past twenty years have seen a rapid increase in acute psychiatric symptoms in children and adolescents, with a subsequent rise in the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. This paper aims to: (a) describe the epidemiology of hospitalizations and some of the clinical and [...] Read more.
The past twenty years have seen a rapid increase in acute psychiatric symptoms in children and adolescents, with a subsequent rise in the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. This paper aims to: (a) describe the epidemiology of hospitalizations and some of the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of pediatric patients admitted to a regional referral Complex Operative Child Neuropsychiatry Hospital Unit in Northeast Italy and (b) identify potential factors correlated with the length of hospital stay. Methods: 318 (M = 12.8 years; SD = 3.11; 72% Female) patients hospitalized for mental health disorders from 2013 to 2019. Results: Around 60% of hospital admissions occurred via the emergency room, mostly due to suicidal ideation and/or suicide attempts (24%). Affective disorders were the most frequent discharge diagnosis (40%). As for factors correlated with length of hospital stay, we found significant links with chronological age, way of hospital admission, cause of admission, discharge diagnosis, presence of psychiatric comorbidity, family conflict, and psychiatric family history. Conclusions: These results provide information about global characteristics associated with the length of psychiatric hospital stays in pediatric patients and provide a basis on which specific precautions can be hypothesized with the aim of developing more focused treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child and Adolescent Health: Challenges and Perspectives)
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Article
Breast Cancer and p16: Role in Proliferation, Malignant Transformation and Progression
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091240 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
The definition of new molecular biomarkers could provide a more reliable approach in predicting the prognosis of invasive breast cancers (IBC). The aim of this study is to analyze the expression of p16 protein in IBC, as well as its participation in malignant [...] Read more.
The definition of new molecular biomarkers could provide a more reliable approach in predicting the prognosis of invasive breast cancers (IBC). The aim of this study is to analyze the expression of p16 protein in IBC, as well as its participation in malignant transformation. The study included 147 patients diagnosed with IBC. The presence of non-invasive lesions (NIL) was noted in each IBC and surrounding tissue. p16 expression was determined by reading the percentage of nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression in epithelial cells of IBC and NIL, but also in stromal fibroblasts. Results showed that expression of p16 increases with the progression of cytological changes in the epithelium; it is significantly higher in IBC compared to NIL (p < 0.0005). Cytoplasmic p16 expression is more prevalent in IBC (76.6%), as opposed to nuclear staining, which is characteristic of most NIL (21.1%). There is a difference in p16 expression between different molecular subtypes of IBC (p = 0.025). In the group of p16 positive tumors, pronounced mononuclear infiltrates (p = 0.047) and increased expression of p16 in stromal fibroblasts (p = 0.044) were noted. In conclusion, p16 protein plays an important role in proliferation, malignant transformation, as well as in progression from NIL to IBC. Full article
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Article
Effect of Triweekly Interdental Brushing on Bleeding Reduction in Adults: A Six-Month Retrospective Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091239 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
This study assessed the effect of triweekly interdental brushing for a period of 6 months using the bleeding on full-mouth interdental brushing (BOFIB) index. All participants answered questionnaires and were instructed to clean all interdental areas using an interdental brush at least every [...] Read more.
This study assessed the effect of triweekly interdental brushing for a period of 6 months using the bleeding on full-mouth interdental brushing (BOFIB) index. All participants answered questionnaires and were instructed to clean all interdental areas using an interdental brush at least every second day. A dentist assessed the BOFIB index of 28 participants at baseline and at 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. We stratified the participants into three groups: IB-NN, those who used the interdental brush less than three times per week both before and after this program; IB-NY, those who used the interdental brush less than three times per week before the program but at least three times per week after the program; and IB-YY, those who used it at least three times per week both before and after the program. Owing to the weekly number of interdental brushings, the IB-YY and the other two groups showed a significant difference at baseline. At the 6-month follow-up, the weekly number of interdental brushings led to a significant difference between the IB-NN and the other two groups. The BOFIB index was lower among the compliant participants than among the noncompliant participants after 3 and 6 months of triweekly interdental brushing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare and Prevention during the Pandemic)
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Article
Mediating Effects of Emotion Regulation between Socio-Cognitive Mindfulness and Achievement Emotions in Nursing Students
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091238 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Background: Mindfulness is known as an effective emotion regulation strategy and is beneficial for improving emotions. While meditative mindfulness has been widely studied, socio-cognitive mindfulness has received little attention in nursing literature, despite its potential benefits to the field. This study investigated relationships [...] Read more.
Background: Mindfulness is known as an effective emotion regulation strategy and is beneficial for improving emotions. While meditative mindfulness has been widely studied, socio-cognitive mindfulness has received little attention in nursing literature, despite its potential benefits to the field. This study investigated relationships between nursing students’ socio-cognitive mindfulness, emotion regulation (reappraisal and suppression), and achievement emotions, and explored the mediating effects of emotion regulation. Methods: A total of 459 nursing students from three universities in Korea completed the questionnaire measuring the study variables. Structural equation modeling and path analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses. Results: Socio-cognitive mindfulness was found to positively influence reappraisal while negatively influencing suppression. Additionally, socio-cognitive mindfulness positively predicted positive achievement emotions but negatively predicted negative emotions. Reappraisal positively influenced positive emotions, whereas suppression positively influenced negative emotions. Furthermore, reappraisal mediated the link between mindfulness and positive emotions, and suppression mediated the link between mindfulness and negative emotions. Conclusions: Socio-cognitive mindfulness may be effective in regulating emotions among nursing students by enhancing reappraisal and reducing suppression. Mediating effects highlight the relevance of students’ emotion regulation in nursing education, suggesting the need to develop emotion regulation education programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mindfulness in Healthcare)
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Article
What Are the Factors Associated with Nonadherence to Medications in Patients with Chronic Diseases?
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091237 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 743
Abstract
Introduction: Adherence to medications is very crucial for an optimized clinical outcome in the management of chronic diseases. Beliefs about medications and other factors can significantly affect adherence to chronic medications. The objective of the present research was to identify the associated [...] Read more.
Introduction: Adherence to medications is very crucial for an optimized clinical outcome in the management of chronic diseases. Beliefs about medications and other factors can significantly affect adherence to chronic medications. The objective of the present research was to identify the associated factors of adherence to medication in Jordanian patients with chronic diseases utilizing a stepwise binary logistical regression model. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 2018 and March 2020. The participants were reached from secondary and tertiary care setting clinics in Jordan. The recruited patients were asked to report their attitudes of adherence to medications and beliefs about medications via filling out the MARS-5 and BMQ-specific tools. Sociodemographic data were also collected from the recruited patients and included in the regression model. A stepwise binary logistical regression model was applied to identify the associated factors of adherence to chronic medications in the tested sample. Results: A total of 485 patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. The mean age of the participants was 57.14 (age ranged from 22 to 82 years). Around 39% of the participants were older than 65 years. Most of the patients were either hypertensive or diabetic (35.7% and 32.2%, respectively). The logistic regression model indicated that necessity beliefs are strongly associated with adherence (OR 4.22), while concerns beliefs, dosage frequency and having medical insurance were negatively associated with adherence (OR 0.73, 0.74 and 0.26, respectively), with a p-value ≤ 0.05. Conclusions: Both the MARS-5 and BMQ-specific questionnaires were applied successfully on the tested sample. Better attention should be paid to the logistic regression model variables that were associated with adherence in order to guarantee optimal treatment outcomes in the treatment of chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medication Adherence and Beliefs About Medication)
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Article
Socioeconomic Impact of Recurrent Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: Should Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery Be Considered at First Episode of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax?
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091236 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Background: Current guidelines recommend video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for recurrent primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) and for cases with persistent air leak after chest tube treatment. The socioeconomic impact of recurrent PSP on the healthcare system is insufficiently reported. Methods: Ninety-six patients treated for [...] Read more.
Background: Current guidelines recommend video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for recurrent primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) and for cases with persistent air leak after chest tube treatment. The socioeconomic impact of recurrent PSP on the healthcare system is insufficiently reported. Methods: Ninety-six patients treated for PSP between 01/2010 and 01/2020 were included. Forty-eight patients underwent primary VATS, while the second group received chest tube (CT) treatment only. Length of hospital stay (LOS), duration of chest tube, prolonged air leak, postoperative complications, recurrences and treatment costs were analyzed. Results: Prolonged air leaks were evident in 12.5% and 22.9% patients of the VATS and CT group, respectively. Ten (20.8%) patients in the CT group underwent VATS for persistent air leakage. During follow-up, the VATS group recurred at 8.3% compared to 52.1% in the CT group. The total cost of treatment per patient, including treatment cost due to recurrence, was EUR 1.501 in the VATS group and EUR 2.233 in the CT group. Conclusions: Primary treatment of PSP by CT is associated with an increased socioeconomic burden for patients and the healthcare system due to high recurrence rates. This burden may be reduced if VATS is considered at the first episode of PSP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthcare Quality and Patient Safety)
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Article
Impact of Oxygen Concentration Delivered via Nasal Cannula on Different Lung Conditions: A Bench Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091235 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Background: Measuring the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) is challenging in spontaneously breathing patients with impaired respiratory mechanics during low-flow nasal cannula. Our study investigates the FiO2 with varied tidal volume (VT) and respiratory rate (RR) among different [...] Read more.
Background: Measuring the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) is challenging in spontaneously breathing patients with impaired respiratory mechanics during low-flow nasal cannula. Our study investigates the FiO2 with varied tidal volume (VT) and respiratory rate (RR) among different lung mechanics and provides equations to estimate the FiO2. Methods: Two training and test lungs were used in this study, and the three lung mechanics (normal (R5/C60), restrictive (R20/C80), obstructive (R5/C40)) were designed. Spontaneous breathing with VT (300, 500, and 700 mL) and RR (10, 20, and 30 breaths/min) was simulated. The flow rate of the nasal cannula was set to 1, 3, and 5 L per minute (LPM), and the FiO2 was measured at the carina. Results: The lowest and highest FiO2 were evident during high (700 mL) and low VT (300 mL), respectively, among normal, restrictive, and obstructive lung models. As RR increases, this decreases the FiO2. However, we found that VT and oxygen flow rate are the principal factors influencing measured FiO2 by multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the actual FiO2 is never as high in spontaneously breathing patients as that estimated. VT and oxygen flow rate had a substantial impact on the FiO2. Full article
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Article
The Effect of an Alternative Swimming Learning Program on Skills, Technique, Performance, and Salivary Cortisol Concentration at Primary School Ages Novice Swimmers
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091234 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 505
Abstract
The playful training method shows positive effects on sports learning, thus the aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two different swimming learning programs. In an 8-week intervention with a training frequency of three times per week, 23 healthy [...] Read more.
The playful training method shows positive effects on sports learning, thus the aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two different swimming learning programs. In an 8-week intervention with a training frequency of three times per week, 23 healthy primary school-aged novice swimmers (13 boys, 10 girls) aged 9.0 ± 0.9 participated. They were split into control (CG) and alternative (AG) groups and evaluated on skills (Start, Sink), backstroke (BK) and breaststroke (BR) technique, performance (Skills time, Kicks Time), and salivary cortisol concentration. According to the results, “Start” had a greater percentage of success in AG, at the first (CG = 9.1% vs. AG = 58.3%, p = 0.027) and third (CG = 63.6% vs. AG = 100%, p = 0.037) measurement. Additionally, greater scores were found in technique for AG in both BK (p = 0.009, η2 = 0.283) and BR (p = 0.020, η2 = 0.231). Salivary cortisol concentration was decreased for both groups (p < 0.001) and greater in CG at the second measurement (p < 0.001). The alternative swimming learning program was found to be more efficient or equally effective, compared with the standardized method in-water skills, swimming technique and performance, and in salivary cortisol concentration. Full article
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Article
Exploring Barriers and Facilitators of Adherence to Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Children in Freetown, Sierra Leone
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091233 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Medication adherence is an essential step in the malaria treatment cascade. We conducted a qualitative study embedded within a randomized controlled trial comparing the adherence to the recommended dosing of two artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to treat uncomplicated malaria in Freetown, Sierra Leone. [...] Read more.
Medication adherence is an essential step in the malaria treatment cascade. We conducted a qualitative study embedded within a randomized controlled trial comparing the adherence to the recommended dosing of two artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to treat uncomplicated malaria in Freetown, Sierra Leone. This study explored the circumstances and factors that influenced caregiver adherence to the ACT prescribed for their child in the trial. In-depth interviews were conducted with 49 caregivers; all interviews were recorded, transcribed, and translated. Transcripts were coded and aggregated into themes, applying a thematic content approach. We identified four key factors that influenced optimal treatment adherence: (1) health system influences, (2) health services, (3) caregivers’ experiences with malaria illness and treatment, and (4) medication characteristics. Specifically, caregivers reported confidence in the health system as facilities were well maintained and care was free. They also felt that health workers provided quality care, leading them to trust the health workers and believe the test results. Ease of medication administration and perceived risk of side effects coupled with caregivers’ prior experience treating malaria influenced how medications were administered. To ensure ACTs achieve maximum effectiveness, consideration of these contextual factors and further development of child-friendly antimalarials are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medication Adherence and Beliefs About Medication)
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Article
The Rural Nursing Workforce Hierarchy of Needs: Decision-Making concerning Future Rural Healthcare Employment
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091232 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Addressing nursing shortages in rural areas remains essential, and attracting nursing graduates is one solution. However, understanding what factors are most important or prioritized among nursing students contemplating rural employment remains essential. The study sought to understand nursing student decision-making and what aspects [...] Read more.
Addressing nursing shortages in rural areas remains essential, and attracting nursing graduates is one solution. However, understanding what factors are most important or prioritized among nursing students contemplating rural employment remains essential. The study sought to understand nursing student decision-making and what aspects of a rural career need to be satisfied before other factors are then considered. A cross-sectional study over three years at an Australian university was conducted. All nursing students were invited to complete a Nursing Community Apgar Questionnaire to examine their rural practice intentions. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis, and mean scores for each component were calculated and ranked. Overall, six components encompassed a total of 35 items that students felt were important to undertake rural practice after graduating. Clinical related factors were ranked the highest, followed by managerial, practical, fiscal, familial, and geographical factors. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs provided a lens to examine nursing student decision-making and guided the development of the Rural Nursing Workforce Hierarchy of Needs model. Each element of the model grouped key factors that students considered to be important in order to undertake rural employment. In culmination, these factors provide a conceptual model of the hierarchy of needs that must be met in order to contemplate a rural career. Full article
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Article
Factors Affecting Attitudes towards Older People in Undergraduate Nursing Students
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091231 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Background: The population of older people is increasing worldwide. The social and healthcare systems need many nurses to care for the elderly. Positive attitudes increase the preference to work with older people and improve the quality of care. This study describes attitudes towards [...] Read more.
Background: The population of older people is increasing worldwide. The social and healthcare systems need many nurses to care for the elderly. Positive attitudes increase the preference to work with older people and improve the quality of care. This study describes attitudes towards the elderly in a sample of nursing students, and analyzes the potential factors influencing these attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in nursing students during the academic course 2017–2018. Kogan’s Attitude Toward Old People Scale was used to assess student attitudes towards older people. Results: The study included 377 undergraduate nursing students, of which 75.9% were women. The mean age was 22.23 (5.69) years. Attitude proved positive, with a mean Kogan’s score of 131.04 (12.66). Women had higher scores than men, with a mean difference of 7.76 (95% CI: 4.87–10.66; p < 0.001). The male sex, age ≥ 25 years, and previous experience with institutionalized older adults worsened attitudes, while studying the subject of geriatrics, each higher course within the degree, work placements in hospitals and nursing homes, and previous experience with community older adults or with older relatives favored a more positive attitude. Participants with no interest in working with older adults yielded lower scores. Conclusions: Attitudes towards the elderly among nursing students are positive. Women have a more positive attitude. Analyzing the factors that improve attitudes in nursing students is suggested, as it may contribute to improve nursing care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nursing)
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Article
Effects of Adherence to Pharmacological Treatment on the Recovery of Patients with Schizophrenia
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091230 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adherence to antipsychotic treatment on the recovery of patients with schizophrenia in northern Chile. One hundred and fifty-one patients diagnosed with schizophrenia completed the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10), Positive and Negative Syndrome [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adherence to antipsychotic treatment on the recovery of patients with schizophrenia in northern Chile. One hundred and fifty-one patients diagnosed with schizophrenia completed the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS), Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS-24), sociodemographic information, and clinical and treatment characteristics of patients with schizophrenia. Multivariate analysis with multiple linear regression was then performed to identify variables that were potentially associated with the recovery assessment (variable criterion). A significant association was found between adherence to antipsychotic medication and the Willing to Ask for Help dimension of Recovery (β = 0.239, p = 0.005). Association of clinical and socio-demographic variables with recovery were identified: negative symptoms with Personal Confidence and Hope (β = −0.341, p = 0.001) and Goal and Success Orientation (β = −0.266, p = 0.014); cognitive symptoms with Willing to Ask for Help (β = −0.305, p = 0.018) and no domination by symptoms (β = −0.351, p = 0.005); marital status with reliance on others (β = −0.181, p = 0.045); age with Personal Confidence and Hope (β = −0.217, p = 0.021), Goal and Success Orientation (β = −0.296, p = 0.003), and no domination by symptoms (β = 0.214, p = 0.025). Adherence has a positive relationship with personal recovery in this sample of Chilean patients with schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medication Adherence and Beliefs About Medication)
Article
Dietary Diversity as a Risk Factor for Obesity in Algerian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091229 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Although the incidence of “diabesity” (coexistence of type 2 diabetes and obesity) is alarmingly increasing in Algeria, the diet–diabesity link has not been well defined. This study aimed to explore the association between dietary diversity score (DDS) and obesity among Algerian type 2 [...] Read more.
Although the incidence of “diabesity” (coexistence of type 2 diabetes and obesity) is alarmingly increasing in Algeria, the diet–diabesity link has not been well defined. This study aimed to explore the association between dietary diversity score (DDS) and obesity among Algerian type 2 diabetic patients. It was a cross-sectional observational study involving 390 type 2 diabetic patients. Anthropometric data were gathered, and dietary intake information was obtained through a 24-h dietary recall method, which was used to calculate DDS. Potential confounders such as age, sex, smoking, physical activity and energy intake were controlled for using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 160 patients (41.3%) were classified as obese. As expected, obese patients had a higher body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat and fat mass index. Furthermore, obese patients more frequently met carbohydrate recommendations and had a higher intake of meat and protein. Female sex, hypertension, low physical activity and high meat and protein intake were positively associated with diabesity. Additionally, higher DDS was positively associated with diabesity after adjusting for confounders. Thus, a more diversified diet may be a risk factor for obesity among Algerian type 2 diabetic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Use of Computer-Based Scenarios for Clinical Teaching: Impact on Nursing Students’ Decision-Making Skills
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091228 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
Computer-based learning has numerous advantages. It gives students the chance to accommodate and solve problems independently, it can increase motivation during the learning process, and it offers students direct feedback. Students will also receive an authentic learning experience, increasing their level of knowledge [...] Read more.
Computer-based learning has numerous advantages. It gives students the chance to accommodate and solve problems independently, it can increase motivation during the learning process, and it offers students direct feedback. Students will also receive an authentic learning experience, increasing their level of knowledge retention. It can assist nursing educators in improving learning outcomes. Aim: This study aimed to investigate and evaluate the impact of computer-based scenarios on undergraduate nursing students’ decision-making skills. Sample: There was a total sample of 112 nursing students who were enrolled in a critical care nursing course at the College of Applied Medical Sciences in Saudi Arabia. These students were divided into two groups. Methods: The two groups were taught the same topic for one week. Two case scenarios were given to each group during the clinical rotation. The study group used the computer-based case scenario, and the control group used the paper-based case scenario. The two groups were compared regarding their decision-making skills. The student’s feedback about the computer-based case scenarios was also investigated. Results: The study group scored significantly higher in their decision-making skills when compared to the control group. In addition, the study group reported that they highly agreed that their general learning and specific nursing abilities improved after using computer-based case scenarios. Full article
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Article
Prevalence and Clustering of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Medical Staff in Northeast China
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091227 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Background: The clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors has become a major public health challenge worldwide. Although many studies have investigated CVD risk factor clusters, little is known about their prevalence and clustering among medical staff in Northeast China. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Background: The clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors has become a major public health challenge worldwide. Although many studies have investigated CVD risk factor clusters, little is known about their prevalence and clustering among medical staff in Northeast China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and clustering of CVD risk factors and to investigate the association between relevant characteristics and the clustering of CVD risk factors among medical staff in Northeast China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 3720 medical staff from 93 public hospitals in Jilin Province was used in this study. Categorical variables were presented as percentages and were compared using the χ2 test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between relevant characteristics and the clustering of CVD risk factors. Results: The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, being overweight, smoking, and drinking were 10.54%, 3.79%, 17.15%, 39.84%, 9.87%, and 21.75%, respectively. Working in a general hospital, male, and age group 18–44 years were more likely to have 1, 2, and ≥3 CVD risk factors, compared with their counterparts. In particular, compared with being a doctor, being a nurse or medical technician was less likely to have 1, 2, and ≥3 CVD risk factors only in general hospitals. Conclusions: The findings suggest that medical staff of general hospitals, males, and older individuals have a high chance associated with CVD risk factor clustering and that more effective interventions should be undertaken to reduce the prevalence and clustering of CVD risk factors, especially among older male doctors who work in general hospitals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety in the Healthcare Sector)
Article
Analysis of Factors Relevant to Revenue Improvement in Ventral Hernia Repair, Their Influence on Surgical Training, and Development of Predictive Models: An Economic Evaluation
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091226 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Background: Ventral hernia repairs (VHR) are frequent but loss- making. This study aims to identify epidemiological and procedure related factors in VHR and their influence on surgical training. Methods: Data from 86 consecutive patients who underwent VHR in 2019 was collected. Moreover, 66 [...] Read more.
Background: Ventral hernia repairs (VHR) are frequent but loss- making. This study aims to identify epidemiological and procedure related factors in VHR and their influence on surgical training. Methods: Data from 86 consecutive patients who underwent VHR in 2019 was collected. Moreover, 66 primary ventral hernias and 20 incisional hernias were repaired in open procedures. Linear regression models were made. Results: Primary VHR procedures showed a mean deficit of −378.17 CHF per case. Incisional hernia repair procedures resulted in a deficit of −1442.50 CHF per case. The two hernia groups were heterogeneous. For the primary VHR procedures, the surgery time (β = 0.564, p < 0.001) had the greatest influence, followed by the costs of the mesh (β = −0.215, p < 0.001). The epidemiological factors gender (β = 0.143, p < 0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (β = −0.087, p = 0.074) were also influential. For incisional hernia procedures a surgeon’s experience had the most significant influence (β = 0.942, p < 0.001), and the second largest influence was the price of the mesh (β = −0.500, p < 0.001). The epidemiological factor BMI (β = −0.590, p < 0.001), gender (β = −0.113, p = 0.055) and age (β = −0.026, p < 0.050) also had a significant influence. Conclusion: Our analysis shows a way of improving financial results in the field of ventral hernia repair. Costs can be visualized and reduced to optimize revenue enhancement in surgical departments. In our analysis primary ventral hernias are an appropriate training operation, in which the experience of the surgeon has no significant impact on costs. In primary VHR procedures, revenue enhancement is limited when using an expensive mesh. However, the treatment of incisional hernias is recommended by specialists. The financial burden is significantly higher with less experience. Therefore, these operations are not suitable for surgical training. The re-operation rate decreases with increasing experience of the surgeon. This directly affects the Patient Related Outcome (PROM) and quality of treatment. Therefore, high-quality training must be enforced. Since financial pressure on hospitals is increasing further, it is crucial to investigate cost influencing factors. The majority of Swiss public hospitals will no longer be able to operate ventral hernias profitably without new concepts. In addition to purchasing management, new construction projects, and mergers, improving the results of individual departments is a key factor in maintaining the profitability of hospitals in the future regarding hernia repair without losing the scope of teaching procedures. Full article
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Article
Content and Face Validation of a Novel, Interactive Nutrition Specific Physical Exam Competency Tool (INSPECT) to Evaluate Registered Dietitians’ Competence: A Delphi Consensus from the United States
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091225 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 921
Abstract
The nutrition-focused physical examination (NFPE) is an integral component of nutrition assessment performed by registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) to determine signs of malnutrition and other nutrition-related complications. Increased use of this essential skill among RDNs and the transformation of dietetics education to a [...] Read more.
The nutrition-focused physical examination (NFPE) is an integral component of nutrition assessment performed by registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) to determine signs of malnutrition and other nutrition-related complications. Increased use of this essential skill among RDNs and the transformation of dietetics education to a competency-based model in the near future calls for appropriately validated tools to measure RDNs’ NFPE competence. To fill the need for a validated competency tool, this study developed an Interactive Nutrition-Specific Physical Exam Competency Tool (INSPECT) utilizing the initial 70 items identified in the first phase of the study. The second phase of this study aimed to test the preliminary version of the INSPECT for content and face validity. An expert panel of 17 members provided consensus recommendations through the Delphi process. Internal consistency of the consensus was measured with Cronbach’s alpha (α) and α of ≥0.70 was defined as acceptable a priori. Inter-rater agreement among the expert panel was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and an a priori ICC of 0.75 to 0.9 was established as good and >0.9 as excellent agreement. The results showed acceptable face validity (α = 0.71) and excellent content validity for the INSPECT, with an internal consistency of α = 0.97 in the first round and α = 0.96 in the second round. The inter-rater agreement was also excellent with ICC = 0.95 for each of the Delphi rounds. A total of 52 items were retained from the preliminary version of the INSPECT. Open feedback from the experts allowed for the consolidation of 11 similar items for better scoring and evaluation and thus, a total of 41 items were included in the final version of the INSPECT. The final version of the INSPECT is currently being studied in real-life, multi-site clinical settings among practicing RDNs to examine construct validity, reliability, and item-level psychometric properties. Ultimately, the validated INSPECT will be available for the competency evaluation of RDNs practicing in clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Assessments)
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Article
An Ecological Study Assessing the Relationship between Public Health Policies and Severity of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091221 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Reliance on government-led policies have heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research on the policies associated with outcomes other than mortality rates remains warranted. We aimed to determine associations between government public health policies on the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. This ecological [...] Read more.
Reliance on government-led policies have heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research on the policies associated with outcomes other than mortality rates remains warranted. We aimed to determine associations between government public health policies on the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. This ecological study including countries reporting ≥25 daily COVID-related deaths until end May 2020, utilised public data on policy indicators described by the Blavatnik school of Government. Associations between policy indicators and severity of the pandemic (mean mortality rate, time to peak, peak deaths per 100,000, cumulative deaths after peak per 100,000 and ratio of mean slope of the descending curve to mean slope of the ascending curve) were measured using Spearman rank-order tests. Analyses were stratified for age, income and region. Among 22 countries, containment policies such as school closures appeared effective in younger populations (rs = −0.620, p = 0.042) and debt/contract relief in older populations (rs = −0.743, p = 0.009) when assessing peak deaths per 100,000. In European countries, containment policies were generally associated with good outcomes. In non-European countries, school closures were associated with mostly good outcomes (rs = −0.757, p = 0.049 for mean mortality rate). In high-income countries, health system policies were generally effective, contrasting to low-income countries. Containment policies may be effective in younger populations or in high-income or European countries. Health system policies have been most effective in high-income countries. Full article
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Article
Estimation of Human Mobility Patterns for Forecasting the Early Spread of Disease
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091224 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Human mobility data are indispensable in modeling large-scale epidemics, especially in predicting the spatial spread of diseases and in evaluating spatial heterogeneity intervention strategies. However, statistical data that can accurately describe large-scale population migration are often difficult to obtain. We propose an algorithm [...] Read more.
Human mobility data are indispensable in modeling large-scale epidemics, especially in predicting the spatial spread of diseases and in evaluating spatial heterogeneity intervention strategies. However, statistical data that can accurately describe large-scale population migration are often difficult to obtain. We propose an algorithm model based on the network science approach, which estimates the travel flow data in mainland China by transforming location big data and airline operation data into network structure information. In addition, we established a simplified deterministic SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered)-metapopulation model to verify the effectiveness of the estimated travel flow data in the study of predicting epidemic spread. The results show that individual travel distance in mainland China is mainly within 100 km. There is far more travel between prefectures within the same province than across provinces. The epidemic spatial spread model incorporating estimated travel data accurately predicts the spread of COVID-19 in mainland China. The results suggest that there are far more travelers than usual during the Spring Festival in mainland China, and the number of travelers from Wuhan mainly determines the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in each prefecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Modelling for Healthcare Evaluation: Second Edition)
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Article
Longitudinal Trends in Illness Perception and Depression during Adjuvant Breast Cancer Endocrine Therapy: A Prospective Observational Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091223 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 323
Abstract
This study aimed to identify the changes in the illness perceptions and depression of women with breast cancer, undergoing AET, at three time points (i.e., before initiating AET, 3 months follow-up, and 12 months follow-up). We investigated the interaction effects of their demographic [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify the changes in the illness perceptions and depression of women with breast cancer, undergoing AET, at three time points (i.e., before initiating AET, 3 months follow-up, and 12 months follow-up). We investigated the interaction effects of their demographic and clinical characteristics on illness perception changes over time. Furthermore, factors including the patient’s characteristics and illness perceptions associated with depressive symptoms 1 year after starting AET were explored. Illness perception and depressive symptoms were assessed with the brief illness perception questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, in a prospective study of 150 women. The changes in illness perceptions and depression between the three time points were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. The factors associated with depressive symptoms were identified using regression analysis. Illness perception improved overall over the 12 months. However, more patients perceived their illness as chronic, experienced more symptoms, and developed negative beliefs that treatment could not control their disease. Patients’ depressive symptoms decreased significantly. Depression at the baseline, cancer stage, and the perception of personal control were highly associated with depression after 12 months. These findings suggest that healthcare providers should offer appropriate interventions to patients, for managing symptoms, having a positive belief that treatment can control their disease, and preventing long-term depressive symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women Health)
Commentary
Organizational Strategies for the Management of Intravenous Iron Therapy in Non-Hospitalized Settings: A Safe Opportunity to Implement Patient Blood Management in Italy
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091222 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
This article analyzes the recommendations issued by the Emilia Romagna region in July 2020 on “Organizational strategies for the safe management of intravenous iron therapy in patients in non-hospitalized settings”. The objective of these recommendations is to set up safe intravenous iron administration [...] Read more.
This article analyzes the recommendations issued by the Emilia Romagna region in July 2020 on “Organizational strategies for the safe management of intravenous iron therapy in patients in non-hospitalized settings”. The objective of these recommendations is to set up safe intravenous iron administration sites outside the hospital environment across the national territory. The document facilitates the organization of methods for intravenous iron infusion that are safe for the patient and correct from a medico-legal perspective. In addition, it opens the way for the widespread use of iron infusion in the field, providing benefits to patient quality of life. This program prevents unnecessary transfusions, reduces costs, prevents overcrowding in hospitals in the event of a pandemic, and enables patient treatment in the field, thus, saving on the use of personnel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Forensic and Legal Medicine)
Article
Early Spatiotemporal Patterns and Population Characteristics of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Southeast Asia
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091220 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 630
Abstract
This observational study aims to investigate the early disease patterns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Southeast Asia, consequently providing historical experience for further interventions. Data were extracted from official websites of the WHO and health authorities of relevant countries. A total of [...] Read more.
This observational study aims to investigate the early disease patterns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Southeast Asia, consequently providing historical experience for further interventions. Data were extracted from official websites of the WHO and health authorities of relevant countries. A total of 1346 confirmed cases of COVID-19, with 217 recoveries and 18 deaths, were reported in Southeast Asia as of 16 March 2020. The basic reproductive number (R0) of COVID-19 in the region was estimated as 2.51 (95% CI:2.31 to 2.73), and there were significant geographical variations at the subregional level. Early transmission dynamics were examined with an exponential regression model: y = 0.30e0.13x (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.96), which could help predict short-term incidence. Country-level disease burden was positively correlated with Human Development Index (r = 0.86, p < 0.01). A potential early shift in spatial diffusion patterns and a spatiotemporal cluster occurring in Malaysia and Singapore were detected. Demographic analyses of 925 confirmed cases indicated a median age of 44 years and a sex ratio (male/female) of 1.25. Age may play a significant role in both susceptibilities and outcomes. The COVID-19 situation in Southeast Asia is challenging and unevenly geographically distributed. Hence, enhanced real-time surveillance and more efficient resource allocation are urgently needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection COVID-19: Impact on Public Health and Healthcare)
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Article
Kohonen Neural Network Investigation of the Effects of the Visual, Proprioceptive and Vestibular Systems to Balance in Young Healthy Adult Subjects
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091219 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Kohonen neural network (KNN) was used to investigate the effects of the visual, proprioceptive and vestibular systems using the sway information in the mediolateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, obtained from an inertial measurement unit, placed at the lower backs of 23 healthy [...] Read more.
Kohonen neural network (KNN) was used to investigate the effects of the visual, proprioceptive and vestibular systems using the sway information in the mediolateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, obtained from an inertial measurement unit, placed at the lower backs of 23 healthy adult subjects (10 males, 13 females, mean (standard deviation) age: 24.5 (4.0) years, height: 173.6 (6.8) centimeter, weight: 72.7 (9.9) kg). The measurements were based on the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance (mCTSIB). KNN clustered the subjects’ time-domain sway measures by processing their sway’s root mean square position, velocity, and acceleration. Clustering effectiveness was established using external performance indicators such as purity, precision-recall, and F-measure. Differences in these measures, from the clustering of each mCTSIB condition with its condition, were used to extract information about the balance-related sensory systems, where smaller values indicated reduced sway differences. The results for the parameters of purity, precision, recall, and F-measure were higher in the AP direction as compared to the ML direction by 7.12%, 11.64%, 7.12%, and 9.50% respectively, with their differences statistically significant (p < 0.05) thus suggesting the related sensory systems affect majorly the AP direction sway as compared to the ML direction sway. Sway differences in the ML direction were lowest in the presence of the visual system. It was concluded that the effect of the visual system on the balance can be examined mostly by the ML sway while the proprioceptive and vestibular systems can be examined mostly by the AP direction sway. Full article
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Article
Factors Affecting COVID-19 Vaccination among the General Population in Saudi Arabia
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091218 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Vaccine refusal or hesitancy is one of the significant issues that can have an adverse impact on people’s health and their countries’ economy. Additionally, vaccine acceptance or refusal could have a decisive role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to investigate [...] Read more.
Vaccine refusal or hesitancy is one of the significant issues that can have an adverse impact on people’s health and their countries’ economy. Additionally, vaccine acceptance or refusal could have a decisive role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to investigate the factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine refusal and hesitancy among the general population in Saudi Arabia. The method is a cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire, and data were collected from 1935 participants between 18 February 2021 and 1 April 2021. Out of 1935 participants aged ≥18 years and residing in Saudi Arabia, 46.9% reported their intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, 22.4% had received the vaccine, 9.5% did not intend to receive the vaccine, and 21.2% had not made their decision. In the multinomial logistic regression models, vaccine refusal was associated with age (OR: 0.961), nationality (OR: 0.182), monthly income of more than SAR 18,000 (OR: 2.325), chronic diseases (OR: 0.521), knowledge about the vaccine (OR: 0.937), and concerns about the vaccine (OR: 1.5). The hesitancy was associated with age (OR: 0.977), nationality (OR: 0.231), monthly income between SAR 6000 to 12,000 (OR: 0.607), chronic diseases (OR: 0.640), knowledge about the vaccine (OR: 0.907), and concerns about the vaccine (OR: 1.3). The main concerns about the vaccine were “COVID-19 vaccines are not tested enough on people”, “drug companies are interested in COVID-19 vaccine sales only”, and “COVID-19 vaccines have serious adverse effects”. Awareness programs and vaccination campaigns should consider people’s concerns and correct their misinformation. Full article
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Article
Factors Affecting the Initiation of a Shared Decision Making Program in Obstetric Practices
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091217 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
As healthcare systems progress toward initiatives that increase patient engagement, stakeholder hopes are that shared decision making (SDM) will become routine practice. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to guide such SDM program implementations, particularly in obstetric practices. The first stage of any [...] Read more.
As healthcare systems progress toward initiatives that increase patient engagement, stakeholder hopes are that shared decision making (SDM) will become routine practice. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to guide such SDM program implementations, particularly in obstetric practices. The first stage of any project implementation is the “initiation stage”, in which project leaders define a project’s purpose and stakeholders and structures are put in place to support the new initiative. Our study’s objective was to identify factors affecting the initiation stage of an SDM program implementation project for TOLAC, trial of labor after Cesarean. We conducted a multiple-case study of an SDM program implementation in three obstetric settings in Washington State. The research design and analysis were guided by implementation science frameworks and project management literature. Data sources included interviews with key informants from the State, SDM tool vendors, and three project sites, as well as implementation documents. The study results provide insight into how the identified project implementation factors provide an essential foundation for informing project planning, execution, and reflection/evaluation. In this study, the State’s decision aid certification program pressured the project sites to shape the project purpose and engage stakeholders that would meet immediate project requirements (specifically, state requirements). The study reveals that external demands may not be in perfect alignment with the internal necessities required for an SDM program’s long-term viability and sustainability. Findings may be used by implementers and researchers to model and strategize the early stages of SDM program implementation projects, particularly in the obstetric setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment for Women's Health)
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Article
Effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention Program for Women Family Caregivers of Older Adults
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091216 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Background: The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention program for the promotion of well-being and health in family caregivers. Methods: The participants were 111 family women caregivers aged between 33 and 75 years old. This was [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention program for the promotion of well-being and health in family caregivers. Methods: The participants were 111 family women caregivers aged between 33 and 75 years old. This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. The mindfulness intervention program lasted 12 weeks. The experimental group underwent mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions (MABIs). The control group performed physical activity training. Results: A cross-lagged panel analysis was computed with the two waves of health, well-being, burden and resilience and age in years and intervention as predictors. The cross-lagged path model fit well χ2 (8) = 7.179, p = 0.51, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.00, comparative fit index (CFI) = 1.00, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.05. The mindfulness intervention program was a significant predictor accounting for decreasing health problems (β = −0.292, p < 0.01) and burden (β = −0.190, p < 0.01) and increasing well-being (β = 0.107, p < 0.05) at post-test. Conclusions: Mindfulness-based intervention programs are effective in coping with the burden of family caregivers and, in turn, in promoting resilience, well-being and health among caregivers. Our findings encourage clinical uses of mindfulness interventions to promote health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women Health)
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Systematic Review
Effects of Exercise Intervention on Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091215 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Exercise and physical activity have been deemed as potentially beneficial for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on health-related quality of life in patients with SLE using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Randomized [...] Read more.
Exercise and physical activity have been deemed as potentially beneficial for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on health-related quality of life in patients with SLE using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials published up to July 2021 were examined using the PubMed and Embase databases. Of the 1158 articles retrieved, nine were included for systematic review. Five of them were randomized controlled trials and these were assessed using meta-analysis. Hedges’ g effect size was 0.47; 95% (confidence interval 0.21–0.73; p < 0.001) for the physical health and function aspect of health-related quality of life. None of the other seven domains of the SF-36 showed a significant effect size. However, the latter finding was limited by the small number of available trials. In conclusion, this systematic review and meta-analysis supported that exercise intervention compared to usual care might be able to improve the physical functioning domain of health-related quality of life in patients with SLE. Future high-quality randomized controlled trials that incorporate disease-specific health-related quality of life measures are needed to elucidate the role of exercise on health-related quality of life in patients with SLE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Quality of Life in Lupus Patients)
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Article
Predict Health Care Accessibility for Texas Medicaid Gap
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091214 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Medicaid is a unique approach in ensuring the below poverty population obtains free insurance coverage under federal and state provisions in the United States. Twelve states without expanded Medicaid caused two million people who were under the poverty line into health insecurity. Principal [...] Read more.
Medicaid is a unique approach in ensuring the below poverty population obtains free insurance coverage under federal and state provisions in the United States. Twelve states without expanded Medicaid caused two million people who were under the poverty line into health insecurity. Principal Component-based logistical regression (PCA-LA) is used to consider health status (HS) as a dependent variable and fourteen social-economic indexes as independent variables. Four composite components incorporated health conditions (i.e., “no regular source of care” (NRC), “last check-up more than a year ago” (LCT)), demographic impacts (i.e., four categorized adults (AS)), education (ED), and marital status (MS). Compared to the unadjusted LA, direct adjusted LA, and PCA-unadjusted LA three methods, the PCA-LA approach exhibited objective and reasonable outcomes in presenting an odd ratio (OR). They included that health condition is positively significant to HS due to beyond one OR, and negatively significant to ED, AS, and MS. This paper provided quantitative evidence for the Medicaid gap in Texas to extend Medicaid, exposed healthcare geographical inequity, offered a sight for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to improve the Medicaid program and make political justice for the Medicaid gap. Full article
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Article
Link between Excessive Smartphone Use and Sleeping Disorders and Depression among South Korean University Students
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091213 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 741
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the link between smartphone use and sleeping disorders and depression among university students in South Korea. South Korea has the highest mobile phone penetration rate as well as the highest rate of suicide of any [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the link between smartphone use and sleeping disorders and depression among university students in South Korea. South Korea has the highest mobile phone penetration rate as well as the highest rate of suicide of any of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations, thus making this study of great importance. The core aim was to see whether the excessive use of smartphones has an association with sleeping disorders and depression. A cross-sectional analysis was performed to establish if there was any link between smartphone use and sleeping disorders and depression. Samples from 188 participants were used for this study. Data were collected using two well-established questionnaires, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) and the Athene Insomnia Scale (AIS), as well as a few questions on smartphone use. A few demographic questions were added to the questionnaire. The results of this study concluded that a significant relationship exists between smartphone use and depression. However, the finding of this research could not uncover a significant relationship between smartphone use and sleeping disorders among university students in South Korea. The excessive use of smartphones shows a relationship to an unhealthy lifestyle. There is a clear indication that the overuse of smartphones could be linked to depression. Furthermore, the study found that students with depression also tend to have sleeping disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Quality and Digital Media)
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