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Languages, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessBook Review Language Contact in Modern Uyghur. By Aminem Memtimin. Turcologica 108, Harrassowitz Verlag: Wiesbaden, Germany, 2016, 245p.; ISBN: 978-3-447-10631-3
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
The study of language contact can be approached from different perspectives, such as in terms of diachronic development, synchronic variation, structural change, or social meanings. [...] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Language Interaction in Emergent Grammars: Morphology and Word Order in Bilingual Children’s Code-Switching
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper examines the morphological integration of nouns in bilingual children’s code-switching to investigate whether children adhere to constraints posited for adult code-switching. The changing nature of grammars in development makes the Matrix Language Frame a moving target; permeability between languages in bilinguals
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This paper examines the morphological integration of nouns in bilingual children’s code-switching to investigate whether children adhere to constraints posited for adult code-switching. The changing nature of grammars in development makes the Matrix Language Frame a moving target; permeability between languages in bilinguals undermines the concept of a monolingual grammatical frame. The data analysed consist of 630 diary entries with code-switching and structural transfer from two children (aged 2;10–7;2 and 6;6–11;0) bilingual in Estonian and English, languages which differ in morphological richness and the inflectional role of stem changes. The data reveal code-switching with late system morphemes, variability in stem selection and word order incongruence. Constituent order is analysed in utterances with and without code-switching, and the frame is shown to draw sometimes on both languages, raising questions about the MLF, which is meant to derive from the grammar of one language. If clauses without code-switched elements display non-standard morpheme order, then there is no reason to expect code-switching to follow a standard order, nor is it reasonable to assume a monolingual target grammar. Complex morphological integration of code-switches and interaction between the two languages are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Code-Switching)
Open AccessArticle Refunctionalization and Usage Frequency: An Exploratory Questionnaire Study
Received: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper explores the relationship between refunctionalization and usage frequency. In particular, it argues that (a) refunctionalization is more likely for low-frequency construction than high-frequency constructions, and that (b) high-frequency patterns are more likely candidates as models for refunctionalization processes than low-frequency patterns.
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This paper explores the relationship between refunctionalization and usage frequency. In particular, it argues that (a) refunctionalization is more likely for low-frequency construction than high-frequency constructions, and that (b) high-frequency patterns are more likely candidates as models for refunctionalization processes than low-frequency patterns. It proposes that folk etymology processes be characterized as a type of refunctionalization process because in folk etymology, obsolescent and semantically void morphemes are replaced with morphemes that actually serve a function in language. This assumption allows for an empirical investigation of refunctionalization using an exploratory questionnaire study. The results indicate that usage frequency indeed plays a role in folk etymology processes, and consequently, refunctionalization. In particular, participants were more likely to accept false etymologies when the proposed etymon had a high usage frequency than when it had a low usage frequency. In summary, the present study proposes a way to study refunctionalization processes in synchrony. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Auditory–Visual Speech Integration in Bipolar Disorder: A Preliminary Study
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate how individuals with bipolar disorder integrate auditory and visual speech information compared to healthy individuals. Furthermore, we wanted to see whether there were any differences between manic and depressive episode bipolar disorder patients with respect to auditory and
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This study aimed to investigate how individuals with bipolar disorder integrate auditory and visual speech information compared to healthy individuals. Furthermore, we wanted to see whether there were any differences between manic and depressive episode bipolar disorder patients with respect to auditory and visual speech integration. It was hypothesized that the bipolar group’s auditory–visual speech integration would be weaker than that of the control group. Further, it was predicted that those in the manic phase of bipolar disorder would integrate visual speech information more robustly than their depressive phase counterparts. To examine these predictions, a McGurk effect paradigm with an identification task was used with typical auditory–visual (AV) speech stimuli. Additionally, auditory-only (AO) and visual-only (VO, lip-reading) speech perceptions were also tested. The dependent variable for the AV stimuli was the amount of visual speech influence. The dependent variables for AO and VO stimuli were accurate modality-based responses. Results showed that the disordered and control groups did not differ in AV speech integration and AO speech perception. However, there was a striking difference in favour of the healthy group with respect to the VO stimuli. The results suggest the need for further research whereby both behavioural and physiological data are collected simultaneously. This will help us understand the full dynamics of how auditory and visual speech information are integrated in people with bipolar disorder. Full article
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