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Atoms, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 15 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Charge exchange (CX) is important for understanding both astrophysical and atmospheric plasmas. CX [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
New Energy Levels and Transitions of 5s25p2 (6d+7s) Configurations in Xe IV
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040108 - 17 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Three-times ionized xenon Xe IV spectrum in the 1070–6400 Å region was analyzed using a pulsed discharge light source. A set of 163 transitions was classified for the first time, and 36 new energy levels belonging to the 5s25p26d [...] Read more.
Three-times ionized xenon Xe IV spectrum in the 1070–6400 Å region was analyzed using a pulsed discharge light source. A set of 163 transitions was classified for the first time, and 36 new energy levels belonging to the 5s25p26d and 5s25p27s even configurations were determined. The relativistic Hartree–Fock method, including core-polarization effects, were used. In these calculations, the electrostatic parameters were optimized by a least-square procedure in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels. We also present a calculation based on a relativistic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Charlotte Froese Fischer—Her Work and Her Impact
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040107 - 17 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Charlotte Froese Fischer has been at the forefront of research in atomic structure theory for over 60 years. She has developed many of the methods currently used by researchers and has written associated computer programs which have been published and hence made accessible [...] Read more.
Charlotte Froese Fischer has been at the forefront of research in atomic structure theory for over 60 years. She has developed many of the methods currently used by researchers and has written associated computer programs which have been published and hence made accessible to the research community. Throughout her career, she has consistently encouraged and mentored young scientists, enabling them to embark on independent careers of their own. This article provides an overview of the methods and codes she has developed, some large-scale calculations she has undertaken, and some insight into the impact she has had on young scientists, and the leadership she continues to show as she reaches her 90th birthday. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Coulomb (Velocity) Gauge Recommended in Multiconfiguration Calculations of Transition Data Involving Rydberg Series
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040106 - 26 Nov 2019
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Abstract
Astronomical spectroscopy has recently expanded into the near-infrared (nIR) wavelength region, raising the demands on atomic transition data. The interpretation of the observed spectra largely relies on theoretical results, and progress towards the production of accurate theoretical data must continuously be made. Spectrum [...] Read more.
Astronomical spectroscopy has recently expanded into the near-infrared (nIR) wavelength region, raising the demands on atomic transition data. The interpretation of the observed spectra largely relies on theoretical results, and progress towards the production of accurate theoretical data must continuously be made. Spectrum calculations that target multiple atomic states at the same time are by no means trivial. Further, numerous atomic systems involve Rydberg series, which are associated with additional difficulties. In this work, we demonstrate how the challenges in the computations of Rydberg series can be handled in large-scale multiconfiguration Dirac–Hartree–Fock (MCDHF) and relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) calculations. By paying special attention to the construction of the radial orbital basis that builds the atomic state functions, transition data that are weakly sensitive to the choice of gauge can be obtained. Additionally, we show that the Babushkin gauge should not always be considered as the preferred gauge, and that, in the computations of transition data involving Rydberg series, the Coulomb gauge could be more appropriate for the analysis of astrophysical spectra. To illustrate the above, results from computations of transitions involving Rydberg series in the astrophysically important C IV and C III ions are presented and analyzed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Belgian Repository of Fundamental Atomic Data and Stellar Spectra (BRASS)
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040105 - 22 Nov 2019
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Background: BRASS (Belgian Repository of Fundamental Atomic Data and Stellar Spectra) is an international networking project for the development of a new public database providing accurate fundamental atomic data of vital importance for stellar spectroscopic research. We present an overview of research results [...] Read more.
Background: BRASS (Belgian Repository of Fundamental Atomic Data and Stellar Spectra) is an international networking project for the development of a new public database providing accurate fundamental atomic data of vital importance for stellar spectroscopic research. We present an overview of research results obtained in the past four years. Methods: The BRASS database offers atomic line data we thoroughly tested by comparing theoretical and observed stellar spectra. We perform extensive quality assessments of selected atomic input data using advanced radiative transfer spectrum synthesis calculations, which we compare to high-resolution Mercator-HERMES and ESO-VLT-UVES spectra of F-, G-, and K-type benchmark stars observed with very high signal-to-noise ratios. We have retrieved about half a million atomic lines required for our detailed spectrum synthesis calculations from the literature and online databases such as VAMDC, NIST, VALD, CHIANTI, Spectr-W 3 , TIPbase, TOPbase, SpectroWeb. Results: The atomic datasets have been cross-matched based on line electronic configuration information and organized in a new online repository called BRASS. The validated atomic data, combined with the observed and theoretical spectra are also interactively offered in BRASS. The combination of these datasets is a novel approach for its development providing a universal reference for advanced stellar spectroscopic research. Conclusion: We present an overview of the BRASS Data Interface developments allowing online user interaction for the combined spectrum and atomic data display, line identification, atomic data accuracy assessments including line log(gf)-values, and line equivalent width measurements. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Element Abundances of Solar Energetic Particles and the Photosphere, the Corona, and the Solar Wind
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040104 - 20 Nov 2019
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Abstract
From a turbulent history, the study of the abundances of elements in solar energetic particles (SEPs) has grown into an extensive field that probes the solar corona and physical processes of SEP acceleration and transport. Underlying SEPs are the abundances of the solar [...] Read more.
From a turbulent history, the study of the abundances of elements in solar energetic particles (SEPs) has grown into an extensive field that probes the solar corona and physical processes of SEP acceleration and transport. Underlying SEPs are the abundances of the solar corona, which differ from photospheric abundances as a function of the first ionization potentials (FIPs) of the elements. The FIP-dependence of SEPs also differs from that of the solar wind; each has a different magnetic environment, where low-FIP ions and high-FIP neutral atoms rise toward the corona. Two major sources generate SEPs: The small “impulsive” SEP events are associated with magnetic reconnection in solar jets that produce 1000-fold enhancements from H to Pb as a function of mass-to-charge ratio A/Q, and also 1000-fold enhancements in 3He/4He that are produced by resonant wave-particle interactions. In large “gradual” events, SEPs are accelerated at shock waves that are driven out from the Sun by wide, fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A/Q dependence of ion transport allows us to estimate Q and hence the source plasma temperature T. Weaker shock waves favor the reacceleration of suprathermal ions accumulated from earlier impulsive SEP events, along with protons from the ambient plasma. In strong shocks, the ambient plasma dominates. Ions from impulsive sources have T ≈ 3 MK; those from ambient coronal plasma have T = 1 – 2 MK. These FIP- and A/Q-dependences explore complex new interactions in the corona and in SEP sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Physics at the Extreme: The Solar Abundance Problem)
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Open AccessReview
The Allure of High Total Angular Momentum Levels in Multiply-Excited Ions
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040103 - 15 Nov 2019
Viewed by 251
Abstract
In the interaction of fast ions with dense matter, the collision frequency is high enough to facilitate the simultaneous excitation of several electrons. Such multiply-excited few-electron systems have been exploited variously for plasma diagnostics. Beam-foil spectroscopic techniques, benefiting from the inherent time-resolution offered [...] Read more.
In the interaction of fast ions with dense matter, the collision frequency is high enough to facilitate the simultaneous excitation of several electrons. Such multiply-excited few-electron systems have been exploited variously for plasma diagnostics. Beam-foil spectroscopic techniques, benefiting from the inherent time-resolution offered by the geometry of typical experiments, have proven particularly fruitful for the study of emission patterns and level lifetimes of specific multiply-excited levels, especially those of maximum spin and total angular momentum. Typical cases are recalled to illustrate some general principles. Among many others, earlier beam-foil measurements have targeted the core-excited 2p53s3p 4D7/2 – 2p5 3s3d 4F9/2 transition in several Na-like spectra ranging from S VI to Cu XIX. Data on the six intermediate elements missing at that time are now added. The interest in such atomic systems with multiple excitations and high total angular momentum values is discussed with a variety of examples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Orthogonal Operators: Applications, Origin and Outlook
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040102 - 13 Nov 2019
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Orthogonal operators can successfully be used to calculate eigenvalues and eigenvector compositions in complex spectra. Orthogonality ensures least correlation between the operators and thereby more stability in the fit, even for small interactions. The resulting eigenvectors are used to transform the pure transition [...] Read more.
Orthogonal operators can successfully be used to calculate eigenvalues and eigenvector compositions in complex spectra. Orthogonality ensures least correlation between the operators and thereby more stability in the fit, even for small interactions. The resulting eigenvectors are used to transform the pure transition matrix into realistic intermediate coupling transition probabilities. Calculated transition probabilities for close lying levels illustrate the power of the complete orthogonal operator approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tracking Temporal Development of Optical Thickness of Hydrogen Alpha Spectral Radiation in a Laser-Induced Plasma
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040101 - 04 Nov 2019
Viewed by 271
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the temporal development of the optical density of the H α spectral line in a hydrogen laser-induced plasma. This is achieved by using the so-called duplication method in which the spectral line is re-imaged onto itself and the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider the temporal development of the optical density of the H α spectral line in a hydrogen laser-induced plasma. This is achieved by using the so-called duplication method in which the spectral line is re-imaged onto itself and the ratio of the spectral line with it duplication is taken to its measurement without the duplication. We asses the temporal development of the self-absorption of the H α line by tracking the decay of duplication ratio from its ideal value of 2. We show that when 20% loss is considered along the duplication optical path length, the ratio is 1.8 and decays to a value of 1.25 indicating an optically thin plasma grows in optical density to an optical depth of 1.16 by 400 ns in the plasma decay for plasma initiation conditions using Nd:YAG laser radiation at 120 mJ per pulse in a 1.11 × 10 5 Pa hydrogen/nitrogen gas mixture environment. We also go on to correct the H α line profiles for the self-absorption impact using two methods. We show that a method in which the optical depth is directly calculated from the duplication ratio is equivalent to standard methods of self-absorption correction when only relative corrections to spectral emissions are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Topological Characterization of the Crystallographic Structure of Titanium Difluoride and Copper (I) Oxide
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040100 - 01 Nov 2019
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Owing to their distinguished properties, titanium difluoride (TiF2) and the crystallographic structure of Cu2O have attracted a great deal of attention in the field of quantitative structure–property relationships (QSPRs) in recent years. A topological index of a diagram (G) [...] Read more.
Owing to their distinguished properties, titanium difluoride (TiF2) and the crystallographic structure of Cu2O have attracted a great deal of attention in the field of quantitative structure–property relationships (QSPRs) in recent years. A topological index of a diagram (G) is a numerical quantity identified with G which portrays the sub-atomic chart G. In 1972, Gutman and Trinajstić resented the first and second Zagreb topological files of atomic diagrams. In this paper, we determine a hyper-Zagreb list, a first multiple Zagreb file, a second different Zagreb record, and Zagreb polynomials for titanium difluoride (TiF2) and the crystallographic structure of Cu2O. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stark Widths Regularities Within: ns-np, np-ns, np-nd, nd-np and nd-nf Spectral Series of Potassium Isoelectronic Sequence
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040099 - 31 Oct 2019
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Results presented in this paper show a regular behaviour of Stark widths within the studied spectral series of potassium isoelectronic sequence. These regularities have been found and verified on the basis of the existing theoretical and experimental data being normalized for the same [...] Read more.
Results presented in this paper show a regular behaviour of Stark widths within the studied spectral series of potassium isoelectronic sequence. These regularities have been found and verified on the basis of the existing theoretical and experimental data being normalized for the same plasma conditions (chosen electron density and temperature). Using the available set of data the corresponding formulas expressing the Stark widths of the lines originated from the spectral series studied here as a function of the upper-level ionization potential and the rest core charge of the emitter seeing by the electron undergoing transition, are obtained here. Well established and verified dependence is used to calculate Stark width data needed but not available so far. For the purposes of the operation with a large number of data, algorithms for the analysis of Stark width dependence on temperature and electron density and for the investigation of the assumed correlation between Stark width and ionization potential of the upper level of analyzed transition, have been made. Developed algorithms enable fast data processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic and Ionic Collisions with Formation of Quasimolecules)
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Open AccessArticle
Heavy Metals Detection in Zeolites Using the LIBS Method
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040098 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 306
Abstract
In this study, a possibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the analysis of zeolites containing copper, chromium, cobalt, cadmium, and lead in the concentration range of 0.05–0.5 wt.% is discussed. For the LIBS analysis, microporous ammonium form of Y zeolite with the [...] Read more.
In this study, a possibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the analysis of zeolites containing copper, chromium, cobalt, cadmium, and lead in the concentration range of 0.05–0.5 wt.% is discussed. For the LIBS analysis, microporous ammonium form of Y zeolite with the silicon to aluminum molar ratio of 2.49 was selected. Zeolites, in the form of pressed pellets, were prepared by volume impregnation from the water solution using Co(CH3COO)2.4H2O, CuSO4.5H20, K2Cr2O7, PbNO3, and CdCl2 to form a sample with different amounts of heavy metals—Co, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Cd. Several spectral lines of the mentioned elements were selected to be fitted to obtain integral line intensity. To prevent the influence of the self-absorption effect, non-resonant spectral lines were selected for the calibration curves construction in most cases. The calibration curves of all elements are observed to be linear with high regression coefficients. On the other hand, the limits of detection (LOD) were calculated according to the 3σ/S formula using the most intensive spectral lines of individual elements, which are 14.4 ppm for copper, 18.5 ppm for cobalt, 16.4 ppm for chromium, 190.7 ppm for cadmium, and 62.6 ppm for lead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Plasma Spectroscopy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantemol Electron Collisions (QEC): An Enhanced Expert System for Performing Electron Molecule Collision Calculations Using the R-Matrix Method
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040097 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 507
Abstract
Collisions of low energy electrons with molecules are important for understanding many aspects of the environment and technologies. Understanding the processes that occur in these types of collisions can give insights into plasma etching processes, edge effects in fusion plasmas, radiation damage to [...] Read more.
Collisions of low energy electrons with molecules are important for understanding many aspects of the environment and technologies. Understanding the processes that occur in these types of collisions can give insights into plasma etching processes, edge effects in fusion plasmas, radiation damage to biological tissues and more. A radical update of the previous expert system for computing observables relevant to these processes, Quantemol-N, is presented. The new Quantemol Electron Collision (QEC) expert system simplifyies the user experience, improving reliability and implements new features. The QEC graphical user interface (GUI) interfaces the Molpro quantum chemistry package for molecular target setups, and the sophisticated UKRmol+ codes to generate accurate and reliable cross-sections. These include elastic cross-sections, super elastic cross-sections between excited states, electron impact dissociation, scattering reaction rates, dissociative electron attachment, differential cross-sections, momentum transfer cross-sections, ionization cross sections, and high energy electron scattering cross-sections. With this new interface we will be implementing dissociative recombination estimations, vibrational excitations for neutrals and ions, and effective core potentials in the near future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Charge Exchange Cross Sections for Noble Gas Ions and N2 between 0.2 and 5.0 keV
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040096 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Charge transfer of an electron from a neutral atom to an ion is a fundamental interaction that plays a dominant role in the energy balance of atmospheric and astrophysical plasmas. The present investigation measured the charge exchange cross sections of noble gas ions [...] Read more.
Charge transfer of an electron from a neutral atom to an ion is a fundamental interaction that plays a dominant role in the energy balance of atmospheric and astrophysical plasmas. The present investigation measured the charge exchange cross sections of noble gas ions (He + , Ne + , Ar + , Kr + ) with N 2 in the intermediate energy range 0.2–5.0 keV. The systems were chosen because there remains a lack of consensus amongst previous measurements and regions where there were no previous measurements. A description of the mechanical design for an electrically floated gas cell is described herein. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling of the Hα Emission from ADITYA Tokamak Plasmas
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040095 - 05 Oct 2019
Viewed by 343
Abstract
The spatial profile of Hα spectrum is regularly measured using a high-resolution multi-track spectrometer in ADITYA tokamak to study the neutral particle behavior. The Monte Carlo neutral particle transport code DEGAS2 is used to model the experimental Hα spectral emissions. Through [...] Read more.
The spatial profile of Hα spectrum is regularly measured using a high-resolution multi-track spectrometer in ADITYA tokamak to study the neutral particle behavior. The Monte Carlo neutral particle transport code DEGAS2 is used to model the experimental Hα spectral emissions. Through the modeling of the spectral line profile of Hα, it is found that the neutral hydrogen, which is produced from molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion dissociation processes contributes 56% to the total Hα emission, and the atoms which are produced from charge-exchange process have 30% contribution. Furthermore, the experimentally measured spatial profile of chord integrated brightness was modeled for the two plasma discharges having relatively high and low density to understand the neutral particle penetration. The presence of neutrals inside the core region of the ADITYA tokamak is mainly due to the charge-exchange process. Furthermore, it is observed that neutral particle penetration is lower in higher density discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Spectroscopy in the Presence of Magnetic Fields)
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Open AccessArticle
Line Shapes in a Magnetic Field: Trajectory Modifictions II: Full Collision-Time Statistics
Atoms 2019, 7(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7040094 - 05 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 320
Abstract
In a previous paper, a variation of the Collision-time Statistics method was applied to identify the relevant perturbers for line broadening under the action of a constant magnetic field. As discussed, that version was simplified and inadequate for low magnetic field and/or large [...] Read more.
In a previous paper, a variation of the Collision-time Statistics method was applied to identify the relevant perturbers for line broadening under the action of a constant magnetic field. As discussed, that version was simplified and inadequate for low magnetic field and/or large perturber mass (ions). The purpose of the present work is to augment the previous work, so that such cases can be handed efficiently. The results may also be used to construct analytic, i.e., impact/unified models under the usual assumptions in these models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Spectroscopy in the Presence of Magnetic Fields)
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