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Educ. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 7 (July 2024) – 90 articles

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16 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Navigating Schools through the Pandemic Crisis: A Study on the Determinants Influencing the Well-Being of Secondary Students in Northeast Thailand
by Nattapon Meekaew, Pattaraporn Weeranakin, Thanapauge Chamaratana, Buapun Promphakping and Siribhong Bhiasiri
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070766 (registering DOI) - 13 Jul 2024
Viewed by 156
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted education systems worldwide, with students facing challenges related to online learning, social isolation, and mental well-being. This study explores the determinants of well-being in education among secondary school students in northeast Thailand during the post-pandemic recovery phase. Employing [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted education systems worldwide, with students facing challenges related to online learning, social isolation, and mental well-being. This study explores the determinants of well-being in education among secondary school students in northeast Thailand during the post-pandemic recovery phase. Employing a multistage sampling approach and Cochran’s formula for sample size determination, the research engaged 400 students from 30 schools. Data were collected using an interview schedule based on the OECD’s framework for well-being in education, assessing psychological, social, cognitive, and physical dimensions. Multiple regression analysis revealed that students’ perceptions of the pandemic’s social impact, family relationships, school personnel, and the school’s physical environment significantly influenced their well-being in education, collectively explaining 45.30% of the variance. The findings underscore the importance of fostering supportive family environments, ensuring adequate school staffing, and improving educational infrastructure to enhance students’ well-being in the post-pandemic context. This study offers valuable insights for educators and policymakers in developing targeted interventions and policies that prioritize the holistic well-being of students, ensuring a resilient and inclusive educational environment in the face of global crises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supporting Wellbeing in Schools in the Post-pandemic Era)
19 pages, 777 KiB  
Essay
Learning to Read in Hebrew and Arabic: Challenges and Pedagogical Approaches
by Martin Luther Chan
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070765 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 211
Abstract
Hebrew and Arabic are Semitic languages that use abjad alphabets, a consonant-primary writing system in which vowels are featured as optional diacritics. The relatively predictable morphology of Semitic language renders abjad writing feasible, with literate native speakers relying on grammatical and lexical familiarity [...] Read more.
Hebrew and Arabic are Semitic languages that use abjad alphabets, a consonant-primary writing system in which vowels are featured as optional diacritics. The relatively predictable morphology of Semitic language renders abjad writing feasible, with literate native speakers relying on grammatical and lexical familiarity to infer vowel sounds from consonantal texts. However, in the context of foreign language acquisition, abjads present unique difficulties in the attainment of literacy. Due to the absence of written vowels, learners of Hebrew and Arabic face manifold challenges, such as phonetic ambiguity, extensive homography, and morphological unpredictability. Therefore, the inherent complexities of abjad alphabets necessitate targeted pedagogical intervention to increase metalinguistic awareness to strengthen learners’ reading skills—specifically, by recreating elements of literacy education for native speakers in the second language context. This article explores the linguistic challenges of abjads for foreign language students and how pedagogical methodologies can be optimized to ameliorate long-term learning outcomes. Full article
20 pages, 1070 KiB  
Article
Virtual Reality in Fluid Power Education: Impact on Students’ Perceived Learning Experience and Engagement
by Israa Azzam, Khalil El Breidi, Farid Breidi and Christos Mousas
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070764 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 182
Abstract
The significance of practical experience and visualization in the fluid power discipline, highly tied to students’ success, requires integrating immersive pedagogical tools for enhanced course delivery, offering real-life industry simulation. This study investigates the impact of using virtual reality (VR) technology as an [...] Read more.
The significance of practical experience and visualization in the fluid power discipline, highly tied to students’ success, requires integrating immersive pedagogical tools for enhanced course delivery, offering real-life industry simulation. This study investigates the impact of using virtual reality (VR) technology as an instructional tool on the learning and engagement of 48 mechanical engineering technology (MET) students registered in the MET: 230 Fluid Power course at Purdue University. An interactive VR module on hydraulic grippers was developed utilizing the constructivist learning theory for MET: 230 labs, enabling MET students to explore light- and heavy-duty gripper designs and operation through assembly, disassembly, and testing in a virtual construction environment. A survey consisting of a Likert scale and short-answer questions was designed based on the study’s objective to evaluate the students’ engagement and perceived attitude toward the module. Statistical and natural language processing (NLP) analyses were conducted on the students’ responses. The statistical analysis results revealed that 97% of the students expressed increased excitement, over 90% reported higher engagement, and 87% found the VR lab realistic and practical. The NLP analysis highlighted positive themes such as “engagement”, “valuable experience”, “hands-on learning”, and “understanding”, with over 80% of students endorsing these sentiments. These findings will contribute to future efforts aimed at improving fluid power learning through immersive digital reality technologies, while also exploring alternative approaches for individuals encountering challenges with such technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extended Reality in Education)
18 pages, 1792 KiB  
Article
Mapping the Landscape of Data Science Education in Higher General Education in Taiwan: A Comprehensive Syllabi Analysis
by Yu-Chia Hsu
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070763 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 204
Abstract
The evolving landscape of data science education poses challenges for instructors in general education classes. With the expansion of higher education dedicated to cultivating data scientists, integrating data science education into university curricula has become imperative. However, addressing diverse student backgrounds underscores the [...] Read more.
The evolving landscape of data science education poses challenges for instructors in general education classes. With the expansion of higher education dedicated to cultivating data scientists, integrating data science education into university curricula has become imperative. However, addressing diverse student backgrounds underscores the need for a systematic review of course content and design. This study systematically reviews 60 data science courses syllabi in general education across all universities in Taiwan. Utilizing content analysis, bibliometric, and text-mining methodologies, this study quantifies key metrics found within syllabi, including instructional materials, assessment techniques, learning objectives, and covered topics. The study highlights infrequent textbook sharing, with particular focus on Python programming. Assessment methods primarily involve participation, assignments, and projects. Analysis of Bloom’s Taxonomy suggests a focus on moderate complexity learning objectives. The topics covered prioritize big data competency, analytical techniques, programming competency, and teaching strategies in descending order. This study makes a valuable contribution to the current knowledge by tackling the challenge of delineating the specific content of data science. It also provides valuable references for potentially streamlining the integration of multiple disciplines within introductory courses while ensuring flexibility for students with varying programming and statistical proficiencies in the realm of data science education. Full article
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14 pages, 236 KiB  
Article
Impact of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme on Mathematics Student Teachers’ Teaching Practices during School Experiences
by Babawande Emmanuel Olawale
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070762 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 214
Abstract
While the pre-service teacher education (PSTE) programme holds global significance, there is a lack of evidence regarding its impact on the teaching practices of mathematics student teachers. Therefore, this study examines the impact of PSTE programmes on mathematics student teachers’ teaching practices during [...] Read more.
While the pre-service teacher education (PSTE) programme holds global significance, there is a lack of evidence regarding its impact on the teaching practices of mathematics student teachers. Therefore, this study examines the impact of PSTE programmes on mathematics student teachers’ teaching practices during school experiences. Grounded in a post-positivist paradigm, the study employs a mixed-methods research approach and a sequential explanatory mixed-methods design to gather data through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The research findings indicate that PSTE programmes have a significant impact on mathematics student teachers’ ability to teach mathematical content that aligns with curriculum standards, enhances their subject knowledge, and increases their confidence. However, the programmes have minimal influence on their ability to implement differentiated instruction during their teaching practices. Based on these findings, the study concludes that although mathematics student teachers may lack the necessary skills to implement differentiated instruction, high-quality teacher education programmes can build their confidence and enable them to effectively manage their classrooms and adapt teaching practices to meet diverse learner needs. Therefore, the study suggests that stakeholders involved in PSTE programmes should provide continuous guidance and constructive feedback to help student teachers overcome challenges and improve their teaching practices. This support system is crucial for the success of the PSTE programme and has a direct impact on the quality of mathematics instruction in schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Teacher Education)
14 pages, 7415 KiB  
Article
From the Spherical Earth Model to the Globe: The Effectiveness of a Planetary Model-Building Intervention
by Jan Amos Jelinek
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070761 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 217
Abstract
The shape of the Earth is a fundamental concept that students need to learn in astronomy education. This paper reports the findings of a study that confirms the effectiveness of an intervention involving the construction of a model of the Earth prior to [...] Read more.
The shape of the Earth is a fundamental concept that students need to learn in astronomy education. This paper reports the findings of a study that confirms the effectiveness of an intervention involving the construction of a model of the Earth prior to the introduction of the globe as a codified artefact. The educational intervention had been preceded by the EARTH2 test, which was used to check how well students participating in the study mastered the concept of the Earth’s shape. The study included forty-seven primary school students (grades I and II). Effectiveness was measured by comparing the answers chosen by Polish children in a test as mental models. The study confirmed (A) that the intervention was effective: 49% of progressive changes, 30% of regressive changes, and 21% of changes within the same mental model were observed; (B) that there was an increase in the children’s interest in space, revealed by an increased number of questions going far beyond the school astronomy curriculum; and (C) that students’ concerns about the dangers of space were revealed. Key findings include the following: (a) Educational effectiveness regarding the concept of the shape of the Earth is achieved in activities that involve building a spherical Earth model before introducing a globe as a ready-made model. (b) The topics addressed in astronomy classes must be far broader than what the current curricula provide. They should take into account current issues reported by the media and deal with astronomical discoveries and space technology. (c) When organising activities, children’s concerns about the dangers of space should be borne in mind. Full article
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20 pages, 4656 KiB  
Review
Impact and Classification of Augmented Reality in Science Experiments in Teaching—A Review
by Sabrina Syskowski, Sandra Wilfinger and Johannes Huwer
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070760 - 12 Jul 2024
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Augmented reality (AR) improves science education by facilitating teaching and experiments in schools and universities. Studies show positive effects, like increased motivation and improved concept connections, but there is a lack of consistency in the implementation and investigation of AR in science experiments. [...] Read more.
Augmented reality (AR) improves science education by facilitating teaching and experiments in schools and universities. Studies show positive effects, like increased motivation and improved concept connections, but there is a lack of consistency in the implementation and investigation of AR in science experiments. This review examines AR usage, criteria, design parameters for the development of AR applications and the validation methods, taking into account the PRISMA guidelines. A Web of Science database search using “Publish or Perish” software (version 23.4.0) identified 247 potentially relevant articles from 2000 to March 2024 in international, peer-reviewed journals. After removing duplicates, inaccessible abstracts, and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 studies were selected for in-depth analysis. Physics had the most AR applications, primarily for visualizing invisible properties. Most studies used quantitative or qualitative methods, only a few used both or did not conduct empirical research. Research questions varied, but common drawbacks included small sample sizes and low use of AR design parameters such as interactivity, adaptivity, realistic representation and use of game elements. This review identifies opportunities for improvement in the implementation and investigation of AR in science education experiments and emphasizes consistent and rigorous approaches to fully exploit the benefits of AR in science education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teaching and Learning with Virtual/Augmented Reality)
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17 pages, 898 KiB  
Systematic Review
Writing Strategies for Elementary Multilingual Writers: A Systematic Review
by Bethany P. Lewis
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070759 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 203
Abstract
Because of the Common Core State Standards (2010), all elementary students across the United States, including multilingual learners, must learn to compose written texts in opinion, informational, and narrative genres. By nature, writing also plays many diverse roles in educational settings, and advanced [...] Read more.
Because of the Common Core State Standards (2010), all elementary students across the United States, including multilingual learners, must learn to compose written texts in opinion, informational, and narrative genres. By nature, writing also plays many diverse roles in educational settings, and advanced writing skills are needed for students to reach interdisciplinary success. Specifically, writing can be incorporated into content-area learning in subjects such as science, social studies, and math to support genre-based writing development. While advanced writing can be challenging for any student to master, multilingual students may need additional support to develop these crucial composition skills because of the complexities of learning two languages simultaneously. Furthermore, while many educators understand that multilingual students have distinct literacy needs, not all teachers are prepared to meet these specific writing instructional demands. This article presents the results of a systematic review guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach. This study investigated literacy-based empirical research used to support multilingual learners since the inception of the Common Core (2010–2023) genre-based writing standards. In characterizing effective writing supports, seven themes emerged: (a) the role of the teacher, (b) writing mentor texts, (c) the creation of multimodal texts, (d) writing scaffolds, (e) authenticity, (f) specific teacher instruction, and (g) multilingual language approaches. While this body of research is literacy-focused, these findings provide elementary teachers with specific strategies to support developing multilingual writers when implemented into traditional literacy spaces or content-area instruction. Full article
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16 pages, 769 KiB  
Article
Teacher Leadership, Wellbeing, and Intent to Leave in US Rural Schools: Evidence from the 2020–21 National Teacher and Principal Survey
by Jordan Engle, Jiangang Xia and Sam J. Butler
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070758 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Leadership in rural schools is well studied. However, few studies have investigated how teacher leadership influences rural teacher job satisfaction, burnout, and attrition. This study aimed to fill the research gap by analyzing data from the 2020–21 National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS), [...] Read more.
Leadership in rural schools is well studied. However, few studies have investigated how teacher leadership influences rural teacher job satisfaction, burnout, and attrition. This study aimed to fill the research gap by analyzing data from the 2020–21 National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS), focusing on U.S. rural teachers. Using a sample of approximately 8910 rural teachers selected through a two-stage sampling process, this research examines the associations between teacher leadership, teacher wellbeing, and their intent to leave. The survey, administered by the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES), included measures of teacher leadership (instructional and non-instructional), job satisfaction, burnout, and intent to leave. The authors found that (a) rural teachers with higher levels of teacher leadership reported higher levels of job satisfaction and lower levels of burnout, (b) rural teachers with higher levels of job satisfaction or lower levels of burnout are less likely to leave or move, and (c) instructional and particularly non-instructional teacher leadership are indirectly linked to teacher intent to leave or move through job satisfaction and burnout. The discussions, conclusions, and implications for school policy and school leadership are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School Leadership and School Improvement)
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17 pages, 2861 KiB  
Article
Condensation and Precipitation of Water Vapor: The Emergence of a Precursor Model through the Engineering Design Process
by Michalis Ioannou, George Kaliampos and Konstantinos Ravanis
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070757 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Early Childhood Science Education, within a wide range of research topics, studies mental representations of children aged 3–8 years about natural phenomena. Recently, there has been a strong scientific interest in the way children construct precursor mental models. The current study attempts to [...] Read more.
Early Childhood Science Education, within a wide range of research topics, studies mental representations of children aged 3–8 years about natural phenomena. Recently, there has been a strong scientific interest in the way children construct precursor mental models. The current study attempts to address children’s mental representations of clouds, as well as condensation and the precipitation of water vapour. To fulfill this goal, a qualitative study was implemented involving 19 preschool children. Specifically, the survey included pre-tests and post-tests for recording children’s mental representations, as well as a structured teaching process. The main activities of this teaching process followed the four stages of the Engineering Design Process and a STEAM approach, adapted both to children’s cognitive needs and the conditions of a real classroom. The results showed that most children of this age (mean age: 5.05 years) were able to approach the concepts of condensation and precipitation, as well as the process of cloud creation. It seems, therefore, that it is possible for young children’s initial mental representations to be transformed into representations compatible with school knowledge. Finally, the data and the results of the research lead to the conclusion that children of this age are capable of constructing a precursor model about clouds and the phenomena of condensation and precipitation. Full article
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18 pages, 11460 KiB  
Article
Development of a Drawing Set for the Achievement Emotions Adjective List (DS-AEAL): Preliminary Data on a Pictorial Instrument for Children
by Daniela Raccanello and Roberto Burro
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070756 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 212
Abstract
This work investigated the goodness of a Drawing Set for assessing children’s achievement emotions, to be used together with a short form of the Achievement Emotions Adjective List (DS-AEAL). We considered control-value theory as the main theoretical framework. In Study 1, we developed [...] Read more.
This work investigated the goodness of a Drawing Set for assessing children’s achievement emotions, to be used together with a short form of the Achievement Emotions Adjective List (DS-AEAL). We considered control-value theory as the main theoretical framework. In Study 1, we developed a set of 10 drawings of faces representing enjoyment, pride, hope, relief, relaxation, anxiety, anger, shame, sadness, and boredom, involving 259 adults as raters. In Study 2, we administered a matching task and a labelling task to 89 adults. The results supported the goodness of the correspondence between the DS-AEAL and the verbal labels. In Study 3, we proposed the same tasks to 192 7-year-olds and 10-year-olds. We found age differences, with lower performance for younger children in line with their less-developed abilities in recognition and recall. Overall, recognition and recall were better for primary compared to secondary emotions. Notwithstanding their preliminary nature, our results support the goodness of the DS-AEAL to assess achievement emotions in various learning contexts, together with the corresponding verbal labels. It can satisfy research and educational purposes, primarily in academic contexts such as the school, where reliable, valid, and easy-to-administer methods are essential. Full article
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12 pages, 237 KiB  
Article
Early Childhood Educators’ Fear of Injury Risks Limits Movement and Physical Activity for Children—A Risk in Itself!
by Ann-Christin Sollerhed
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070755 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Many children spend a large proportion of their waking hours in early childhood education and care (ECEC). Movement and physical activity (PA) are crucial for children’s development and sustainable health. The competence to manage and assess risks starts early in life and can [...] Read more.
Many children spend a large proportion of their waking hours in early childhood education and care (ECEC). Movement and physical activity (PA) are crucial for children’s development and sustainable health. The competence to manage and assess risks starts early in life and can be improved through opportunities for challenging PA. The aim of this study was to investigate ECEC educators’ experiences and perceptions of injury risks in ECEC and examine their reasoning about teaching movement and PA, and experiences of any restrictions and prohibitions of movement and PA. Eighteen ECEC educators were interviewed. The qualitative content analysis revealed three themes with adherent sub-themes: Responsibility for the children (Caretaking and Empathy); Fear of being accused (Fear of being exposed and Fear of being irresponsible in the work team); Low competence in movement (Low expectations of children and Perceived poor personal movement skills). The study concluded that educators’ fear of injury risks limits the children’s movement and PA occasions. The educators’ perceived poor personal motor skills and low fitness combined with their perceived low competence to teach movement limit the possibility for the children to develop their motor skills, which in turn might affect the children’s physical literacy for sustainable health. Full article
26 pages, 4870 KiB  
Article
Using Mixed Reality in the Educational Practice: An Inquiry-Based Process of the Fluid Expansion–Contraction Phenomena by Pre-Service Teachers
by Nikolaos Mitrakas, Charilaos Tsihouridis and Denis Vavougios
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070754 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Students often find it difficult to understand phenomena of everyday life that occur in the natural world, such as the phenomenon of expansion and contraction of liquids, in which there are many misinterpretations. To address this difficulty, this paper suggests another perspective on [...] Read more.
Students often find it difficult to understand phenomena of everyday life that occur in the natural world, such as the phenomenon of expansion and contraction of liquids, in which there are many misinterpretations. To address this difficulty, this paper suggests another perspective on the didactic approach based on Mixed Reality, the attunement of the two worlds, the virtual and the real, and examines its effectiveness in teaching the phenomenon of fluid expansion. The main pillar of the educational process is teachers and the practices they use in the teaching process. For this reason, the sample of this survey consisted of 54 University students and prospective elementary education teachers. The mixed research approach was followed to collect the data. Through a Mixed Reality environment, using HoloLens 2, students followed a well-structured scenario and worksheets and observations to investigate the phenomenon of expansion/contraction of different fluids. The results demonstrate that through the interaction and direct feedback of the Mixed Reality environment, students gained a deeper understanding of the phenomenon. At the same time, the device was characterized as a particularly useful educational tool that should be accessible to all students for a better familiarization with complex scientific data. Full article
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13 pages, 235 KiB  
Commentary
Positive Psychology and Strengths-Based Interventions (SBIs): Implications for Uses with Special Student Populations (Special Needs, P-3, Gifted)
by Christian E. Mueller, Xu Jiang and Denise L. Winsor
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070753 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 172
Abstract
In 2000, Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi published the highly influential “Positive Psychology: An Introduction” in American Psychologist, and with it, they advocated for a strengths-based approach for helping people live a “good life”. Building on that work, positive psychology was further conceptualized as [...] Read more.
In 2000, Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi published the highly influential “Positive Psychology: An Introduction” in American Psychologist, and with it, they advocated for a strengths-based approach for helping people live a “good life”. Building on that work, positive psychology was further conceptualized as consisting of meta-psychological and practical aspects. The meta-psychological constitutes the aims or “grand vision” of what positive psychology stands for, whereas the practical constitutes the “nuts-and-bolts” elements that should be focused on in developing interventions. In the present commentary, we build on this previous work to propose a “positive psychology pragmatic framework” to develop strengths-based interventions (SBIs) for use with special student populations; in this case, students with special needs and P-3 and gifted students. Relatedly, we review the empirical and theoretical/conceptual literature relevant to the use of SBIs within each subpopulation as well as discuss some characteristics that make each subpopulation unique. Consequently, to the highest degree possible, we advocate for integrating intrapersonal, interpersonal, contextual/environmental, systemic, and developmental factors in developing SBIs and we make specific recommendations for future research through the lens of this proposed framework. Full article
16 pages, 438 KiB  
Review
Quality in School Trusts: A Comparative Study in Four Countries
by Daniel Muijs
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070752 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Recent decades have seen the emergence of new forms of governance in education. Market-oriented education policies have seen schools removed from local government oversight, and instead sees them run by independent school trusts. This begs the question of what effectiveness and quality in [...] Read more.
Recent decades have seen the emergence of new forms of governance in education. Market-oriented education policies have seen schools removed from local government oversight, and instead sees them run by independent school trusts. This begs the question of what effectiveness and quality in a trust framework mean. In this paper, we review the literature from four countries with relatively comparable trust structures: England, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the US, to look at the evidence base on trust quality, leadership, and effectiveness. We find that the evidence base itself is relatively limited in scope. It is strongest in relation to impact on the organisation, especially with regards to the importance of HR, relationships within the trust, and quality assurance mechanisms. There is evidence at the network level on the importance of knowledge and skills of governors, effective forms of collaboration, and a shared vision across the trust. Trusts can improve the quality of education through professional development of teachers, developing consistent approaches, and sharing knowledge. Evidence of how trusts can enhance their impact in the community is limited. Full article
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15 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
Educational Assessment Knowledge and Skills for Teachers Revisited
by Susan M. Brookhart
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070751 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 259
Abstract
In this article, I provide an update to a previous list of Educational Assessment Knowledge and Skills for Teachers. I argue that recent work in classroom assessment suggests expanding the list in several ways, adding additional statements about formative assessment’s connection to student [...] Read more.
In this article, I provide an update to a previous list of Educational Assessment Knowledge and Skills for Teachers. I argue that recent work in classroom assessment suggests expanding the list in several ways, adding additional statements about formative assessment’s connection to student learning and statements about assessment practices in their various contexts. This view of educational assessment knowledge and skills for teachers as contextual and situated was absent from the original 2011 list. Full article
16 pages, 430 KiB  
Article
Service Learning for Linguistic and Cultural Diversity in Higher Education: Proposals for Pre-Service (Language) Teacher Education
by Joana Duarte, Nadia Gerritsen, Mónica Lourenço, Sílvia Melo-Pfeifer and Susana Pinto
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070750 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Service learning, an educational methodology that intertwines community service with academic instruction, is garnering growing recognition within higher education due to its potential to enrich both research and outreach efforts. By integrating service learning into the curriculum, higher education institutions (HEIs) can bridge [...] Read more.
Service learning, an educational methodology that intertwines community service with academic instruction, is garnering growing recognition within higher education due to its potential to enrich both research and outreach efforts. By integrating service learning into the curriculum, higher education institutions (HEIs) can bridge the gap between research and praxis, effectively bringing research findings to local communities and influencing on-the-ground practices. While the benefits of service learning have been widely acknowledged in the literature, there remains a lack of understanding on how service learning can be integrated into teacher education programmes to support linguistic and cultural diversity at schools. Additionally, there is limited insight into how institutions engaged in social action perceive their collaboration with HEIs, particularly in the context of teacher education. In this contribution, we address these gaps, by presenting the results of a multimethod and multisite research study that aimed to explore the perspectives of social action initiatives on the potential collaboration with HEIs to promote (language) teacher education focused on linguistically and culturally responsive practices. The results point to a great heterogeneity of social action projects and expectations on the part of the institutions regarding collaboration with HEIs. Despite this diversity, common principles of collaboration emerge from the data. These principles lay the foundations for a framework that may shape collaborative efforts between HEIs and social action initiatives in the field of pre-service (language) teacher education with the goal of promoting pedagogies that respect and leverage linguistic and cultural diversity in multilingual settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Teacher Education)
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22 pages, 584 KiB  
Article
Latina and Black Women Collegians’ Paternal Relationships: A Chicana and Black Feminist Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
by Hannah L. Reyes, Kristen J. Mills, Danielle M. Cadet and Deborah J. Johnson
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070749 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 345
Abstract
In the current qualitative study, we explored father (and varying father figures’) ethnoracial and gendered socialization messages toward Latina and Black college women. We conducted six focus group interviews with Black (n = 3 groups) and Latina (n = 3 groups) [...] Read more.
In the current qualitative study, we explored father (and varying father figures’) ethnoracial and gendered socialization messages toward Latina and Black college women. We conducted six focus group interviews with Black (n = 3 groups) and Latina (n = 3 groups) college women. Guided by Chicana and Black feminist interpretive phenomenological analysis, we identified four clusters which detailed perceived paternal influences in the lives of these college women: (a) paternal caring, (b) gender socialization, (c) value of education, and (d) developing platonic and romantic relationships. Full article
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31 pages, 2742 KiB  
Article
The Development of a Mathematical Model of an Algorithm for Constructing an Individual Educational Trajectory for the Development of Methodological Competence among IT Discipline Teachers
by Sapar Toxanov, Dilara Abzhanova, Aidos Mukhatayev, Andrii Biloshchytskyi and Svitlana Biloshchytska
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070748 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
This article explores contemporary models of the development of methodological competence, focusing on the needs of IT discipline teachers. The challenges in implementing these features within modern educational conditions are identified, underscoring the necessity for creating innovative teaching methods adapted to the requirements [...] Read more.
This article explores contemporary models of the development of methodological competence, focusing on the needs of IT discipline teachers. The challenges in implementing these features within modern educational conditions are identified, underscoring the necessity for creating innovative teaching methods adapted to the requirements of IT teachers. By analyzing current trends in the educational environment, the authors highlight key stages in the continuous education system for teachers, including the mastering of basic education, adapting young teachers, and fostering their professional development. The article reveals the actual possibilities of developing the methodological competence of teachers as an ongoing endeavor to elevate their professional pedagogical culture. In the article, the authors propose a conceptual model within the domain of education, serving as the basis for constructing an efficient mathematical model which is specifically designed to create individualized learning trajectories for IT discipline teachers with the focus on managing the process of methodological competence development during the synthesis of training courses. The authors propose an innovative approach to teacher retraining, centered around individualized needs and abilities, with the aim of enhancing the quality of education in the field of information technology. Full article
2 pages, 147 KiB  
Editorial
Storytelling in STEM Disciplines: At the Crossroads of Science and Humanities
by Camilla Spagnolo, Giorgio Bolondi, Federico Corni and Mita Drius
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070747 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 251
Abstract
The collected papers in this Special Issue make significant contributions to educational research by demonstrating the multifaceted benefits of integrating storytelling and narrative techniques into teaching practices across various disciplines [...] Full article
12 pages, 466 KiB  
Article
Faculty Support as Part of Faculty Strategy on the Academic Motivation of the Working Students
by Horia Mihai Raboca and Florin Cărbunărean
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070746 - 9 Jul 2024
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Working students are an important and diverse category within today’s higher education institutions. Part of the strategies necessary for the academic motivation of working students and implicitly the increase of their performance concerns a series of strategies that involve individual, institutional and structural [...] Read more.
Working students are an important and diverse category within today’s higher education institutions. Part of the strategies necessary for the academic motivation of working students and implicitly the increase of their performance concerns a series of strategies that involve individual, institutional and structural factors. This study investigates the relationship between working students perceptions of faculty support and their overall level of academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation or amotivation) grounded in self-determination theory. The findings indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between faculty support and the overall level of students’ academic motivation. At the same time, the results show that both psychological and functional support, as indicators of faculty support, have strong relationships with different types of academic motivation. In this sense, our results indicate that faculty support for working students has a strong positive relationship with students’ intrinsic academic motivation and respectively a weaker relationship with academic amotivation. These results show that any policy or strategy adopted by faculty decision-makers to help working students improve their academic motivation (performance) must include the provision of support on different dimensions (social, psychological and functional). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Students in Higher Education)
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20 pages, 1447 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Bilingual/ESL Teachers’ STEM Instruction with Targeted Content and Disciplinary Literacy Professional Development: A Study on Knowledge and Practice Outcomes
by Zenaida Aguirre-Muñoz, Magdalena Pando and Chen Liu
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070745 - 7 Jul 2024
Viewed by 739
Abstract
Background: The increasing presence of English learners (ELs) in U.S. schools underscores the need for effective instructional strategies tailored to their diverse needs, especially in STEM subjects. Previous research primarily focused on self-reported teacher knowledge and specific curricular programs, often neglecting the integration [...] Read more.
Background: The increasing presence of English learners (ELs) in U.S. schools underscores the need for effective instructional strategies tailored to their diverse needs, especially in STEM subjects. Previous research primarily focused on self-reported teacher knowledge and specific curricular programs, often neglecting the integration of content and language knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a professional development (PD) program aligned with a previously reported teacher training knowledge framework aimed at improving bilingual/ESL teachers’ subject matter knowledge (SMK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and disciplinary literacy knowledge (DLK). Methods: This study employed a quasi-experimental design involving 30 teachers in three cohorts, each experiencing different levels of subject matter and disciplinary literacy knowledge. The program was assessed over four time points using multiple-choice tests on math and science knowledge and an instructional strategy rubric to evaluate teaching quality. Results: Significant improvements were observed in both content knowledge and instructional quality across all cohorts, with the greatest gains in cohorts that started the PD with a focus on SMK. Teachers’ understanding of disciplinary literacy and its integration with subject matter knowledge significantly enhanced their teaching effectiveness. Conclusions: The findings suggest that structured PD programs that integrate disciplinary literacy with content knowledge effectively enhance teacher professional knowledge and classroom practices. Starting PD with a strong focus on content knowledge prepares teachers to better apply disciplinary literacy strategies, thereby supporting more effective instruction for ELs. Implications: This study highlights the importance of considering the sequence of professional learning and the integration of content and disciplinary literacy strategies in PD programs. Future PD efforts should focus on these elements to maximize the impact on teacher development and student outcomes in bilingual/ESL settings. Full article
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25 pages, 1166 KiB  
Systematic Review
Educational Approaches with ΑΙ in Primary School Settings: A Systematic Review of the Literature Available in Scopus
by Spyridon Aravantinos, Konstantinos Lavidas, Iro Voulgari, Stamatios Papadakis, Thanassis Karalis and Vassilis Komis
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070744 - 6 Jul 2024
Viewed by 701
Abstract
As artificial intelligence (AI) becomes increasingly prevalent, it has become a topic of interest in education. The use of AI in education poses complex issues, not only in terms of its impact on teaching and learning outcomes but also in terms of the [...] Read more.
As artificial intelligence (AI) becomes increasingly prevalent, it has become a topic of interest in education. The use of AI in education poses complex issues, not only in terms of its impact on teaching and learning outcomes but also in terms of the ethical considerations regarding personal data and the individual needs of each student. Our study systematically analyzed empirical research on the use of AI in primary education, specifically for children aged 4–12 years old. We reviewed 35 articles indexed in SCOPUS, filtered them according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, analyzed them, and categorized the findings. The research focused on the studies’ objectives, learning content, learning outcomes, learning activities, and the pedagogy of activities or the AI tools. Our categorization resulted in three main categories of research objectives regarding the creation, implementation, and evaluation of AI tools and five categories for learning content: AI and ML (machine learning) concepts in STEM and STEAM, language learning, mathematics, arts, and various other subjects. The learning activities were split into four categories: apply, engage, interact, use; project-based learning with multiple activities; experience and practice; and students as tutors. The learning outcomes were split into three levels: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The pedagogy of AI tools falls into four categories: constructivism, experiential learning, AI-assisted learning, and project-based learning. The implications for teacher professional development are discussed. Full article
12 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
South African Teachers’ Application of Inclusive Education Policies and Their Impact on Learners with Learning Disabilities: Implications for Teacher Education
by Moyagabo Kate Malahlela and Ensa Johnson
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070743 - 6 Jul 2024
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Global inclusive education policies compel teachers worldwide to accommodate all learners in the teaching and learning environment, including learners with learning disabilities. This study aimed to investigate the application of inclusive education policies in South African mainstream educational institutions. The study further aimed [...] Read more.
Global inclusive education policies compel teachers worldwide to accommodate all learners in the teaching and learning environment, including learners with learning disabilities. This study aimed to investigate the application of inclusive education policies in South African mainstream educational institutions. The study further aimed to promote the acceptance and recognition of all learners with disabilities. The study employed a qualitative research approach and phenomenological design. In-depth interviews were used to generate the data, which were further transcribed and analyzed thematically. Ten teachers from five different mainstream schools were purposively selected to participate in the study. The findings revealed that South African teachers have adequate theoretical knowledge regarding inclusive education policies, with limited self-efficacy to apply such knowledge in inclusive teaching and learning environments. The study suggests the re-enforcement of the application of inclusive education policies through collaboration between special schools as resource centers, inclusive full-service schools, and mainstream educational institutions. The study argues that there should be continuous professional development for teachers in the field of inclusive education. The study’s findings will serve as a springboard for future research surrounding the same topic and to conscientize educational practitioners on the need to accommodate learners with learning disabilities in mainstream educational institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultivating Inclusive Classrooms: Practices in Special Education)
20 pages, 524 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Integration of Artificial Intelligence-Based ChatGPT into Mathematics Instruction: Perceptions, Challenges, and Implications for Educators
by Felix Oromena Egara and Mogege Mosimege
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070742 - 6 Jul 2024
Viewed by 414
Abstract
This research investigates how secondary school mathematics educators in the Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria, perceive the incorporation of artificial intelligence-based ChatGPT into teaching mathematics. The study employed a sequential exploratory mixed-methods strategy, starting with a systematic survey and followed by detailed [...] Read more.
This research investigates how secondary school mathematics educators in the Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria, perceive the incorporation of artificial intelligence-based ChatGPT into teaching mathematics. The study employed a sequential exploratory mixed-methods strategy, starting with a systematic survey and followed by detailed interviews. The Mathematics Teachers’ Awareness and Perceptions of AI-based ChatGPT Questionnaire (MTAPACQ) used in this study was adapted from an existing online survey and administered to 80 mathematics teachers, who were selected using stratified random sampling to ensure varied representation across different local government areas. The survey explored teachers’ awareness, utilisation, and perceptions of ChatGPT. Following the quantitative phase, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset of five teachers who were familiar with ChatGPT to gain deeper insights into their experiences. The findings indicate limited awareness of ChatGPT, with only 17% demonstrating familiarity with the technology. The infrequent utilisation of ChatGPT in mathematics teaching is mainly associated with this limited awareness. Teachers who integrate ChatGPT report positive outcomes, including improved teaching effectiveness, heightened student engagement, and enhanced comprehension of complex concepts. Nevertheless, the overall perceptions of the tool’s impact on mathematics teaching and learning are moderate. The identified challenges in relation to integration include technical adaptability, curriculum alignment, and the need for customisation to accommodate diverse learning styles. This study emphasises the significance of continuous professional development and ongoing support for teachers to integrate AI-based ChatGPT into mathematics instruction proficiently. The insights derived from the findings hold value for educators, policymakers, and technology developers aspiring to elevate the role of artificial intelligence in mathematics education. Full article
27 pages, 9684 KiB  
Article
Lessons for Sustainable Science Education: A Study on Chemists’ Use of Systems Thinking across Ecological, Economic, and Social Domains
by Emmi Vuorio, Johannes Pernaa and Maija Aksela
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070741 - 6 Jul 2024
Viewed by 266
Abstract
This paper explores how concept maps can be structured based on researcher narration as a systems thinking (ST) approach in science education to portray the systemic nature of developmental work by chemists on solutions related to sustainability. Sustainability cannot be achieved without a [...] Read more.
This paper explores how concept maps can be structured based on researcher narration as a systems thinking (ST) approach in science education to portray the systemic nature of developmental work by chemists on solutions related to sustainability. Sustainability cannot be achieved without a systemic approach that considers all the domains of prosperity and well-being—ecological, social, and economic. Science education must respond to this challenge accordingly and find effective ways to include the ST approach. Data were collected from three semi-structured, in-depth interviews with chemists. The analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis and modelling the systemic structures in concept maps as articulated by the chemists. The results show that authentic narratives of chemists’ developmental work can be used as material in a concept mapping exercise to reveal several ST elements and learning objectives, including leverage points and delays, that have not been presented in previous exercises. The chemists’ descriptions were also found to address the challenge of sustainability education by depicting a holistic and multidimensional picture of the reality where the developmental work is conducted. Furthermore, all three domains of sustainability were identified. The economic and industrial perspectives were especially valuable from the science education viewpoint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Editorial Board Members’ Collection Series in “STEM Education”)
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16 pages, 614 KiB  
Article
Acceptance of Educational Artificial Intelligence by Teachers and Its Relationship with Some Variables and Pedagogical Beliefs
by Julio Cabero-Almenara, Antonio Palacios-Rodríguez, María Isabel Loaiza-Aguirre and María del Rosario de Rivas-Manzano
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070740 - 6 Jul 2024
Viewed by 537
Abstract
This study explores teachers’ acceptance of artificial intelligence in education (AIEd) and its relationship with various variables and pedagogical beliefs. Conducted at the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL, Ecuador), the research surveyed 425 teachers across different disciplines and teaching modalities. The UTAUT2 [...] Read more.
This study explores teachers’ acceptance of artificial intelligence in education (AIEd) and its relationship with various variables and pedagogical beliefs. Conducted at the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL, Ecuador), the research surveyed 425 teachers across different disciplines and teaching modalities. The UTAUT2 model analyzed dimensions like performance expectations, effort expectations, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, usage behavior, and intention to use AIEd. Results showed a high level of acceptance among teachers, influenced by factors like age, gender, and teaching modality. Additionally, it was found that constructivist pedagogical beliefs correlated positively with AIEd adoption. These insights are valuable for understanding AIEd integration in educational settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ICTs in Managing Education Environments)
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30 pages, 614 KiB  
Systematic Review
Variables Linked to Academic Stress Related to the Psychological Well-Being of College Students Inside and Outside the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Higinio Guillermo Wong Aitken, Helen Catalina Rabanal-León, Jesús Catherine Saldaña-Bocanegra, Nelly Roxana Carranza-Yuncor and Rafael Fernando Rondon-Eusebio
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070739 - 5 Jul 2024
Viewed by 345
Abstract
The present study examines the impact of academic stress on the psychological well-being of college students during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to investigate similarities and differences in both scenarios. As a method, a review of the [...] Read more.
The present study examines the impact of academic stress on the psychological well-being of college students during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to investigate similarities and differences in both scenarios. As a method, a review of the scientific literature was carried out following the PRISMA methodology. The Scopus and Web of Science databases were used by applying eligibility criteria and multiple filtering stages. Thirty-seven studies were selected for a qualitative content analysis. The results allowed for five groups of variables associated with academic stress to be categorized: (1) adaptation to change; (2) study modality; (3) learning resources; (4) academic–life balance; and (5) socio-emotional variables. The comparative analysis evidenced the exacerbation of academic stress and the comprehensive affectation of psychological well-being during the social restriction measures put in place due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In post-pandemic contexts, responses were mitigated by available social and affective resources. It was concluded that academic stress and its associated variables had more unfavorable consequences on the psychological well-being of college students due to social isolation measures with remote education during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health of College Students in the Post-pandemic Era)
16 pages, 4883 KiB  
Article
Practice as Research through Inquiry-Based Learning: A Pedagogical Intervention with Music Students in Higher Education
by Pedro Iglesias and Jesús Tejada
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070738 - 5 Jul 2024
Viewed by 230
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a Participatory Action Research, whose main objective was to validate a pedagogical intervention characterized by adopting an inquiry-based learning methodology (IBL), and the paradigm of Practice as Research focused on musical performativity. This intervention sought to foster [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a Participatory Action Research, whose main objective was to validate a pedagogical intervention characterized by adopting an inquiry-based learning methodology (IBL), and the paradigm of Practice as Research focused on musical performativity. This intervention sought to foster autonomy, the relationship between theory and practice, and the development of critical reflexive skills in professional music students. The co-participants (12 students in the first cycle and 9 in the second) belonged to university training programs in vocal and instrumental interpretation, composition, and music pedagogy at different levels. In the intervention cycles, students were able to organize themselves collaboratively to achieve the learning objectives and research products designed in the intervention. During the process, they redefined research as a tool for professional development in their discipline. This empowered the participants, as they became aware that they themselves could build knowledge in their field. The intervention was validated, and the results highlight the potential of inquiry activities focused on musical performativity and Practice as Research in the context of higher music education, playing an integrating role in the construction of knowledge by and for practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
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17 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Racial Micro-Affirmations: Latinx Close Friendships and Ethnic Identity Development
by Rebeca Mireles-Rios, Nichole Margarita Garcia, Isaac M. J. Castro, Monica Hernandez and Rodolfo Cerda
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14070737 - 5 Jul 2024
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Through analysis of semi-structured interviews of 30 Latinx college students, we examined how Latinx students experience belonging, acceptance, and affirmations at a Hispanic-Serving Research Institution (HSRI) in California. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of racial micro-affirmations, we uncovered two major themes: the importance [...] Read more.
Through analysis of semi-structured interviews of 30 Latinx college students, we examined how Latinx students experience belonging, acceptance, and affirmations at a Hispanic-Serving Research Institution (HSRI) in California. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of racial micro-affirmations, we uncovered two major themes: the importance of close friendships and the impact that ethnic studies courses have on ethnoracial identity development. This study contributes to the ongoing discussion of the on-campus experiences of underrepresented students as well as how to best serve and affirm them at HSRIs. Full article
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