Previous Issue
Volume 14, May
 
 

Educ. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 111 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
24 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
Navigating the Evolution of Game-Based Educational Approaches in Secondary STEM Education: A Decade of Innovations and Challenges
by Chiara Fante, Fabrizio Ravicchio and Flavio Manganello
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060662 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
Abstract
The need to support science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning in secondary education is reflected in the ongoing investigation of innovative pedagogical practices, including game-based learning (GBL). Using an analysis of scholarly publications based on word co-occurrence, this study aimed to identify [...] Read more.
The need to support science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning in secondary education is reflected in the ongoing investigation of innovative pedagogical practices, including game-based learning (GBL). Using an analysis of scholarly publications based on word co-occurrence, this study aimed to identify the main research themes addressed in the past decade by the scholarly community on game-based teaching and learning solutions in the context of STEM education in secondary schools, their evolution over time, and the key issues addressed in recent years. After a systematic selection, the titles and abstracts of the publications were collected in a text corpus and analyzed using T-LAB software version 7.2.1.4 (2022). A preliminary visual exploration of the keywords was performed to obtain an overall view of the issues addressed by the research. Specificity analysis was then applied to identify, for each subset of the corpus identified by the years of publication, the evolution of themes reflected in a change in the frequency of lemma use. Finally, to explore the most recent topics, the main thematic clusters of publications in the last three years were identified (thematic analysis of elementary contexts). The results suggest some changes in the issues addressed over the past decade, such as a shift in focus from the specific technologies and competitive elements of games to understanding how GBL can support engagement, motivation, and understanding of complex scientific concepts. The five key thematic clusters identified (“Experience”, “Application”, “Validation”, “Emotion”, and “Programming”) also indicate a stronger emphasis by the latest publications on the experiential and emotional components of learning, the need for empirical studies, and the integration of computational thinking and coding into GBL. Overall, this study indicates that GBL has the potential to become an integrated component of STEM education, evolving with pedagogical and technological innovations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section STEM Education)
17 pages, 553 KiB  
Article
The Impact of School Classroom Chair Depth and Height on Learning Tasks
by Hsiu-Feng Chen and Chih-Yung Tsai
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060661 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 86
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the seating condition on learning tasks. This physical setting and these cognitive activities (that participants then test) are not the totality of education practice and context, but desks and chairs are important [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the seating condition on learning tasks. This physical setting and these cognitive activities (that participants then test) are not the totality of education practice and context, but desks and chairs are important physical elements for students to learn, because students always spend so much time learning at their seats. At present, the chairs purchased by the school have uniform specifications, so they cannot be customized. To provide students with more comfort, their sitting condition and backrest are commonly adjusted. This study investigated the effects of the sitting condition on the performance of short learning tasks that require high concentration, namely short-term number memorization, mathematical calculations, and logical judgment, through a two-way within-subjects design (seat depth and backrest height). Thirty adults over 20 years old, with visual acuity (including corrected visual acuity) greater than 0.7 and no history of musculoskeletal disease, participated in this experiment. The results indicated that seat depth and backrest height had an interaction effect on task performance. Sitting on the front third of a chair with a lower backrest produced excellent learning tasks outcomes; seat configuration may affect student performance on learning tasks. Thus, schools and educational institutions can try to require students to temporarily sit in this sitting condition to perform such tasks. In addition, schools can purchase chairs with a lower backrest and require that students use lumbar pads to adjust the seat depth to achieve superior learning task outcomes in classrooms. Full article
21 pages, 2779 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Using ChatGPT as a Tool to Strengthen Benefits of the Flipped Learning Strategy
by Gilberto Huesca, Yolanda Martínez-Treviño, José Martín Molina-Espinosa, Ana Raquel Sanromán-Calleros, Roberto Martínez-Román, Eduardo Antonio Cendejas-Castro and Raime Bustos
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060660 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 126
Abstract
In this study, we evaluate how ChatGPT complements and enriches the traditional flipped learning strategy in higher education, particularly in engineering courses. Using an experimental design involving 356 students from basic programming courses in undergraduate engineering programs, we compared the normalized learning gain [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluate how ChatGPT complements and enriches the traditional flipped learning strategy in higher education, particularly in engineering courses. Using an experimental design involving 356 students from basic programming courses in undergraduate engineering programs, we compared the normalized learning gain between groups that used the ChatGPT-assisted flipped learning strategy (focus groups) and those that followed a traditional video-based flipped learning methodology (control groups). The intervention lasted ten weeks, with two sessions of two hours each week. A pre-test–post-test analysis revealed that the focus groups showed significant improvement in normalized learning gain values compared to the control groups. These results confirm that incorporating ChatGPT into the flipped learning strategy can significantly enhance student performance by providing a more active, interactive, and personalized approach during the teaching–learning process. We conclude that the flipped learning strategy, upgraded with the assistance of ChatGPT, provides an effective means to improve understanding and application of complex concepts in programming courses, with potential to be extended to other areas of study in higher education. This study opens routes for future research on the integration of artificial intelligence into innovative pedagogical strategies with the goal of scaffolding the learning experience and improving educational outcomes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 796 KiB  
Review
Enhancing Quality Appointment, Preparation and Support System for Malaysian Principals
by Husaina Banu Kenayathulla, Muhammad Faizal A. Ghani and Norfariza Mohd Radzi
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060659 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 190
Abstract
Educational leaders in the 21st century are under increasing pressure since they need to consistently upskill and reskill themselves so that they can adapt to rapid changes and be prepared to improve the quality of future education, as well as meet the demands [...] Read more.
Educational leaders in the 21st century are under increasing pressure since they need to consistently upskill and reskill themselves so that they can adapt to rapid changes and be prepared to improve the quality of future education, as well as meet the demands of diverse stakeholders. Previous studies in the Malaysian context mostly focused on leadership training for newly appointed school principals, but there has not been much emphasis on continuous professional development for school leaders. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the appointment, preparation, and support system for Malaysian principals. In this study, a qualitative methodology has been applied, which involves document analysis based on policy documents, media, and previously published journal articles. The findings suggest that internal and external supports are currently being provided to principals. However, it proposes a wider framework of support for principals comprising internal and external support, including smart partnerships with diverse stakeholders such as industries, non-profit organizations, and international counterparts. The results provide insights to policymakers on the importance of consistently supporting school leaders to upskill with multifaceted skills to perform multiple functions, such as technological, economic, social, cultural, political, and learning leadership. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transforming Educational Leadership)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3903 KiB  
Article
Impact of Physical Model Projects and Multidisciplinary Teams in Fluid Mechanics Education
by Aarthi Sekaran and Carolyn M. Rodak
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060658 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Fluid mechanics, a required course in many undergraduate engineering disciplines, is often described as a challenging subject as it weaves together advanced mathematics and physics to solve conventional engineering problems. This study examines the effect of incorporating a physical model project via multidisciplinary [...] Read more.
Fluid mechanics, a required course in many undergraduate engineering disciplines, is often described as a challenging subject as it weaves together advanced mathematics and physics to solve conventional engineering problems. This study examines the effect of incorporating a physical model project via multidisciplinary teams into two theory-based fluid mechanics courses to address two general questions: Does the design and construction of the physical model aid in understanding fluid mechanics concepts? Does working with students of different engineering disciplines improve student experience and comprehension? The study was conducted in Spring 2023 with a cohort of 49 mechanical and civil engineering students; each project team had a mix of both disciplines. At the end of the semester, all projects were presented at a common venue, followed by an anonymous paper-based survey. The results indicate that around 83.7% of students felt the project had an overall positive impact on their learning experience. Despite initial student apprehension about multidisciplinary teams, 72% of students appreciated the opportunity to work with engineers from other disciplines, with qualitative inputs describing the value added from varied skill sets. In conclusion, this project enabled students to apply their in-class training to a real-world model while working in multidisciplinary teams. The results provide insight into the implementation of similar projects and the value of multidisciplinary teams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges of Project Based Learning (PBL) in Engineering Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 713 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Approach to Predicting Learning Success Based on Digital Educational History for Timely Identification of At-Risk Students
by Tatiana A. Kustitskaya, Roman V. Esin, Yuliya V. Vainshtein and Mikhail V. Noskov
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060657 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 215
Abstract
Student retention is a significant challenge for higher education institutions (HEIs). The fact that a considerable number of dropouts from universities are primarily due to academic underperformance motivates universities to develop learning analytics tools based on models for predicting learning success. However, the [...] Read more.
Student retention is a significant challenge for higher education institutions (HEIs). The fact that a considerable number of dropouts from universities are primarily due to academic underperformance motivates universities to develop learning analytics tools based on models for predicting learning success. However, the scalability of such models is limited since students’ academic performance and engagement, as well as the factors influencing them, are largely determined by the educational environment. The article proposes a hybrid approach to forecasting success in completing an academic semester, which involves creating a set of predictive models. Some of the models use historical student data, while others are intended to refine the forecast using current data on student performance and engagement, which are regularly extracted from available sources. Based on this approach, we developed an ensemble of machine learning models and the Markov-process model that simultaneously address the tasks of forecasting success in mastering a course and success in completing a semester. The models utilize digital footprint data, digital educational history, and digital personality portraits of students extracted from the databases of Siberian Federal University, and the resulting ensemble demonstrates a high quality of the forecast. The proposed approach can be utilized by other HEIs as a framework for creating mutually complementary forecasting models based on different types of accessible educational data. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 555 KiB  
Article
ChatGPT: The End of Online Exam Integrity?
by Teo Susnjak and Timothy R. McIntosh
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060656 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 203
Abstract
This study addresses the significant challenge posed by the use of Large Language Models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT on the integrity of online examinations, focusing on how these models can undermine academic honesty by demonstrating their latent and advanced reasoning capabilities. An iterative [...] Read more.
This study addresses the significant challenge posed by the use of Large Language Models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT on the integrity of online examinations, focusing on how these models can undermine academic honesty by demonstrating their latent and advanced reasoning capabilities. An iterative self-reflective strategy was developed for invoking critical thinking and higher-order reasoning in LLMs when responding to complex multimodal exam questions involving both visual and textual data. The proposed strategy was demonstrated and evaluated on real exam questions by subject experts and the performance of ChatGPT (GPT-4) with vision was estimated on an additional dataset of 600 text descriptions of multimodal exam questions. The results indicate that the proposed self-reflective strategy can invoke latent multi-hop reasoning capabilities within LLMs, effectively steering them towards correct answers by integrating critical thinking from each modality into the final response. Meanwhile, ChatGPT demonstrated considerable proficiency in being able to answer multimodal exam questions across 12 subjects. These findings challenge prior assertions about the limitations of LLMs in multimodal reasoning and emphasise the need for robust online exam security measures such as advanced proctoring systems and more sophisticated multimodal exam questions to mitigate potential academic misconduct enabled by AI technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researching Academic Integrity in Higher Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
El Cid: Can an Aesthetics Lens Save Transformational Leadership from Itself?
by Fenwick Walter English and Lisa Catherine Ehrich
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060655 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Countless articles and books have been written about transformational leadership theory since the late 1970s when it first appeared in the literature. The purpose of this conceptual paper is to illustrate that transformational leadership contains both logical and psychological problems when explaining the [...] Read more.
Countless articles and books have been written about transformational leadership theory since the late 1970s when it first appeared in the literature. The purpose of this conceptual paper is to illustrate that transformational leadership contains both logical and psychological problems when explaining the nature of leadership and as an empirically supportable and verifiable construct. It aims to show that its failure to garner evidence from a scientific methodological analysis may not invalidate its efficacy if it is viewed from an alternative lens, such as aesthetics. An aesthetic frame is one that recognizes sensuous ways of knowing since feelings and emotions are just as important as reason and logic. An aesthetic approach to leadership would see leadership as more of an art than a science. This paper is not arguing for the abandonment of transformational leadership theory; rather it is saying that an aesthetic lens is likely to yield a richer, more artistic, and more nuanced account of what is understood and enacted as transformational leadership. This way, the manifestations of transformational leadership may live on in the arts and continue to inspire and motivate us. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transforming Educational Leadership)
11 pages, 458 KiB  
Article
Profiles of Occupational Therapy Students: A Cluster Analysis
by Gry Mørk, Astrid Gramstad, Linda Stigen, Susanne Grødem Johnson and Tore Bonsaksen
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060654 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 198
Abstract
While studies have examined predictors of study performance in various student groups, cluster analytic studies identify groups of students with similar characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore relevant clusters of occupational therapy students and examine profile differences between participants in [...] Read more.
While studies have examined predictors of study performance in various student groups, cluster analytic studies identify groups of students with similar characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore relevant clusters of occupational therapy students and examine profile differences between participants in different clusters. A total of 177 first-year students from six occupational therapy programs in Norway participated in this study. Data on age, gender, study approaches, study effort, and study performance were collected. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted. Three clusters were identified. Cluster 1, the high-strategic high-performing students, comprised the successful students, mostly females, who invested much effort and used productive approaches to studying. Cluster 2, the high-surface average-performing students, consisted of less successful female students, who used poor study strategies and made little effort. Cluster 3, the low-strategic low-performing students, comprised the least successful students, who were all male, with study efforts and study strategies in the middle range. Overall, this study suggests that occupational therapy students can be classified into clusters based on a combination of measures. To enhance student learning and performance, educators should pay particular attention to male students and to students investing little effort and using poor study strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2727 KiB  
Article
PBL Impact on Learning Outcomes in Computer Engineering: A 12-Year Analysis
by Pedro José Lara-Bercial, María Cruz Gaya-López, Juan-Miguel Martínez-Orozco and Silvia Lavado-Anguera
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060653 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 194
Abstract
This article describes an evaluation of the Project-Based Learning (PBL) methodology implemented in the STEAM School of Universidad Europea in the Computer Engineering degree. The study raises research questions related to the perception of technical and soft skills acquired by students who used [...] Read more.
This article describes an evaluation of the Project-Based Learning (PBL) methodology implemented in the STEAM School of Universidad Europea in the Computer Engineering degree. The study raises research questions related to the perception of technical and soft skills acquired by students who used or considered PBL as their primary learning methodology compared to those who did not. Students’ motivation and adaptability to work after graduation have also been examined. The sample of students includes graduates from the last 20 years and therefore analyzes both the period in which the methodology was already implemented (from 2012) and some previous years. The study concludes that students who have identified or experienced PBL as their main learning methodology perceive a better acquisition of technical competencies and some soft skills, as well as better motivation and adaptability to the work environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges of Project Based Learning (PBL) in Engineering Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 232 KiB  
Article
Examining Relationships between Technology and Critical Thinking: A Study of South Korean EFL Learners
by Andrew Schenck
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060652 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 184
Abstract
Little research has been conducted to examine how technology shapes values concerning critical thinking (CT) in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) contexts. Due to the need for further research, this study was designed to examine the relationships between perceptions of technology and [...] Read more.
Little research has been conducted to examine how technology shapes values concerning critical thinking (CT) in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) contexts. Due to the need for further research, this study was designed to examine the relationships between perceptions of technology and attitudes about CT. A total of 80 EFL students were given two Likert surveys and two optional qualitative questions concerning CT and technology. Likert surveys were compared using Spearman’s rank correlation, whereas qualitative data were evaluated using reflexive thematic analysis. Quantitative results revealed that support for engagement with tech and laptops, along with support for using technology for career goals or IT skills development, positively correlated to a learner’s understanding and value for CT. In contrast, learners who favored using technology did not tend to value CT and were more likely to skip class if materials were provided online. Qualitative results also suggest that prosocial behaviors for engagement and clear goals promote positive attitudes toward CT, whereas overreliance on technology hampers the cultivation of CT in EFL classrooms. Implications for pedagogy have been proposed. Full article
11 pages, 209 KiB  
Article
Preschool Class Children and Grade One Pupils’ Questions about Molecules from a Digital Interactive Session at a Culture Center in Sweden
by Maria Papantonis Stajcic, Clara Vidal Carulla and Annika Åkerblom
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060651 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 236
Abstract
This study focuses on preschool class children and grade one pupils’ questions about the natural sciences. The article presents the questions that preschool class children and grade one pupils asked via a chat function in connection with a digital interactive lesson about molecules [...] Read more.
This study focuses on preschool class children and grade one pupils’ questions about the natural sciences. The article presents the questions that preschool class children and grade one pupils asked via a chat function in connection with a digital interactive lesson about molecules arranged by a culture center in Sweden. The results of the thematic analysis are discussed in relation to their didactic implications for natural science teaching with young learners. The most relevant conclusions are that children drew from their own experiences when approaching molecules, they could generalize their experiences and apply them to other contexts, and they needed time to process the content and then ask questions. Therefore, the authors suggest the use of children’s questions as a useful pedagogical tool for helping young children understand abstract concepts such as molecules. Furthermore, follow-up interviews with children are suggested as a means of mapping the origin of such questions. Full article
14 pages, 248 KiB  
Article
Supporting the Teacher Identity of Pre-Service Science Teachers through Working at a Non-Formal STEM Learning Laboratory
by Outi Haatainen, Johannes Pernaa, Reija Pesonen, Julia Halonen and Maija Aksela
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060649 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 325
Abstract
This qualitative case study aims to examine the role of a non-formal STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning laboratory in supporting the development of teacher identity among pre-service science teachers. With teacher identity impacting the educational responsiveness and resilience of a teacher, [...] Read more.
This qualitative case study aims to examine the role of a non-formal STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning laboratory in supporting the development of teacher identity among pre-service science teachers. With teacher identity impacting the educational responsiveness and resilience of a teacher, it is important to support the professional identity of STEM educators if we are to enhance the quality of STEM education. Data collection occurred in three stages between 2017 and 2024. Qualitative content analysis through an inductive category formation was used for data analysis. The intercoder reliability was checked (Cohen’s kappa 0.802). Results suggest that non-formal STEM learning environments can enhance pre-service teachers’ professional learning and identity by allowing the autonomous practical application of theory in an authentic collaborative laboratory environment and by strengthening their self-efficacy through positive teaching experiences. Participants reported that such versatile experiences are generally not available during their formal university education. This study offers suggestions for STEM teacher education and insights into ongoing research dialogues about the role of non-formal learning in supporting the learning and identity of STEM teachers. Full article
17 pages, 669 KiB  
Article
Generating Innovative Ideas for School Improvement: An Examination of School Principals
by Miguel M. Gonzales, Tiberio Garza and Elizabeth Leon-Zaragoza
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060650 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 474
Abstract
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine school principals’ tendencies and practices that bring forth innovative ideas for school improvement. School principals (N = 124) responded to a survey, which included an open-ended question, on their innovative practices toward school improvement. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine school principals’ tendencies and practices that bring forth innovative ideas for school improvement. School principals (N = 124) responded to a survey, which included an open-ended question, on their innovative practices toward school improvement. With the Innovator’s DNA framework as a basis for generating innovation for school improvement, path analysis was used to assess how well school principals’ thinking and practices aligned with the framework. School principals believed it was important to help generate innovation through idea networking, being open-minded, and challenging the status quo. However, through path analysis, school principals’ improvement areas associated with the Innovator’s DNA framework were identified. School systems should help principals develop innovative problem-solving skills for school improvement by applying the Innovator’s DNA framework in their professional development opportunities. More research is needed that examines if and how school systems foster school innovation leadership for principals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reimagining K-20 Educational Leadership in the 21st Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 367 KiB  
Article
Observation of Student and Teacher Behaviors during a Preliminary Active Playful Learning Intervention in Kindergarten Classrooms
by Elias Blinkoff, Kimberly Turner Nesbitt, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff and Kathy Hirsh-Pasek
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060648 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 186
Abstract
This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of an instructional coaching program for kindergarten teachers in the State of New Hampshire that was implemented in response to the State’s play-based kindergarten mandate. Coaching was provided to 20 teachers from across the State. It [...] Read more.
This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of an instructional coaching program for kindergarten teachers in the State of New Hampshire that was implemented in response to the State’s play-based kindergarten mandate. Coaching was provided to 20 teachers from across the State. It focused on guided play, principles of how children learn, and the breadth of skills needed to achieve in the classroom and beyond. A novel adaptation of a classroom observation protocol measured classroom-, teacher-, and student-level behaviors predicted to change with coaching. Classroom-level results revealed a significant decrease in teacher-led direct instruction with a significant shift towards playful instruction, a possible precursor to guided play. Teachers did not change how students were organized in the classroom to promote this instruction, nor did they individually provide more inferential instruction or change their affect with this pedagogical shift. Yet, changes in student behaviors aligned with the coaching program. Students became more engaged with their learning, more active in their use of learning tools, and more communicative. These results offer valuable insights on the initial impacts of an instructional coaching program focused on guided play, how children learn, and what children learn. This study presents a feasible and effective model for professional development on play-based learning that is rooted in the science of learning and measurable in the classroom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Early Childhood Education)
11 pages, 226 KiB  
Article
Research, Science Identity, and Intent to Pursue a Science Career: A BUILD Intervention Evaluation at CSULB
by Hector V. Ramos and Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060647 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 187
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of survey data to examine the association between participating in one of the National Institute of Health’s (NIH) funded Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity Initiative (BUILD) program and students’ intent to pursue a career in science. Data were [...] Read more.
This paper presents an analysis of survey data to examine the association between participating in one of the National Institute of Health’s (NIH) funded Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity Initiative (BUILD) program and students’ intent to pursue a career in science. Data were collected from students at California State University Long Beach (CSULB) to examine the effectiveness of the BUILD Scholars program. Both BUILD Scholars and non-BUILD students were surveyed. Propensity score matching was used to generate the non-BUILD comparison group. Multinomial logistic regression results revealed that students participating in the BUILD intervention were associated with significantly higher intent to pursue a career in science. Results also showed the importance of variables such as science identity and research participation when assessing interest in science careers. These findings have implications for STEM program evaluation and practice in higher education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Education Programmes and Policies)
12 pages, 392 KiB  
Article
(Up)Grading: A (Re)Humanizing Assessment Process with a Focus on Feedback
by Stefanie D. Livers, Kristin E. Harbour and Patrick L. Sullivan
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060646 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Researchers across two universities and three different mathematics education courses implemented their vision of a novel grading approach called (Up)grading. (Up)grading shifts the focus of assessment from grades to growth. Key features of implementing (Up)grading included (a) providing students with opportunities to reflect [...] Read more.
Researchers across two universities and three different mathematics education courses implemented their vision of a novel grading approach called (Up)grading. (Up)grading shifts the focus of assessment from grades to growth. Key features of implementing (Up)grading included (a) providing students with opportunities to reflect upon and grow from their learning experiences, and (b) giving them a voice in determining their course grade. The findings suggest that most students perceived (Up)grading as a positive experience in their learning and as an assessment approach. The features of (Up)grading students believed contributed to the positive experience included giving them opportunities to reflect on their work and learn from their mistakes, as well as targeted feedback, enabling them to independently move their thinking forward. Tensions in the process did arise, including students’ initial anxiety with the norm shift from grades to growth and instructors’ management of the flow of assignments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 519 KiB  
Article
Defining Rural: Rural Teachers’ Perspectives and Experiences
by Martha Inouye, Meghan Macias, Tugba Boz, Min Jung Lee, Rebekah Hammack, Ashley Iveland and Natalie Johansen
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060645 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 216
Abstract
Public agencies and other funding organizations have often defined rural in reference to “urban” and using parameters such as population density, access to cities, and distance to market areas. Using such definitions of rurality within the context of K-12 education as a way [...] Read more.
Public agencies and other funding organizations have often defined rural in reference to “urban” and using parameters such as population density, access to cities, and distance to market areas. Using such definitions of rurality within the context of K-12 education as a way to support these systems is challenging because of the diverse geographic and socio-cultural identities of these places despite a common “rural” designation. This study aims to analyze elementary teachers’ perceptions of their school context and role within that context to better understand the diversity of what it means to be rural. Semi-structured interviews with 3rd–5th-grade teachers (n = 35) were used. Data sources also included identity and community walk slides created by these teachers. Structured interview prompts were tailored to these activities. A priori and emergent coding analyses were used to examine teachers’ conception of their rural context and their role within that context. The results show that rural, as defined by teachers, is a diverse and connected place in which diverse community assets support teachers in their instruction in unique ways. By better understanding the diversity of what it means to be rural, we begin to understand the ways in which context shapes experience and best determine how to support rural educational experiences for both teachers and students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practice and Policy: Rural and Urban Education Experiences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
PhDs of International Students—The Case of Israeli PhDs
by Nissim Mashraki, Dorith Tavor, Aleksandra Gerkerova and Nitza Davidovitch
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060644 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 201
Abstract
Pursuing academic studies in foreign countries is a globally prevalent phenomenon for diverse reasons: earning a degree in high-demand subjects from a prestigious university opens more doors than a diploma earned locally. Earning a degree overseas is an opportunity to expand one’s horizons [...] Read more.
Pursuing academic studies in foreign countries is a globally prevalent phenomenon for diverse reasons: earning a degree in high-demand subjects from a prestigious university opens more doors than a diploma earned locally. Earning a degree overseas is an opportunity to expand one’s horizons and gain new experiences and exposure to other cultures. In addition, other personal and/or academic reasons that prevent students from pursuing a degree in their home country, such as age, admission requirements, and difficulty in finding an appropriate supervisor, motivate them to choose a degree program in a foreign country. The current study examines the motives of PhD degree holders who are Israeli residents who completed their doctorate studies overseas and explores the aspirations they hope to achieve through such studies. The study examines several aspects of the profiles of PhD holders who chose to study overseas, including demographic, socioeconomic, academic, financial, and professional, as well as their aims. The study sample comprised 153 PhD holders who earned their PhD degree in the field of education overseas and applied to the Israeli Ministry of Education for accreditation of their degree. The sample focuses on PhD holders in the social sciences and humanities, specifically in education. The study was conducted using the quantitative method and is based on a survey. The findings of the study offer insights into decision makers in higher education in Israel and their efforts to assess the value of the degrees presented for accreditation by PhD holders who earned their degrees overseas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Teacher Education)
18 pages, 7518 KiB  
Systematic Review
ChatGPT in Teaching and Learning: A Systematic Review
by Duha Ali, Yasin Fatemi, Elahe Boskabadi, Mohsen Nikfar, Jude Ugwuoke and Haneen Ali
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060643 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 951
Abstract
The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) in education has raised questions about the implications of ChatGPT for teaching and learning. A systematic literature review was conducted to answer these questions, analyzing 112 scholarly articles to identify the potential benefits and challenges related [...] Read more.
The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) in education has raised questions about the implications of ChatGPT for teaching and learning. A systematic literature review was conducted to answer these questions, analyzing 112 scholarly articles to identify the potential benefits and challenges related to ChatGPT use in educational settings. The selection process was thorough to ensure a comprehensive analysis of the current academic discourse on AI tools in education. Our research sheds light on the significant impact of ChatGPT on improving student engagement and accessibility and the critical issues that need to be considered, including concerns about the quality and bias of generated responses, the risk of plagiarism, and the authenticity of educational content. The study aims to summarize the utilizations of ChatGPT in teaching and learning by addressing the identified benefits and challenges through targeted strategies. The authors outlined some recommendations that will ensure that the integration of ChatGPT into educational frameworks enhances learning outcomes while safeguarding academic standards. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3951 KiB  
Article
Content and Sentiment Analysis of Autobiographical Narratives of Experienced and Well-Evaluated Teachers in Spain
by Mayara Lustosa de Oliveira Barbosa and Diana Marín-Suelves
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060642 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Analysing the content and feelings of teachers’ autobiographical narratives provides relevant information about teaching processes, challenges in professional development, performance, and identity. In this work, we analysed the narratives of five well-evaluated Spanish teachers with more than 10 years of experience. We used [...] Read more.
Analysing the content and feelings of teachers’ autobiographical narratives provides relevant information about teaching processes, challenges in professional development, performance, and identity. In this work, we analysed the narratives of five well-evaluated Spanish teachers with more than 10 years of experience. We used Iramuteq, RStudio, and TextRazor to describe the main themes, analyse the emotions, and check whether evidence-based teaching practices were mentioned. The results showed that emotional aspects were central, with positive feelings dominating. In the content analysis, themes such as mental health, inclusion, immigration, war, empathy, critical pedagogy, and autonomous and emancipatory education stand out. The analyses are relevant for teacher educators, policy makers, researchers, and teachers in training or in active service. Full article
17 pages, 3547 KiB  
Article
Exploring Freehand Drawing Skills of Engineering Students as a Support of Visualization
by Alfonso Martín Erro, María Luisa Martínez Muneta and Ángel Antonio Rodríguez Sevillano
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060641 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 181
Abstract
The importance of having engineering students proficient in visual literacy has long been recognized. Within this objective, the role of freehand drawing is paramount. It is, therefore, important to reinforce its practice for engineering communication and visual thinking support. This paper reports the [...] Read more.
The importance of having engineering students proficient in visual literacy has long been recognized. Within this objective, the role of freehand drawing is paramount. It is, therefore, important to reinforce its practice for engineering communication and visual thinking support. This paper reports the findings of a research project aimed at studying the visual literacy skills of engineering students and the use of freehand drawing for this purpose. This exploratory study focuses on visualization and its externalization through freehand drawing. An empirical study was conducted with 66 engineering students from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). Their skills for expressing visualized images through freehand drawing and their tendency to use drawings for problem-solving were evaluated. The findings of the study indicate that students generally lack skills in expressing ideas through freehand drawing. Additionally, they do not tend to apply drawing when finding solutions to given problems. Considering the importance of freehand drawing to reinforce visual literacy, the implementation of its practice is encouraged in order to have students competent in thinking and communicating through these means. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section STEM Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 886 KiB  
Article
Parents’ Assumptions and Beliefs about the Impact of Cultural Diversity on Children: A Preliminary Study in Italy, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, and Spain
by María Luisa Sierra-Huedo, Ana C. Romea and Lindsey A. Bruton
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060640 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 215
Abstract
This study investigates parents’ perceptions of the impact of cultural diversity on their children and their role in facilitating their children’s navigation through diverse cultural landscapes. A questionnaire, part of the Erasmus+ REACT project (the reciprocal maieutic approach), was distributed among 243 parents [...] Read more.
This study investigates parents’ perceptions of the impact of cultural diversity on their children and their role in facilitating their children’s navigation through diverse cultural landscapes. A questionnaire, part of the Erasmus+ REACT project (the reciprocal maieutic approach), was distributed among 243 parents of secondary school children in Bulgaria, Italy, Greece, and Spain. It aimed to shed light on the effects of cultural diversity on young individuals and the influence of parents in fostering intercultural competences and critical thinking. The findings reveal a strong positive perception among parents regarding cultural diversity, with a significant majority acknowledging its beneficial impact on their children’s development. Parents identify themselves as crucial educators and role models, emphasizing the importance of open dialogue, positive exemplification, and the teaching of tolerance and respect. Despite recognizing the general adeptness of their children in interacting with cultural diversity, parents perceive challenges, particularly related to differences in beliefs, religions, and social classes. Parents favor experiential and participatory activities over traditional academic methods for fostering intercultural competence, suggesting a shift toward more inclusive educational practices that involve family and community. This study calls for educational initiatives that promote active participation, connection with the community, critical thinking, and empathy toward cultural differences. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1196 KiB  
Systematic Review
Impact of Gamification on Motivation and Academic Performance: A Systematic Review
by Lorena Jaramillo-Mediavilla, Andrea Basantes-Andrade, Marcos Cabezas-González and Sonia Casillas-Martín
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060639 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 775
Abstract
This study aims to examine the existing evidence on gamification in educational settings, highlighting its impact on motivation and academic performance. Methodologically, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was developed under the PRISMA statement criteria using three multidisciplinary databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the existing evidence on gamification in educational settings, highlighting its impact on motivation and academic performance. Methodologically, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was developed under the PRISMA statement criteria using three multidisciplinary databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and Scielo. According to the inclusion, exclusion, and quality criteria, it was determined to include 9 SLR articles on gamification that address at least one of the two key variables: student motivation or academic performance. The articles were published between 2016 and 2022, available in open access, written in English or Spanish, and with content that is directly related to the research questions. The results reveal that gamification significantly influences motivation by facilitating the assimilation of knowledge, the improvement of skills and academic competencies of students, and specifically refers to a wide range of capabilities that are essential for success in the educational environment and that can be enhanced through playful and interactive learning experiences. These skills can be cognitive, self-learning, social, or collaborative, among others. It is concluded that creativity and adaptability are key to successfully implementing gamification in the classroom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Power of Play: Gamification for Engaging and Effective Learning)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2997 KiB  
Article
IDEARR Model for STEM Education—A Framework Proposal
by David Aguilera, José Luis Lupiáñez, Francisco Javier Perales-Palacios and José Miguel Vílchez-González
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060638 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 226
Abstract
This article proposes a theoretical framework for STEM education. It begins by determining the epistemological (based on the Model of Educational Reconstruction and General Systems Theory) and pedagogical (grounded in Situated Learning Theory and co-teaching) alignments. Once these issues are established, a pedagogical [...] Read more.
This article proposes a theoretical framework for STEM education. It begins by determining the epistemological (based on the Model of Educational Reconstruction and General Systems Theory) and pedagogical (grounded in Situated Learning Theory and co-teaching) alignments. Once these issues are established, a pedagogical model is proposed to facilitate the implementation of the STEM approach in the classroom. This is the IDEARR model, consisting of six phases (Initial, Deconstruction, Explanation, Application, Review, and Reporting) to address an ill-defined problem. This article concludes with a reflection on the educational implications that arise from adopting this theoretical framework for working on STEM education in classrooms, particularly those related to the organization and operation of educational institutions and the initial and ongoing training of teachers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
“Active Mathematics”—A Classroom-Based Physical Active Learning Intervention in an Elementary School: An Experimental Pilot Study
by Liliana Ramos, Vera Simões and Susana Franco
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060637 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 511
Abstract
This experimental pilot study aimed to compare the amount of physical activity (PA) of children in a second-year class of an elementary school that had a mathematics class while performing PA, based on playful math games, with children that had a mathematics class [...] Read more.
This experimental pilot study aimed to compare the amount of physical activity (PA) of children in a second-year class of an elementary school that had a mathematics class while performing PA, based on playful math games, with children that had a mathematics class seated in a traditional room, for 12 weeks 1 day/week 45 min/class; furthermore, the other two mathematics regular seated classes were attended equally by both groups, and whether both groups showed similar results concerning mathematics grading was assessed. Children (n = 22) were randomly divided into a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG). In both groups, the number of steps (PA) was measured with a pedometer, before and during all sessions of the intervention program, and an initial diagnostic and a final assessment mathematics test were carried out. EG significantly improved the amount of PA levels in the intervention program, when compared to CG and to the initial baseline (before the program started), with no significant differences between groups in the results of mathematics grading. The introduction of active classes based on playful maths games increases the amount of PA levels in children, and having one math class per week using PA, instead of seating in a traditional room, does not negatively affect the results in terms of mathematics grading. These positive results can contribute to more approaches, at schools, that combine PA and mathematics content. Full article
20 pages, 3583 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Generative AI for Teaching and Learning Practice
by Bayode Ogunleye, Kudirat Ibilola Zakariyyah, Oluwaseun Ajao, Olakunle Olayinka and Hemlata Sharma
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060636 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 532
Abstract
The use of generative artificial intelligence (GenAI) in academia is a subjective and hotly debated topic. Currently, there are no agreed guidelines towards the usage of GenAI systems in higher education (HE) and, thus, it is still unclear how to make effective use [...] Read more.
The use of generative artificial intelligence (GenAI) in academia is a subjective and hotly debated topic. Currently, there are no agreed guidelines towards the usage of GenAI systems in higher education (HE) and, thus, it is still unclear how to make effective use of the technology for teaching and learning practice. This paper provides an overview of the current state of research on GenAI for teaching and learning in HE. To this end, this study conducted a systematic review of relevant studies indexed by Scopus, using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search criteria revealed a total of 625 research papers, of which 355 met the final inclusion criteria. The findings from the review showed the current state and the future trends in documents, citations, document sources/authors, keywords, and co-authorship. The research gaps identified suggest that while some authors have looked at understanding the detection of AI-generated text, it may be beneficial to understand how GenAI can be incorporated into supporting the educational curriculum for assessments, teaching, and learning delivery. Furthermore, there is a need for additional interdisciplinary, multidimensional studies in HE through collaboration. This will strengthen the awareness and understanding of students, tutors, and other stakeholders, which will be instrumental in formulating guidelines, frameworks, and policies for GenAI usage. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1505 KiB  
Review
Virtual Reality in Preservice Teacher Education: Core Features, Advantages and Effects
by Anna C. Van der Want and Adrie J. Visscher
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060635 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 257
Abstract
This article presents a review of the research into the use of virtual reality (VR) for preservice teacher education. In addition to generating a description of the nature of VR, the analysis of the 24 included studies showed that the use of VR [...] Read more.
This article presents a review of the research into the use of virtual reality (VR) for preservice teacher education. In addition to generating a description of the nature of VR, the analysis of the 24 included studies showed that the use of VR in preservice teacher education can have several benefits for student teachers and their educators, such as practicing professional competence in safe and diverse VR environments, the possibility of monitoring student development with VR, the use of learning environments that would not be accessible, and distance education for student teachers when schools for internships are located too far away from a teacher training institute. Although research into the effects of the use of VR in preservice teacher education is still limited, the results thus far indicate positive effects on student teachers’ motivation, self-efficacy, and various classes of teacher skills. We reflect on the challenges with respect to designing VR environments for preservice teacher education and on studying VR effects on teaching quality and student learning outcomes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 375 KiB  
Article
Coding Decoded: Exploring Course Achievement and Gender Disparities in an Online Flipped Classroom Programming Course
by Smirna Malkoc, Alexander Steinmaurer, Christian Gütl, Silke Luttenberger and Manuela Paechter
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060634 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 237
Abstract
In introductory programming courses (IPCs), students encounter various difficulties that are related to low achievement and high dropout and failure rates. Technology-rich approaches that promote self-directed learning while facilitating competency development and knowledge construction through social collaboration may offer advantages in this context. [...] Read more.
In introductory programming courses (IPCs), students encounter various difficulties that are related to low achievement and high dropout and failure rates. Technology-rich approaches that promote self-directed learning while facilitating competency development and knowledge construction through social collaboration may offer advantages in this context. The current study assesses such an instructional approach by (1) identifying antecedents and process variables related to course achievement in an online flipped classroom IPC and (2) testing for gender differences regarding antecedents, process variables, and course achievement. In the winter semester of 2020/21, a sample of 144 Austrian university students participated in a survey with measurements at different points in time. Multiple linear regression was carried out to explore factors related to course achievement. The results indicate that gender, achievement-avoidance goals, academic self-concept, engagement in asynchronous learning, and course satisfaction were positively related to achievement. In contrast, work avoidance was identified as a barrier to achievement. Additionally, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was employed to test gender differences. MANOVA revealed significant gender differences regarding learning goals, mathematical self-concept, work avoidance, and engagement in synchronous learning. There were no gender differences regarding course satisfaction or achievement. The study has implications for designing innovative programming courses that could foster course satisfaction and achievement and thus reduce dropout and failure rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Education: Theory, Method and Practice)
18 pages, 583 KiB  
Review
A Scoping Review of Research on the Use of Digital Technologies for Teaching Reading Fluency
by Grace Oakley
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14060633 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Background: Reading fluency is a crucial component of reading. Research indicates that the use of digital technologies can help students with reading difficulties and disabilities improve their reading fluency. Objectives: The objective of this scoping review was to identify and describe research focusing [...] Read more.
Background: Reading fluency is a crucial component of reading. Research indicates that the use of digital technologies can help students with reading difficulties and disabilities improve their reading fluency. Objectives: The objective of this scoping review was to identify and describe research focusing on the use of digital technologies for teaching reading fluency to primary or elementary students in English-speaking settings. Design: Online databases were used to identify papers published between 2013 and 2023. Eighty-six papers that met the inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. Results: The review indicates that research has primarily focused on the use of digital technologies as interventions to support students at risk of reading difficulties and students with disabilities, with relatively little research emphasis on general classroom teaching of reading fluency. Moreover, uses of digital technologies for the teaching of reading fluency could mostly be categorised as “enhancements” of common non-digital strategies for teaching reading fluency, such as explicit teaching, drill and practice, and repeated readings. Much of the research has focused on the use of programs as opposed to the innovative use of open-ended digital tools. Conclusions: This paper raises questions about the relatively narrow uses of digital technologies in the teaching and research of reading fluency and calls for an expanded research agenda to include a broader range of pedagogical goals and approaches. Full article
Previous Issue
Back to TopTop