Next Issue
Volume 11, March
Previous Issue
Volume 11, January

Resources, Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve constitutes one of the largest forest complexes in northern Poland, which belongs to the plains of Central Europe. We provided the geotourist evaluation of 32 geosites. The evaluated geosites represent both perfect examples of typical features for the physiography of the TFBR, as a young glacial landscape, e.g., erratic boulders, glaciofluvial landforms, postglacial landforms, and lakes or peatbogs, as well as values proving the uniqueness of the area. We distinguished areas of high concentration of geosites, proposed geosites that require improving their accessibility, and noticed the influence of whirlwinds on changes in geotourism attractiveness. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Using New Spare Parts for Repair of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment? The Material Footprint of Individual Components
Resources 2022, 11(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020024 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 830
Abstract
The growing production of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) requires close loop management to protect the environment and save resources. Repair and reuse can extend the product’s life span. However, debates on the differences seen in resource consumption linked to the different [...] Read more.
The growing production of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) requires close loop management to protect the environment and save resources. Repair and reuse can extend the product’s life span. However, debates on the differences seen in resource consumption linked to the different ways of repairing devices have received a limited amount of attention. This article demonstrates quantification of the resource consumption (cradle-to-gate) of five types of appliances on a component level based on life-cycle assessment within the framework of the product-material-footprint. The data for this assessment is based on the dismantling of these products, weighing their components, and determining their material composition. The results show that the resource relevance of all devices is dominated by a few individual components. For example, for flat-screen monitors, 5 out of 17 components per device account for more than 90% of resource consumption (abiotic total material requirement). Hence, repairing devices while using new spare parts is not always the most resource-efficient way of handling WEEE. The results of this investigation suggest that the resource consumption in repairs should be taken into account at different levels, e.g., regulatory, with regard to eco-design requirements, or for informational purposes with a view to the consideration of the repair and reuse practices. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Regulatory Possibilities and Obstacles to Expand Renewable Energy and Preserve Landscape Quality in the Silesian Voivodship
Resources 2022, 11(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020023 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 773
Abstract
Current international works on strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation cite energy transition as one of the main challenges of the 21st century. Many social, economic, and ecological aspects have to be addressed, especially in regions which, for decades, relied on coal [...] Read more.
Current international works on strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation cite energy transition as one of the main challenges of the 21st century. Many social, economic, and ecological aspects have to be addressed, especially in regions which, for decades, relied on coal energy. One of those are changes in spatial planning and land use, which will significantly affect the landscape of those regions. One of these examples is Silesian Voivodship in Poland, where the coal-mining tradition dates back to the 17th century. This research focuses on the question of how and where renewable energy development is planned in the Silesian Voivodship, based on provisions from local spatial polices and to what extent post-mining and industrial sites are planned to be reused and how many other types of landscapes would be transformed into renewable energy landscapes. We argue that permitting development of renewable energy (RE) without appropriate regulations on where and how it should be developed may contribute to irreversible changes in the landscape and, as a result, to its degradation. Methods consisted of query and analyses of available publications, datasets, strategy and planning documents, both at regional and municipal level. The main results show that existing renewable energy and its development is mainly planned away from mining and post-mining industrial areas. In the future, this will have a significant impact on the transformation of, e.g., rural, natural and agricultural landscapes into new industrial energy landscapes, changing views and perception of these places. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Towards Transferable Use of Terrain Ruggedness Component in the Geodiversity Index
Resources 2022, 11(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020022 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Geodiversity, as diversity of the abiotic environment, includes terrain ruggedness (or roughness), which is one of the essential parts of geodiversity evaluation. The terrain ruggedness index (R) represents the value of one of the main geodiversity components. The purpose of the study is [...] Read more.
Geodiversity, as diversity of the abiotic environment, includes terrain ruggedness (or roughness), which is one of the essential parts of geodiversity evaluation. The terrain ruggedness index (R) represents the value of one of the main geodiversity components. The purpose of the study is to discuss the characteristics of R in the scope of geodiversity, and to show how R differs within two specific study areas if we study them using a data scale that covers both areas and only site-specific data. Hence, the main methods include geodiversity element mapping, calculating R based on either the study area or broader-scale data and discussing the differences that arise. The findings show that R should not be calculated only within individual study areas if the results among different study areas are to be compared; rather, it should first be calculated on a larger scale for the whole region in which we are about to compare the specific study areas. The applied value of these results is that such data are then suitable for calculating the geodiversity index (G) according to specific methodological steps and for further analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodiversity Assessment: What, Why and How?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparison of Effects of Chemical and Food Waste-Derived Fertilizers on the Growth and Nutrient Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
Resources 2022, 11(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020021 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 906
Abstract
The current high rate of food waste production, concomitant with the global increase in population and food demand, has adverse effects on environmental and socio-economic conditions. However, food waste has been shown to be an efficient and safe source of fertilizer in agriculture [...] Read more.
The current high rate of food waste production, concomitant with the global increase in population and food demand, has adverse effects on environmental and socio-economic conditions. However, food waste has been shown to be an efficient and safe source of fertilizer in agriculture practice. Moreover, minimizing the application of chemical fertilizers is a goal of sustainable agriculture. Considering these facts, we aimed to compare the effect of chemical fertilizer (CF-3,8 g·pot−1) and different doses of mixed food waste-derived fertilizer (MF-10.6 g·pot−1), two-fold MF (MF × 2), four-fold MF (MF × 4), and six-fold MF (MF × 6) in a popular salad crop, Lactuca sativa (lettuce). Our results showed the growth rates of lettuce plants receiving CF, MF, and MF×2 applications were essentially the same; however, plant biomass significantly dropped with MF × 6 treatment. The CF, MF, and MF × 2 treatments enhanced the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic rate of the plants and improved transpiration efficiency and stomatal conductance. With respect to mineral elements, the K+ content was significantly enhanced with MF × 2 and MF × 4 treatment, whereas MF × 6-treated plants showed lower concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, and K+ as well as higher Na+ concentration. Biochemical analysis showed the elevation of abscisic acid level with increasing dose of MF, except in the MF × 6 treatment. The level of super oxide dismutase (SOD) dropped with CF treatment, was unchanged with MF, and significantly increased in MF×2 and MF × 4 treated plants. Subsequently, higher flavonoid content was observed in MF×2 and MF×4 plants. The current results demonstrate the potential of food waste as a source of organic fertilizer and a significant substitute for chemical fertilizer in the conventional agricultural practice driven by high production cost and environmental pollution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Obtaining DHA–EPA Oil Concentrates from the Biomass of Microalga Chlorella sorokiniana
Resources 2022, 11(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020020 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1188
Abstract
Microalgae have attracted growing interest all around the world due to their potential applications in multiple sectors of industry, such as energetics, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and ecology. Concepts of biorefinery of microalgae lipids for biodiesel production coupled with other applications have been suggested [...] Read more.
Microalgae have attracted growing interest all around the world due to their potential applications in multiple sectors of industry, such as energetics, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and ecology. Concepts of biorefinery of microalgae lipids for biodiesel production coupled with other applications have been suggested in several studies. However, very few studies focus on overcoming the degree of unsaturation of microalgae lipids using methods of fractionation. This study presents a method for obtaining two oil fractions from microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana suitable for food and biofuels via urea complex formation with further production of a long-chain PUFA concentrated oil suitable for the nutraceutical industry. A DHA–EPA-rich fraction was obtained from the dry microalga biomass using a succession of extraction, urea-complexation, fractionation, and esterification with glycerol. Analytical and organoleptic methods were used to assess the quality of the final product. Results show that the urea-complexation method allowed the obtaining of two lipid fractions with different fatty acid profiles. The urea complexed fraction (UCF) contained a majority of saturated fatty acids (54.46%); thus, it could find applications in the biofuels or food industry. The non-urea complexed fraction (NUCF) was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (81.00%), especially long-chain PUFA with 16.52% EPA and 35.08% DHA. The recovery rates of EPA and DHA in the NUCF reached 59% and 87.14%, respectively. Finally, the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of the DHA–EPA oil concentrate were determined and found conform to the norms recommended by the WHO/FAO standards for edible oils and the Russian State Standard GOST 1129-2013. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Green Resources for Safety Improvement and Sustainable Landscape Design: The Case of a Dangerous Tehran-Dizin Road Bend
Resources 2022, 11(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020019 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
Improving road safety is not only reliant on engineering aspects but also on the surrounding landscape, which plays an indispensable role in drivers’ visual perception. As a part of road landscapes, green areas affect road safety by screening or framing views. While vistas [...] Read more.
Improving road safety is not only reliant on engineering aspects but also on the surrounding landscape, which plays an indispensable role in drivers’ visual perception. As a part of road landscapes, green areas affect road safety by screening or framing views. While vistas could be highlighted in safe spots in order for road users to enjoy their travel, in dangerous scenic points, visual attractions need to be concealed to lessen visual distractions and the risk of accidents. This study aims at optimizing road safety through sustainable landscape design in one of the dangerous Tehran–Dizin road bends to meet both road safety and environmental requirements. In doing so, cone of vision formulas have been applied to calculate measures of green landscape features so as to hide visual distractions and upgrade safety. To design such a green landscape, green resources and their characteristics have been elaborated, and native species have been suggested in plant composition, which can improve the sense of place, enhance the environment, and create a sustainable landscape. The research shows that a cone of vision could functionally be employed to increase the success of a designed green landscape, especially in situations where two-dimensional approaches are not sufficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources of Urban Green Spaces and Sustainable Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
End-of-Use vs. End-of-Life: When Do Consumer Electronics Become Waste?
Resources 2022, 11(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020018 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 903
Abstract
This study focuses on the lifespan of consumer electronics. The article reviews end-of-life terminology in scientific literature and suggests distinguishing end-of-use and end-of-life stages. The question, when electronics become waste, is approached using the concept of a system called PSSP language, which classifies [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the lifespan of consumer electronics. The article reviews end-of-life terminology in scientific literature and suggests distinguishing end-of-use and end-of-life stages. The question, when electronics become waste, is approached using the concept of a system called PSSP language, which classifies artefacts based on their attributes of purpose, structure, state and performance. It is highlighted that waste as a concept is dynamic; the same thing can be waste or non-waste at different times and places and for different people. Further, the article reviews the impact of storage behavior on the realization of the waste hierarchy, using mobile phones as a case study. Evidence suggests that over half of customers use their mobile phones for only two years, and there is little incentive to keep them in use longer. Surveys also indicate that over half of the customers do not return their phones for reuse or recycling but keep them at home. The article suggests that the three key factors, promoting the storing of an old phone, are the shortness of usage time, perceived residual value of replaced equipment and concerns of personal information security. It is also indicated that memories and the personal attachment to the device contribute to consumers’ storage decision. It is concluded that, to prolong the use of mobile phones, there is a demand for changing consumers attitudes towards the return of electronics for reuse and repair to be more positive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal and Industrial Waste Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A New Concept of Crisis Water Management in Urban Areas Based on the Risk Maps of Lack of Water Supply in Response to European Law
Resources 2022, 11(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020017 - 03 Feb 2022
Viewed by 744
Abstract
The paper presents issues related to ensuring the safety of water supply, based on the analysis and assessment of the risk of the lack of water supply to consumers using risk maps, in accordance with the current global trend recommended by guidelines and [...] Read more.
The paper presents issues related to ensuring the safety of water supply, based on the analysis and assessment of the risk of the lack of water supply to consumers using risk maps, in accordance with the current global trend recommended by guidelines and procedures, compliance with which should be a priority activity in the struggle against adverse events, related to the functioning of every collective water supply system (CWSS). The work contribution is the development of an original methodology of risk analysis and assessment for the needs of mapping the risk of a lack of water supply in the normal operation of the water supply network, as well as during a crisis. The presented methods take into account the quantitative aspect of the lack of water supply, with the possibility of extending the proposed solutions with a qualitative aspect. The article will contribute to the development of knowledge in the area of analysis and assessment of the risk of a water supply failure in PsDyW, and will determine new standards in its graphical presentation. It is a response to the World Health Organization (WHO) requirements of providing protection for the critical infrastructure and ensuring access to water for all citizens in the European Union. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Financial and Social Factors Influencing the Use of Unconventional Water Systems in Single-Family Houses in Eight European Countries
Resources 2022, 11(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020016 - 29 Jan 2022
Viewed by 755
Abstract
A modern model of water management should take into account, first of all, its responsible consumption of both tap water and water from unconventional sources. With this in mind, a study was conducted to determine the financial efficiency of rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs) [...] Read more.
A modern model of water management should take into account, first of all, its responsible consumption of both tap water and water from unconventional sources. With this in mind, a study was conducted to determine the financial efficiency of rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs) and greywater recycling systems (GWRSs) in residential buildings located in eight European countries. At the first stage, volumetric reliability was determined for different tank capacities for actual precipitation data. An economic analysis was carried out for six variants in which rainwater and greywater were used in various combinations for toilet flushing, washing, and garden watering. The implementation of alternative water systems was found to be financially unprofitable in four cities: Warsaw, Bratislava, Budapest, and Stockholm. For these cities, the variant with the lowest life cycle cost (LCC) level was always Variant 0, with conventional installations. The opposite situation was observed in the other four locations (Lisbon, Madrid, Rome, and Prague), where Variant 0 was not found to be financially profitable for any of the calculation cases analyzed. Additionally, a survey was conducted to determine the effect of social aspects, which is often the greatest barrier to the implementation of new or unknown technologies. In most of the countries surveyed, rainwater is more acceptable to society as an alternative water source than greywater. For hygiene reasons, the use of these two systems for washing clothes was of greatest concern. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Phycoremediation as a Strategy for the Recovery of Marsh and Wetland with Potential in Colombia
Resources 2022, 11(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020015 - 29 Jan 2022
Viewed by 898
Abstract
Colombia is the country with the sixth highest amount of water reserves in the world, and 25% of its territory is covered by wetlands. However, approximately 50% of the country’s water is estimated to exhibit some type of contamination related to anthropic activities. [...] Read more.
Colombia is the country with the sixth highest amount of water reserves in the world, and 25% of its territory is covered by wetlands. However, approximately 50% of the country’s water is estimated to exhibit some type of contamination related to anthropic activities. An alternative for the treatment and the recovery of its bodies of water is the use of microalgae, unicellular, and mixotrophic microorganisms, as these bioreactors are highly adaptable to the environment, and their maintenance costs are minimal, because they feed on almost any substrate. In fact, different countries have already reported using microalgae as bioremediators for bodies of water. The use of these microphytes is efficient because they metabolize, degrade, or bioaccumulate heavy metals, pesticides, emerging pollutants, and antibiotics. In general, strategies relying on microalgae to eliminate pollutants are very similar to one another. For example, the first stage often includes a process of bioadsorption, consumption, degradation, and accumulation, wherein the microalgae use molecules generated from their own cellular metabolism. Some pilot studies focusing on the phycoremediation of marshes and other bodies of water have already been conducted in Colombia; however, more studies on process optimization, effectively leveraging the biodiversity of the existing microalgae, and better adapting microalgae to the region are still required. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessment of Rainwater Retention Efficiency in Urban Drainage Systems—Model Studies
Resources 2022, 11(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020014 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Around the world, there is growing interest in the use of rainwater retention, and in particular channel retention, as part of urban drainage systems. This is made possible by means of intentional damming of rainwater in the existing sewer collectors in order to [...] Read more.
Around the world, there is growing interest in the use of rainwater retention, and in particular channel retention, as part of urban drainage systems. This is made possible by means of intentional damming of rainwater in the existing sewer collectors in order to maximise the use of gravitational spaces in the channels. This approach is particularly favourable for drainage types related to high levels of urban development, where construction of a building is difficult due to the low amount of space available. This article explains the results of a study concerning the efficiency assessment of three retention devices characterised by different hydraulic systems, one of which uses channel retention in its operation. The analysis conducted within the simulation study has demonstrated that the use of standard single-chamber reservoirs is the least efficient solution. A comparison of the functions of different hydraulic systems of retention reservoirs under equal conditions has shown that the necessary retention capacity of a single-chamber reservoir is many times greater in comparison to highly efficient solutions and it may constitute up to 582% of the reservoir’s capacity and works in conjunction with the channel retention system. At the same time, it has been demonstrated that the application of channel retention is not the most efficient solution for all hydraulic conditions for a drainage system or for all hydrological conditions. In addition, the article proposes a set of retention efficiency indices that may be used in the future assessment of individual rainwater storage solutions. Estimation of the necessary capacity of the retention facilities operating in specific hydraulic conditions was made on the basis of model tests—hydrodynamic modelling with the use of SWMM 5.0 software. The course of the research was planned using the theory of experiment planning (DOE) with the use of Statistica software, whereas efficiency indices were developed with the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The study results include practical and cognitive aspects. These may constitute guidelines for the designers and potential investors, as well as a tool with the aim of promoting the most efficient rainwater retention solutions in urban drainage systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Geoturist Evaluation of Geosites in the Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve (N Poland)
Resources 2022, 11(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020013 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 733
Abstract
The geotourist evaluation of 32 geosites, including mineral deposits occurrence (1), petrological (12), sedimentological (2), and geomorphological (9), as well as hydrological and hydrogeological (8) sites, located in the area of Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve (TFBR), has been carried out. The study aims [...] Read more.
The geotourist evaluation of 32 geosites, including mineral deposits occurrence (1), petrological (12), sedimentological (2), and geomorphological (9), as well as hydrological and hydrogeological (8) sites, located in the area of Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve (TFBR), has been carried out. The study aims to provide a qualitative assessment of geodiversity via the evaluation of abiotic nature objects, as well as propose modifications in geotourist valuation criteria, for the purpose of applying it to the areas located in the Central European Plains. The evaluated geosites represent both perfect examples of typical features for the physiography of the TFBR, as a young glacial landscape, e.g., erratic boulders, glaciofluvial landforms, postglacial landforms, and lakes or peatbogs, as well as values proving the uniqueness of the area on both regional and international scales, e.g., disused underground lignite mine “Montania”. High scores of geotourist attractiveness (between 36 and 44 points) have been received by 14 evaluated geosites (1 mineral deposits occurrence geosite, 4 petrological geosites, 1 sedimentological geosite, and 5 geomorphological geosites, as well as 3 hydrological and hydrogeological geosites). The remaining 18 geosites have received a medium score (between 25 and 34 points). Three areas of high concentration of geosites, which overlap with the boundaries of Tuchola, Wdecki, and Zaborski (area of the greatest diversity of highly-ranked geosites) landscape parks, were distinguished. The authors proposed geosites that require improving their accessibility to enhance the geotourist attractiveness, recognized the necessity of marking out geotourist trails in the most attractive and diversified areas, and noticed the influence of extreme weather phenomena (whirwinds) on changes in the geotourist attractiveness of some geosites. It is believed that the results of the conducted evaluation may favorably affect the importance, position, and publicity of the whole area by supplementing the well-recognized biodiversity with the geodiversity presented in the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodiversity Assessment: What, Why and How?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Predicting Ice Phenomena in a River Using the Artificial Neural Network and Extreme Gradient Boosting
Resources 2022, 11(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020012 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 671
Abstract
Forecasting ice phenomena in river systems is of great importance because these phenomena are a fundamental part of the hydrological regime. Due to the stochasticity of ice phenomena, their prediction is a difficult process, especially when data sets are sparse or incomplete. In [...] Read more.
Forecasting ice phenomena in river systems is of great importance because these phenomena are a fundamental part of the hydrological regime. Due to the stochasticity of ice phenomena, their prediction is a difficult process, especially when data sets are sparse or incomplete. In this study, two machine learning models—Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost)—were developed to predict ice phenomena in the Warta River in Poland in a temperate climate zone. Observational data from eight river gauges during the period 1983–2013 were used. The performance of the model was evaluated using four model fit measures. The results showed that the choice of input variables influenced the accuracy of the developed models. The most important predictors were the nature of phenomena on the day before an observation, as well as water and air temperatures; river flow and water level were less important for predicting the formation of ice phenomena. The modeling results showed that both MLPNN and XGBoost provided promising results for the prediction of ice phenomena. The research results of the present study could also be useful for predicting ice phenomena in other regions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
European Hophornbeam Biomass for Energy Application: Influence of Different Production Processes and Heating Devices on Environmental Sustainability
Resources 2022, 11(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020011 - 25 Jan 2022
Viewed by 732
Abstract
Environmental sustainability has recently shifted towards biodiversity protection via governmental and intergovernmental initiatives (e.g., the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, MA). The life cycle assessment, the widespread method for assessing environmental sustainability, was not created to evaluate impacts on biodiversity. However, several authors recognize [...] Read more.
Environmental sustainability has recently shifted towards biodiversity protection via governmental and intergovernmental initiatives (e.g., the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, MA). The life cycle assessment, the widespread method for assessing environmental sustainability, was not created to evaluate impacts on biodiversity. However, several authors recognize its ability to estimate biodiversity loss drivers (impact indices on land use change and ecosystem). The study aims to apply LCA to the forest sector, precisely to the wood–energy chain of Hophornbeam, to cover suggestions of the MA for the biodiversity impact assessment. Six different scenarios for stove (3) and fireplace (3) wood production were analyzed, evaluating two baselines and four alternative scenarios, including sensitivity analyses related to transport distances for the raw materials. The functional unit is 1 MJ of energy. The fireplace combustion scenarios are relatively more sustainable than the stove ones are (2.95–3.21% less). The global warming potential (around 3 g CO2 eq/MJ) is consistent with current European directives on the sustainability of biofuels and scientific literature. The scenarios showed similarities regarding the impact of the categories related to MA drivers. Although biodiversity is protected by limiting forest management, some authors argue that for some species (e.g., Hophornbeam), a rational tree felling could produce biofuels, increasing biodiversity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Resources in 2021
Resources 2022, 11(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020010 - 25 Jan 2022
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Article
Composite Aluminosilicate Materials for Sorption Extraction of Impurity Substances of Vegetable Oils
Resources 2022, 11(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020009 - 19 Jan 2022
Viewed by 635
Abstract
This paper considers mineral compositions and prospects for the processing of natural blue montmorillonite clay, pink Fe (III)-containing clay, and green Fe (II)-containing clay into composite aluminosilicate materials suitable for the sorption of related substances of vegetable oils. New Brønsted and Lewis centers [...] Read more.
This paper considers mineral compositions and prospects for the processing of natural blue montmorillonite clay, pink Fe (III)-containing clay, and green Fe (II)-containing clay into composite aluminosilicate materials suitable for the sorption of related substances of vegetable oils. New Brønsted and Lewis centers were found on the surface of the materials obtained when solutions of oxalic and succinic acids and sodium carbonate in scientifically-substantiated amounts were used as modifying additives. The established changes in the surface states are in correlation with the assessed affinity degree of active sites towards fatty acids, peroxide compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls in vegetable oils (flaxseed, olive, mustard), which are rarely refined in world production. These findings are of practical value for the development of a new direction of medical chemistry. It was revealed that the presence of impure hydromuscovite in natural raw materials and the resulting materials reduces the effect of extracting dyes from vegetable oils. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Application of New Hyperspectral Sensors in the Remote Sensing of Aquatic Ecosystem Health: Exploiting PRISMA and DESIS for Four Italian Lakes
Resources 2022, 11(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020008 - 19 Jan 2022
Viewed by 876
Abstract
The monitoring of water bio-physical parameters and the management of aquatic ecosystems are crucial to cope with the current state of inland water degradation. Not only does water quality monitoring support management decision making, it also provides vital insights to better understand changing [...] Read more.
The monitoring of water bio-physical parameters and the management of aquatic ecosystems are crucial to cope with the current state of inland water degradation. Not only does water quality monitoring support management decision making, it also provides vital insights to better understand changing structural and functional lake processes. Remote sensing has been widely recognized as an essential integrating technique for water quality monitoring, thanks to its capabilities to utilize both historical archive data for thousands of lakes as well as near-real time observations at multiple scales. To date, most of the applications developed for inland water have been based on multispectral and mid to coarse spatial resolution satellites, while a new generation of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy is now available, and future missions are under development. This review aims to present the exploitation of data gathered from two currently orbiting hyperspectral sensors (i.e., PRISMA and DESIS) to retrieve water quality parameters across different aquatic ecosystems, encompassing deep clear lakes and river dammed reservoirs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Carbon Footprint and Feedstock Quality of a Real Biomass Power Plant Fed with Forestry and Agricultural Residues
Resources 2022, 11(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11020007 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 652
Abstract
Phasing out fossil fuels to renewables is currently a global priority due to the climate change threat. Advocacy for biomass use as an energy source requires assessing the quality biomass and ecological impacts of bioenergy supply chains. This study evaluated the quality of [...] Read more.
Phasing out fossil fuels to renewables is currently a global priority due to the climate change threat. Advocacy for biomass use as an energy source requires assessing the quality biomass and ecological impacts of bioenergy supply chains. This study evaluated the quality of biomass residues from orchards and silviculture transported from different Northern and Central Italy locations and the carbon footprint of a biomass power plant. The total greenhouse emissions were calculated based on primary data for 2017 according to the ISO/TS 14067. All the residue samples showed their suitability for biofuel use. Ash content was relatively low on average (3–5% d.m.), except for grapevine residues (18% d.m.). The lower heating value was within the expected range of 15–21 MJ kg−1 for plant species. The average GHG emission from the power plant was 17.4 g CO2 eq./MJ of electrical energy, with the energy conversion (38%) and transportation of biomass (34%) phases being the main impact contributors. For this study, impacts of residual agricultural residue were about half that of residues from forest management, mainly due to chipping and greater transport distance. Results show that sourcing residual biomass materials for electricity generation close to power plants significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to conventional fossil fuels. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop