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Universe, Volume 5, Issue 1 (January 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The ability to reproduce the observed matter power spectrum P(k) to high accuracy has long been [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Muon Radiography of Ancient Mines: The San Silvestro Archaeo-Mining Park (Campiglia Marittima, Tuscany)
Universe 2019, 5(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5010034 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Muon absorption radiography is an imaging technique based on the measurement of the absorption of cosmic ray muons. This technique has recently been used successfully to investigate the presence of unknown cavities in the Bourbon Gallery in Naples and in the Chephren Pyramid
[...] Read more.
Muon absorption radiography is an imaging technique based on the measurement of the absorption of cosmic ray muons. This technique has recently been used successfully to investigate the presence of unknown cavities in the Bourbon Gallery in Naples and in the Chephren Pyramid at Cairo. The MIMA detector (Muon Imaging for Mining and Archaeology) is a prototype muon tracker for muon radiography for application in the fields of archaelogy and mining. It is made of three pairs of X-Y planes each consisting of 21 scintillator bars with a silicon photomultiplier readout. The detector is compact, robust, easily transportable, and has a low power consumption: all of which makes the detector ideal for measurements in confined and isolated environments. With this detector, a measurement from inside the Temperino mine in the San Silvestro archaeo-mining park in Tuscany was performed. The park includes about 25 km of mining tunnels arranged on several levels that have been exploited from the Etruscan time. The measured muon absorption was compared to the simulated one, obtained from the information provided by 3D laser scanner measurements and cartographic maps of the mountain above the mine, in order to obtain information about the average density of the rock. This allowed one to confirm the presence of a partially accessible exploitation opening and provided some hints regarding the presence of a high-density body within the rock. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Entanglement and Disordered-Enhanced Topological Phase in the Kitaev Chain
Universe 2019, 5(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5010033 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
In recent years, tools from quantum information theory have become indispensable in characterizing many-body systems. In this work, we employ measures of entanglement to study the interplay between disorder and the topological phase in 1D systems of the Kitaev type, which can host
[...] Read more.
In recent years, tools from quantum information theory have become indispensable in characterizing many-body systems. In this work, we employ measures of entanglement to study the interplay between disorder and the topological phase in 1D systems of the Kitaev type, which can host Majorana end modes at their edges. We find that the entanglement entropy may actually increase as a result of disorder, and identify the origin of this behavior in the appearance of an infinite-disorder critical point. We also employ the entanglement spectrum to accurately determine the phase diagram of the system, and find that disorder may enhance the topological phase, and lead to the appearance of Majorana zero modes in systems whose clean version is trivial. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication The ATLAS Fast TracKer—Architecture, Status and High-Level Data Quality Monitoring Framework
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
The Fast Tracker (FTK) is a highly parallel processor dedicated to a quick and efficient reconstruction of tracks in the Pixel and Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) detectors of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It is designed to identify charged particle tracks with transverse momentum
[...] Read more.
The Fast Tracker (FTK) is a highly parallel processor dedicated to a quick and efficient reconstruction of tracks in the Pixel and Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) detectors of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It is designed to identify charged particle tracks with transverse momentum above 1 GeV and reconstruct their parameters at an event rate of up to 100 kHz. The average latency of the processing is below 100 μ s at the expected collision intensities. This performance is achieved by using custom ASIC chips with associative memory for pattern matching, while modern FPGAs calculate the track parameters. This paper describes the architecture, the current status and a High-Level Data Quality Monitoring framework of the FTK system. This monitoring framework provides an online comparison of the FTK hardware output with the FTK functional simulation, which is run on the pixel and SCT detector data at a low rate, allowing the detection of non-expected outputs of the FTK system. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gravitational Fluctuations as an Alternative to Inflation
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
The ability to reproduce the observed matter power spectrum P(k) to high accuracy is often considered as a triumph of inflation. In this work, we explore an alternative explanation for the power spectrum based on nonperturbative quantum field-theoretical methods applied
[...] Read more.
The ability to reproduce the observed matter power spectrum P ( k ) to high accuracy is often considered as a triumph of inflation. In this work, we explore an alternative explanation for the power spectrum based on nonperturbative quantum field-theoretical methods applied to Einstein’s gravity, instead of ones based on inflation models. In particular, the power spectral index, which governs the slope on the P ( k ) graph, can be related to critical scaling exponents derived from the Wilson renormalization group analysis. We find that the derived value fits favorably with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey telescope data. We then make use of the transfer functions, based only on the Boltzmann equations, which describe states out of equilibrium, and Einstein’s general relativity, to extrapolate the power spectrum to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) regime. We observe that the results fit rather well with current data. Our approach contrasts with the conventional explanation, which uses inflation to generate the scale-invariant Harrison–Zel’dovich spectrum on CMB scales and uses the transfer function to extrapolate it to the galaxy regime. The results we present here only assume quantum field theory and Einstein’s gravity, and hence provide a competing explanation of the power spectrum, without relying on the assumptions usually associated with inflationary models. At the end, we also outline several testable predictions in this picture that deviate from the conventional picture of inflation and which hopefully will become verifiable in the near future with increasingly accurate measurements. Full article
Open AccessReview Inflation from Supersymmetry Breaking
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
I discuss the possibility that inflation is driven by supersymmetry breaking, with the superpartner of the goldstino (sgoldstino) playing the role of the inflaton. Imposing an R-symmetry to satisfy the slow-roll conditions, avoiding the so-called η-problem, leads to an interesting class of
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I discuss the possibility that inflation is driven by supersymmetry breaking, with the superpartner of the goldstino (sgoldstino) playing the role of the inflaton. Imposing an R-symmetry to satisfy the slow-roll conditions, avoiding the so-called η -problem, leads to an interesting class of small field inflation models, characterised by an inflationary plateau around the maximum of scalar potential near the origin, where R-symmetry is restored with the inflaton rolling down to a minimum, describing the present phase of the Universe. Inflation can be driven by either an F- or a D-term, while the minimum has a positive tuneable vacuum energy. The models agree with cosmological observations and, in the simplest case, predict a rather small tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial perturbations. This talk is an extended version of an earlier review (Antoniadis, 2018). Full article
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Open AccessArticle On Quantization of a Slowly Rotating Kerr Black Hole in Teleparallel Gravity
Universe 2019, 5(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5010029 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
In this article we calculate the total angular momentum for Kerr space-time for slow rotations in the context of teleparallel gravity. In order to analyze the role of such a quantity, we apply Weyl quantization method to obtain a quantum equation for the
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In this article we calculate the total angular momentum for Kerr space-time for slow rotations in the context of teleparallel gravity. In order to analyze the role of such a quantity, we apply Weyl quantization method to obtain a quantum equation for the z-component of the angular momentum density, and for the squared angular momentum density as well. We present an approximate solution using the Adomian decomposition method (AM), which reveals a discrete characteristic for angular momentum. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Open Questions in Black Hole Physics)
Open AccessCommunication Highlights from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
The highlights of the recent activities and physics results leading up to the summer of 2018 from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented here. The CMS experiment has a very wide-ranging physics program, and
[...] Read more.
The highlights of the recent activities and physics results leading up to the summer of 2018 from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented here. The CMS experiment has a very wide-ranging physics program, and only a very limited subset of the physics analyses being performed at CMS are discussed here, consisting of several important results from the analysis of proton-proton collision data at center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. These include important analyses of Higgs boson physics, with the highlight being the first observation of the t t ¯ H production of the Higgs boson, along with analyses pertaining to precision standard model measurements, top quark physics, with the single top production cross-section measurement, and flavor physics, with the important observation of χ b (3P) states. Additionally, important searches for physics beyond the standard model are also presented. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Experimental Limiting Factors for the Search of μ at Future Facilities
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
The search for the Lepton Flavor Violating decay μeγ exploits the most intense continuous muon beams, which can currently deliver ∼108 muons per second. In the next decade, accelerator upgrades are expected in various facilities, making it feasible
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The search for the Lepton Flavor Violating decay μ e γ exploits the most intense continuous muon beams, which can currently deliver ∼ 10 8 muons per second. In the next decade, accelerator upgrades are expected in various facilities, making it feasible to have continuous beams with an intensity of 10 9 or even 10 10 muons per second. We investigate the experimental limiting factors that will define the ultimate performances, and hence the sensitivity, in the search for μ e γ with a continuous beam at these extremely high rates. We then consider some conceptual detector designs and evaluate the corresponding sensitivity as a function of the beam intensity. Full article
Open AccessArticle On Quantum Fields at High Temperature
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Revisiting the fast fermion damping rate calculation in a thermalized momentum scale eT (QED) and/or momentum scale gT (QCD) plasma at 4-loop order, focus is put on a peculiar perturbative structure which has no equivalent at zero-temperature. Not surprisingly, and in agreement with
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Revisiting the fast fermion damping rate calculation in a thermalized momentum scale eT (QED) and/or momentum scale gT (QCD) plasma at 4-loop order, focus is put on a peculiar perturbative structure which has no equivalent at zero-temperature. Not surprisingly, and in agreement with previous C -algebraic analyses, this structure renders the use of thermal perturbation theory quite questionable. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Universe in 2018
Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Upgrade of the NA61/SHINE Facility beyond 2020 for an Expanded Physics Programme
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
The NA61/SHINE experiment studies hadron production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. The physics programme includes the study of the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point as well as reference measurements for neutrino and cosmic ray experiments. For strong interactions,
[...] Read more.
The NA61/SHINE experiment studies hadron production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. The physics programme includes the study of the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point as well as reference measurements for neutrino and cosmic ray experiments. For strong interactions, future plans are to extend the programme of study of the onset of deconfinement by measurements of open-charm and possibly other short-lived, exotic particle production in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This new programme is planned to start after 2020 and requires upgrades to the present NA61/SHINE detector setup. Besides the construction of a large acceptance silicon detector, a 10-fold increase of the event recording rate is foreseen, which will necessitate a general upgrade of most detectors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle μCosmics: A Low-Cost Educational Cosmic Ray Telescope
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
The design and construction of a small-area, low-cost educational cosmic ray telescope is presented. It can be operated in high-school classrooms or university laboratories. The telescope consists of three small-area scintillation detectors with all the necessary electronics for powering, control, monitoring, and data
[...] Read more.
The design and construction of a small-area, low-cost educational cosmic ray telescope is presented. It can be operated in high-school classrooms or university laboratories. The telescope consists of three small-area scintillation detectors with all the necessary electronics for powering, control, monitoring, and data acquisition. The calibration procedures and the performance of the telescope in reconstructing Extensive Air Showers are also presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On the Geometry of No-Boundary Instantons in Loop Quantum Cosmology
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
We study the geometry of Euclidean instantons in loop quantum cosmology (LQC) such as those relevant for the no-boundary proposal. Confining ourselves to the simplest case of a cosmological constant in minisuperspace cosmologies, we analyze solutions of the semiclassical (Euclidean) path integral in
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We study the geometry of Euclidean instantons in loop quantum cosmology (LQC) such as those relevant for the no-boundary proposal. Confining ourselves to the simplest case of a cosmological constant in minisuperspace cosmologies, we analyze solutions of the semiclassical (Euclidean) path integral in LQC. We find that the geometry of LQC instantons have the peculiar feature of an infinite tail which distinguishes them from Einstein gravity. Moreover, due to quantum-geometry corrections, the small-a behaviour of these instantons seem to naturally favor a closing-off of the geometry in a regular fashion, as was originally proposed for the no-boundary wavefunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Group Field Theory and Related Quantum Gravity Formalisms)
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Open AccessCommunication Latest Results from the T2K Neutrino Experiment
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
The T2K long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment measures muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance in accelerator-produced neutrino and anti-neutrino beams. This presentation reports on the analysis of our data from an exposure of 2.6×1021 protons on target. Results for
[...] Read more.
The T2K long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment measures muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance in accelerator-produced neutrino and anti-neutrino beams. This presentation reports on the analysis of our data from an exposure of 2.6 × 10 21 protons on target. Results for oscillation parameters, including the CP violation parameter and neutrino mass ordering, are shown. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Highlight Talk from Super-Kamiokande
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
Super-Kamiokande (SK), a 50 kton water Cherenkov detector in Japan, is observing both atmospheric and solar neutrinos. It is also searching for supernova (relic) neutrinos, proton decays and dark matter-like particles. A three-flavor oscillation analysis was conducted with the atmospheric neutrino data to
[...] Read more.
Super-Kamiokande (SK), a 50 kton water Cherenkov detector in Japan, is observing both atmospheric and solar neutrinos. It is also searching for supernova (relic) neutrinos, proton decays and dark matter-like particles. A three-flavor oscillation analysis was conducted with the atmospheric neutrino data to study the mass hierarchy, the leptonic CP violation term, and other oscillation parameters. In addition, the observation of solar neutrinos gives precise measurements of the energy spectrum and oscillation parameters. In this proceedings, we given an overview of the latest results from SK and the prospect toward the future project of SK-Gd. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Single-Top Quark Production at CMS
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
An overview of recent results of single-top quark production at the LHC using data collected with the CMS detector is presented. The CMS experiment has measured the electroweak production of the top quark in three production modes, namely t-channel, tW-channel, and s-channel. Measurements
[...] Read more.
An overview of recent results of single-top quark production at the LHC using data collected with the CMS detector is presented. The CMS experiment has measured the electroweak production of the top quark in three production modes, namely t-channel, tW-channel, and s-channel. Measurements of the rare processes involving a single-top quark with a Z boson and a single-top quark with a γ are also discussed. All measurements are in agreement with the standard model prediction, and no sign of physics beyond the standard model is observed. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Overview of the CMS Detector Performance at LHC Run 2
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of the two multipurpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It has successfully collected data during Run 1 (2010–2013) and achieved important physics results, like the discovery of the Higgs boson announced in 2012.
[...] Read more.
The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of the two multipurpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It has successfully collected data during Run 1 (2010–2013) and achieved important physics results, like the discovery of the Higgs boson announced in 2012. Willing to unravel further open questions not yet explained by the standard model, intense activities have been performed to further improve the detector and the trigger before the LHC restart in 2016 (Run 2), in parallel with the upgrade of the LHC. The achieved global performance of the CMS experiment and of several subdetectors will be presented. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Atmospheric Neutrino Search in the ICARUS T600 Detector
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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The 760-ton liquid argon ICARUS T600 detector performed a successful three-year physics run at the underground LNGS laboratories, studying in particular neutrino oscillations with the CNGS neutrino beam from CERN. This detector has been moved in 2017 to Fermilab after a significant overhauling
[...] Read more.
The 760-ton liquid argon ICARUS T600 detector performed a successful three-year physics run at the underground LNGS laboratories, studying in particular neutrino oscillations with the CNGS neutrino beam from CERN. This detector has been moved in 2017 to Fermilab after a significant overhauling and will be exposed soon to the Booster Neutrino Beam acting as the far station to search for sterile neutrinos within the SBN program. The contribution addresses the developed methods and the results of an analysis to identify and reconstruct atmospheric neutrino interactions collected by ICARUS T600 in the underground run at LNGS. Despite the limited statistics, this search demonstrates the excellent quality of the detector reconstruction and the feasibility of an automatic search for the electron neutrino CC interactions in the sub-GeV range, as required for the study of the BNB neutrinos at FNAL. Full article
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Open AccessReview Feynman Rules, Ward Identities and Loop Corrections in Very Special Relativity Standard Model
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we want to study one loop corrections in Very Special Relativity Standard Model(VSRSM). In order to satisfy the Ward identities and the Sim(2) symmetry of the model, we have to specify the Feynman rules, including
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In this paper, we want to study one loop corrections in Very Special Relativity Standard Model(VSRSM). In order to satisfy the Ward identities and the S i m ( 2 ) symmetry of the model, we have to specify the Feynman rules, including the infrared regulator. To do this, we adapt the Mandelstam–Leibbrandt (ML) prescription to incorporate external momentum-dependent null vectors. As an example, we use the new S i m ( 2 ) invariant dimensional regularization to compute one loop corrections to the effective action in the subsector of the VSRSM that describe the interaction of photons with charged leptons. New stringent bounds for the masses of ν e and ν μ are obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Strongly Intensive Observables in the Model with String Fusion
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
We calculate the strongly intensive observables for multiplicities in two rapidity windows in the model with independent identical strings taking into account the charge sign of particles. We express the observables through the string pair correlation functions describing the correlations between the same
[...] Read more.
We calculate the strongly intensive observables for multiplicities in two rapidity windows in the model with independent identical strings taking into account the charge sign of particles. We express the observables through the string pair correlation functions describing the correlations between the same and opposite sign particles produced in a string decay. We extract these charge-wise string two-particle correlation functions from the ALICE data on the forward-backward correlations and the balance function. Using them we predict the behavior of the charge-wise strongly intensive observables in the model with independent identical strings. We also show that the observable between multiplicities in two acceptance windows separated in rapidity, which is a strongly intensive in the case with independent identical strings, loses this property, when we take into account string fusion effects and a formation of strings of a few different types takes place in a collision. We predict the changes in the behaviour of this observable with energy and collision centrality, arising due to the string fusion phenomena. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Open Charm Measurements at CERN SPS Energies with the New Vertex Detector of the NA61/SHINE Experiment: Status and Plans
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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The study of open charm meson production provides an efficient tool for detailed investigations of the properties of hot and dense matter formed in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The interpretation of the existing data from the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) suffers from a lack
[...] Read more.
The study of open charm meson production provides an efficient tool for detailed investigations of the properties of hot and dense matter formed in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The interpretation of the existing data from the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) suffers from a lack of knowledge about the total charm production rate. To overcome this limitation, the heavy-ion program of the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS has been upgraded to allow for precise measurements of particles with a short lifetime. A new vertex detector (Small Acceptance version of the Vertex Detector (SAVD)) was constructed to meet the challenges of open charm measurements in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The first exploratory data taking of Pb + Pb collisions at 150A GeV/c with the SAVD was performed in 2016, and a D 0 signal was extracted in its D 0 π + + K decay channel. This was the first, direct observation of open charm in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS energies. Furthermore, the future plans of open charm measurements in the NA61/SHINE experiment related to the upgraded version of the Vertex Detector are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physical Justifications and Possible Astrophysical Manifestations of the Projective Theory of Relativity
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
The ‘projective theory of relativity’ is a theory developed historically by Oswald Veblen and Banesh Hoffmann, Jan Arnoldus Schouten and David van Dantzig. This theory differs radically from Kaluza-Klein/conformal type theories of spacetime, although it shares with these theories geometric aspects in five-dimensional
[...] Read more.
The ‘projective theory of relativity’ is a theory developed historically by Oswald Veblen and Banesh Hoffmann, Jan Arnoldus Schouten and David van Dantzig. This theory differs radically from Kaluza-Klein/conformal type theories of spacetime, although it shares with these theories geometric aspects in five-dimensional spaces. The peculiarity of the projective geometries involved in this theory was that it is based on spaces coordinated by five so-called ‘homogeneous coordinates.’ Since then, no physical observables could be ascribed to these five homogeneous coordinates and, in particular, during the elaboration of this theory which consequently fell completely into oblivion. We will present how this projective theory of relativity can be fully justified physically from the causal structures and localizing protocols involved in so-called ‘relativistic localizing systems’ that extend ‘relativistic positioning systems.’ We explain the correspondence between ‘homogeneous coordinates’ of the projective theory of relativity and the physical observables defined in relativistic localizing systems. Then, possible astrophysical manifestations will be presented based on projective effects, invariance of interactions, or observations with respect to projective transformations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Gravothermal Instability at All Scales: From Turnaround Radius to Supernovae
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
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Abstract
The gravitational instability, responsible for the formation of the structure of the Universe, occurs below energy thresholds and above spatial scales of a self-gravitating expanding region, when thermal energy can no longer counterbalance self-gravity. I argue that at sufficiently-large scales, dark energy may
[...] Read more.
The gravitational instability, responsible for the formation of the structure of the Universe, occurs below energy thresholds and above spatial scales of a self-gravitating expanding region, when thermal energy can no longer counterbalance self-gravity. I argue that at sufficiently-large scales, dark energy may restore thermal stability. This stability re-entrance of an isothermal sphere defines a turnaround radius, which dictates the maximum allowed size of any structure generated by gravitational instability. On the opposite limit of high energies and small scales, I will show that an ideal, quantum or classical, self-gravitating gas is subject to a high-energy relativistic gravothermal instability. It occurs at sufficiently-high energy and small radii, when thermal energy cannot support its own gravitational attraction. Applications of the phenomenon include neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae. I also extend the original Oppenheimer–Volkov calculation of the maximum mass limit of ideal neutron cores to the non-zero temperature regime, relevant to the whole cooling stage from a hot proto-neutron star down to the final cold state. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication The LUCID Detector for LHC Run-2
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
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LUCID (LUminosity Cerenkov Integrating Detector) is the main luminosity monitor of the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and in particular is the only one capable of providing bunch-by-bunch luminosity information, both online and offline, for all
[...] Read more.
LUCID (LUminosity Cerenkov Integrating Detector) is the main luminosity monitor of the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and in particular is the only one capable of providing bunch-by-bunch luminosity information, both online and offline, for all beam conditions and luminosity ranges. LUCID-2 refers to the detector upgrade designed to cope with the running conditions to be met in Run-2 (2015–2018): a center of mass energy of 13 TeV, with 50 pp interactions per bunch-crossing on average and a 25 ns bunch-spacing. This report summarizes all changes with respect to the detector deployed in Run-1 (2010–2012), including smaller sensors for higher granularity, new readout electronics for early signal digitization, and a completely new calibration concept guaranteeing long-term stability of the detector response. In addition, the overall detector performance in Run-2 and preliminary results on luminosity measurements are presented. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Four Loop Scalar ϕ4 Theory Using the Functional Renormalization Group
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
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Abstract
We work with a symmetric scalar theory with quartic coupling in 4-dimensions. Using a 2PI effective theory and working at 4 loop order, we renormalize with a renormalization group method. All divergences are absorbed by one bare coupling constant and one bare mass
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We work with a symmetric scalar theory with quartic coupling in 4-dimensions. Using a 2PI effective theory and working at 4 loop order, we renormalize with a renormalization group method. All divergences are absorbed by one bare coupling constant and one bare mass which are introduced at the level of the Lagrangian. The method is much simpler than counterterm renormalization, and can be generalized to higher order nPI effective theories. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Results from the Cuore Experiment
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Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 22 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
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Abstract
The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the first bolometric experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay that has been able to reach the 1-ton scale. The detector consists of an array of 988 TeO2 crystals arranged in a cylindrical
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The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the first bolometric experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay that has been able to reach the 1-ton scale. The detector consists of an array of 988 TeO 2 crystals arranged in a cylindrical compact structure of 19 towers, each of them made of 52 crystals. The construction of the experiment was completed in August 2016 and the data taking started in spring 2017 after a period of commissioning and tests. In this work we present the neutrinoless double beta decay results of CUORE from examining a total TeO 2 exposure of 86.3 kg yr , characterized by an effective energy resolution of 7.7 keV FWHM and a background in the region of interest of 0.014 counts / ( keV kg yr ) . In this physics run, CUORE placed a lower limit on the decay half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of 130 Te > 1.3 · 10 25 yr (90% C.L.). Moreover, an analysis of the background of the experiment is presented as well as the measurement of the 130 Te 2 ν β β decay with a resulting half-life of T 1 / 2 2 ν = [ 7.9 ± 0.1 ( stat . ) ± 0.2 ( syst . ) ] × 10 20 yr which is the most precise measurement of the half-life and compatible with previous results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Finite-Energy Dressed String-Inspired Dirac-Like Monopoles
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 30 December 2018
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Abstract
On extending the Standard Model (SM) Lagrangian, through a non-linear Born–Infeld (BI) hypercharge term with a parameter β (of dimensions of [mass]2), a finite energy monopole solution was claimed by Arunasalam and Kobakhidze. We report on a new class of solutions
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On extending the Standard Model (SM) Lagrangian, through a non-linear Born–Infeld (BI) hypercharge term with a parameter β (of dimensions of [mass] 2 ), a finite energy monopole solution was claimed by Arunasalam and Kobakhidze. We report on a new class of solutions within this framework that was missed in the earlier analysis. This new class was discovered on performing consistent analytic asymptotic analyses of the nonlinear differential equations describing the model; the shooting method used in numerical solutions to boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations is replaced in our approach by a method that uses diagonal Padé approximants. Our work uses the ansatz proposed by Cho and Maison to generate a static and spherically-symmetric monopole with finite energy and differs from that used in the solution of Arunasalam and Kobakhidze. Estimates of the total energy of the monopole are given, and detection prospects at colliders are briefly discussed. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Search for Neutrinos in Super-Kamiokande Associated with Gravitational Wave Events
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
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Abstract
We report the results from a search in Super-Kamiokande for neutrino signals coincident with gravitational-wave events using a neutrino energy range from 3.5 MeV–100 PeV. We searched for coincident neutrino events within a time window of ±500 s around the gravitational-wave detection
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We report the results from a search in Super-Kamiokande for neutrino signals coincident with gravitational-wave events using a neutrino energy range from 3.5 MeV–100 PeV. We searched for coincident neutrino events within a time window of ± 500 s around the gravitational-wave detection time. In this work, we report the number of events within the search-window and the 90 % confidence level upper limits on the neutrino fluence for each gravitational-wave event. Full article
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Open AccessReview Measurement of the Hadronic Resonance Production with ALICE at the CERN LHC
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 26 December 2018
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Abstract
We present a comprehensive study of hadronic resonance production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at different Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. In particular, the production of hadronic resonances, such as ρ(770)0, Κ*(892)0, φ(1020), Σ(1385)±, Λ(1520)
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We present a comprehensive study of hadronic resonance production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at different Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. In particular, the production of hadronic resonances, such as ρ(770)0, Κ*(892)0, φ(1020), Σ(1385)±, Λ(1520) and Ξ(1530)0 will be discussed in detail. In heavy-ion collisions, hadronic resonances are sensitive to the re-scattering and regeneration processes occurring between chemical freeze-out and kinetic freeze-out due to their short lifetimes. The measurements in pp and p-Pb collisions are used as a reference for heavy-ion collisions and to search for the onset of collective phenomena. We will report on the transverse momentum spectra, integrated yields, mean transverse momenta, particle ratios and nuclear modification factors of hadronic resonances. The results will be compared to those of other experiments, and to theoretical models and Monte Carlo generators. Full article
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Open AccessReview Spontaneous CPT Violation and Quantum Anomalies in a Model for Matter–Antimatter Asymmetry in the Cosmos
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
We review scenarios of baryogenesis through leptogenesis at early epochs of the universe, in string-inspired minimal extensions of the Standard Model (SM), involving heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos. Spontaneous violation of CPT symmetry is induced by appropriate (in general, temperature-dependent) backgrounds of the Kalb–Ramond
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We review scenarios of baryogenesis through leptogenesis at early epochs of the universe, in string-inspired minimal extensions of the Standard Model (SM), involving heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos. Spontaneous violation of CPT symmetry is induced by appropriate (in general, temperature-dependent) backgrounds of the Kalb–Ramond (KR) axion field, which has its origins in the (bosonic) massless string multiplet. As interesting features of the model, we also discuss two issues associated with quantum (chiral) anomalies: (i) the non-contribution of the KR axion background to the (anomalous) chiral magnetic effect, which arises in the presence of external electromagnetic fields and non-zero chiral chemical potentials of charged fermions; and (ii) the potential role of quantum fluctuations of the KR axion on the (anomalous) radiative generation of a Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrinos themselves. Full article
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