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Biology, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2015) , Pages 607-922

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Open AccessReview Phagocytosis in Teleosts. Implications of the New Cells Involved
Biology 2015, 4(4), 907-922; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040907
Received: 26 October 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1861 | PDF Full-text (120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phagocytosis is the process by which cells engulf some solid particles to form internal vesicles known as phagosomes. Phagocytosis is in fact a specific form of endocytosis involving the vesicular interiorization of particles. Phagocytosis is essentially a defensive reaction against infection and invasion [...] Read more.
Phagocytosis is the process by which cells engulf some solid particles to form internal vesicles known as phagosomes. Phagocytosis is in fact a specific form of endocytosis involving the vesicular interiorization of particles. Phagocytosis is essentially a defensive reaction against infection and invasion of the body by foreign substances and, in the immune system, phagocytosis is a major mechanism used to remove pathogens and/or cell debris. For these reasons, phagocytosis in vertebrates has been recognized as a critical component of the innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens. Furthermore, more recent studies have revealed that phagocytosis is also crucial for tissue homeostasis and remodeling. Professional phagocytes in teleosts are monocyte/macrophages, granulocytes and dendritic cells. Nevertheless, in recent years phagocytic properties have also been attributed to teleost lymphocytes and thrombocytes. The possible implications of such cells on this important biological process, new factors affecting phagocytosis, evasion of phagocytosis or new forms of phagocytosis will be considered and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Fish Immunity)
Open AccessReview Biology of Bony Fish Macrophages
Biology 2015, 4(4), 881-906; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040881
Received: 26 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 30 November 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2777 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Macrophages are found across all vertebrate species, reside in virtually all animal tissues, and play critical roles in host protection and homeostasis. Various mechanisms determine and regulate the highly plastic functional phenotypes of macrophages, including antimicrobial host defenses (pro-inflammatory, M1-type), and resolution and [...] Read more.
Macrophages are found across all vertebrate species, reside in virtually all animal tissues, and play critical roles in host protection and homeostasis. Various mechanisms determine and regulate the highly plastic functional phenotypes of macrophages, including antimicrobial host defenses (pro-inflammatory, M1-type), and resolution and repair functions (anti-inflammatory/regulatory, M2-type). The study of inflammatory macrophages in immune defense of teleosts has garnered much attention, and antimicrobial mechanisms of these cells have been extensively studied in various fish models. Intriguingly, both similarities and differences have been documented for the regulation of lower vertebrate macrophage antimicrobial defenses, as compared to what has been described in mammals. Advances in our understanding of the teleost macrophage M2 phenotypes likewise suggest functional conservation through similar and distinct regulatory strategies, compared to their mammalian counterparts. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing teleost macrophage functional heterogeneity, including monopoetic development, classical macrophage inflammatory and antimicrobial responses as well as alternative macrophage polarization towards tissues repair and resolution of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Understanding of Fish Immune Systems)
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Open AccessReview Fish Peroxiredoxins and Their Role in Immunity
Biology 2015, 4(4), 860-880; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040860
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2388 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative damage. In addition, Prxs may act as modulators of inflammation, protect against cell death and tumour progression, and facilitate tissue repair after damage. The most studied roles of Prx1 and [...] Read more.
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative damage. In addition, Prxs may act as modulators of inflammation, protect against cell death and tumour progression, and facilitate tissue repair after damage. The most studied roles of Prx1 and Prx2 are immunological. Here we present a review on the effects of some immunostimulant treatments and bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections on the expression of fish Prxs at the gene and/or protein level, and point to their important role in immunity. The Prxs show antioxidant activity as well as a protective effect against infection. Some preliminary data are presented about the role of fish Prx1 and Prx2 in virus resistance although further studies are needed before the role of fish Prx in immunity can be definitively defined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Fish Immunity)
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Open AccessReview Along the Axis between Type 1 and Type 2 Immunity; Principles Conserved in Evolution from Fish to Mammals
Biology 2015, 4(4), 814-859; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040814
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 10 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3988 | PDF Full-text (1842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A phenomenon already discovered more than 25 years ago is the possibility of naïve helper T cells to polarize into TH1 or TH2 populations. In a simplified model, these polarizations occur at opposite ends of an “immune 1-2 axis” [...] Read more.
A phenomenon already discovered more than 25 years ago is the possibility of naïve helper T cells to polarize into TH1 or TH2 populations. In a simplified model, these polarizations occur at opposite ends of an “immune 1-2 axis” (i1-i2 axis) of possible conditions. Additional polarizations of helper/regulatory T cells were discovered later, such as for example TH17 and Treg phenotypes; although these polarizations are not selected by the axis-end conditions, they are affected by i1-i2 axis factors, and may retain more potential for change than the relatively stable TH1 and TH2 phenotypes. I1-i2 axis conditions are also relevant for polarizations of other types of leukocytes, such as for example macrophages. Tissue milieus with “type 1 immunity” (“i1”) are biased towards cell-mediated cytotoxicity, while the term “type 2 immunity” (“i2”) is used for a variety of conditions which have in common that they inhibit type 1 immunity. The immune milieus of some tissues, like the gills in fish and the uterus in pregnant mammals, probably are skewed towards type 2 immunity. An i2-skewed milieu is also created by many tumors, which allows them to escape eradication by type 1 immunity. In this review we compare a number of i1-i2 axis factors between fish and mammals, and conclude that several principles of the i1-i2 axis system seem to be ancient and shared between all classes of jawed vertebrates. Furthermore, the present study is the first to identify a canonical TH2 cytokine locus in a bony fish, namely spotted gar, in the sense that it includes RAD50 and bona fide genes of both IL-4/13 and IL-3/ IL-5/GM-CSF families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Understanding of Fish Immune Systems)
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Open AccessReview Methods for Differentiating Prion Types in Food-Producing Animals
Biology 2015, 4(4), 785-813; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040785
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2438 | PDF Full-text (5252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prions are an enigma amongst infectious disease agents as they lack a genome yet confer specific pathologies thought to be dictated mainly, if not solely, by the conformation of the disease form of the prion protein (PrPSc). Prion diseases affect humans [...] Read more.
Prions are an enigma amongst infectious disease agents as they lack a genome yet confer specific pathologies thought to be dictated mainly, if not solely, by the conformation of the disease form of the prion protein (PrPSc). Prion diseases affect humans and animals, the latter including the food-producing ruminant species cattle, sheep, goats and deer. Importantly, it has been shown that the disease agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. Current diagnostic tests can distinguish different prion types and in food-producing animals these focus on the differentiation of BSE from the non-zoonotic agents. Whilst BSE cases are now rare, atypical forms of both scrapie and BSE have been reported, as well as two types of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Typing of animal prion isolates remains an important aspect of prion diagnosis and is now becoming more focused on identifying the range of prion types that are present in food-producing animals and also developing tests that can screen for emerging, novel prion diseases. Here, we review prion typing methodologies in light of current and emerging prion types in food-producing animals. Full article
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Open AccessReview Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors
Biology 2015, 4(4), 756-784; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040756
Received: 13 August 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2442 | PDF Full-text (33573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. [...] Read more.
Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Understanding of Fish Immune Systems)
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Open AccessReview Polish Scientists in Fish Immunology: A Short History
Biology 2015, 4(4), 735-755; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040735
Received: 3 September 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
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Abstract
This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) [...] Read more.
This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later starting in the late 1930s. Detailed papers on fish vaccination were published from 1970 onwards. Another important development was the unraveling of neuro-endocrine-immune interactions in the 1970s until today. Around 1980, it became more and more clear how important immunomodulation (stimulation or suppression by environmental factors, food components, drugs) was for fish health. The most recent findings are focusing on the discovery of genetic factors, signaling molecules, and receptors, which play a crucial role in the immune response. It can be concluded, that Polish scientists made considerable contributions to our present understanding of fish immunity and to applications in aquaculture worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Fish Immunity)
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Open AccessReview Neutrophil Development, Migration, and Function in Teleost Fish
Biology 2015, 4(4), 715-734; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040715
Received: 28 September 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3158 | PDF Full-text (5191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is now widely recognized that neutrophils are sophisticated cells that are critical to host defense and the maintenance of homeostasis. In addition, concepts such as neutrophil plasticity are helping to define the range of phenotypic profiles available to cells in this group [...] Read more.
It is now widely recognized that neutrophils are sophisticated cells that are critical to host defense and the maintenance of homeostasis. In addition, concepts such as neutrophil plasticity are helping to define the range of phenotypic profiles available to cells in this group and the physiological conditions that contribute to their differentiation. Herein, we discuss key features of the life of a teleost neutrophil including their development, migration to an inflammatory site, and contributions to pathogen killing and the control of acute inflammation. The potent anti-microbial mechanisms elicited by these cells in bony fish are a testament to their long-standing evolutionary contributions in host defense. In addition, recent insights into their active roles in the control of inflammation prior to induction of apoptosis highlight their importance to the maintenance of host integrity in these early vertebrates. Overall, our goal is to summarize recent progress in our understanding of this cell type in teleost fish, and to provide evolutionary context for the contributions of this hematopoietic lineage in host defense and an efficient return to homeostasis following injury or infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Understanding of Fish Immune Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Functional Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus/Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite RNA Silencing Suppressors
Biology 2015, 4(4), 697-714; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040697
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2877 | PDF Full-text (22361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In South Asia, Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is caused by a complex of phylogenetically-related begomovirus species and a specific betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB). The post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) suppression activities of the transcriptional activator protein (TrAP), C4, V2 and [...] Read more.
In South Asia, Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is caused by a complex of phylogenetically-related begomovirus species and a specific betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB). The post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) suppression activities of the transcriptional activator protein (TrAP), C4, V2 and βC1 proteins encoded by Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV)/CLCuMuB were assessed in Nicotiana benthamiana. A variable degree of local silencing suppression was observed for each viral protein tested, with V2 protein exhibiting the strongest suppression activity and only the C4 protein preventing the spread of systemic silencing. The CLCuKoV-encoded TrAP, C4, V2 and CLCuMuB-encoded βC1 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. TrAP was shown to bind various small and long nucleic acids including single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) RNA and DNA molecules. C4, V2, and βC1 bound ssDNA and dsDNA with varying affinities. Transgenic expression of C4 under the constitutive 35S Cauliflower mosaic virus promoter and βC1 under a dexamethasone inducible promoter induced severe developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana. The results indicate that homologous proteins from even quite closely related begomoviruses may differ in their suppressor activity and mechanism of action. The significance of these findings is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Nanodelivery Systems as New Tools for Immunostimulant or Vaccine Administration: Targeting the Fish Immune System
Biology 2015, 4(4), 664-696; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040664
Received: 28 August 2015 / Revised: 30 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 October 2015 / Published: 19 October 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2137 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish disease treatments have progressed significantly over the last few years and have moved from the massive use of antibiotics to the development of vaccines mainly based on inactivated bacteria. Today, the incorporation of immunostimulants and antigens into nanomaterials provide us with new [...] Read more.
Fish disease treatments have progressed significantly over the last few years and have moved from the massive use of antibiotics to the development of vaccines mainly based on inactivated bacteria. Today, the incorporation of immunostimulants and antigens into nanomaterials provide us with new tools to enhance the performance of immunostimulation. Nanoparticles are dispersions or solid particles designed with specific physical properties (size, surface charge, or loading capacity), which allow controlled delivery and therefore improved targeting and stimulation of the immune system. The use of these nanodelivery platforms in fish is in the initial steps of development. Here we review the advances in the application of nanoparticles to fish disease prevention including: the type of biomaterial, the type of immunostimulant or vaccine loaded into the nanoparticles, and how they target the fish immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Topics in Fish Immunity)
Open AccessReview T Cells in Fish
Biology 2015, 4(4), 640-663; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040640
Received: 2 August 2015 / Revised: 11 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3140 | PDF Full-text (812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from [...] Read more.
Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4+ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α+, CD4+ T-cells and sIgM+ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Understanding of Fish Immune Systems)
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Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Peptides as Mediators of Innate Immunity in Teleosts
Biology 2015, 4(4), 607-639; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology4040607
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 16 September 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2663 | PDF Full-text (699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified throughout the metazoa suggesting their evolutionarily conserved nature and their presence in teleosts is no exception. AMPs are short (18–46 amino acids), usually cationic, amphipathic peptides. While AMPs are diverse in amino acid sequence, with no two [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified throughout the metazoa suggesting their evolutionarily conserved nature and their presence in teleosts is no exception. AMPs are short (18–46 amino acids), usually cationic, amphipathic peptides. While AMPs are diverse in amino acid sequence, with no two AMPs being identical, they collectively appear to have conserved functions in the innate immunity of animals towards the pathogens they encounter in their environment. Fish AMPs are upregulated in response to pathogens and appear to have direct broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity towards both human and fish pathogens. However, an emerging role for AMPs as immunomodulatory molecules has become apparent—the ability of AMPs to activate the innate immune system sheds light onto the multifaceted capacity of these small peptides to combat pathogens through direct and indirect means. Herein, this review focuses on the role of teleost AMPs as modulators of the innate immune system and their regulation in response to pathogens or other exogenous molecules. The capacity to regulate AMP expression by exogenous factors may prove useful in modulating AMP expression in fish to prevent disease, particularly in aquaculture settings where crowded conditions and environmental stress pre-dispose these fish to infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Understanding of Fish Immune Systems)
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