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Fibers, Volume 7, Issue 1 (January 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Polypropylene microporous hydrophobic membranes are applied in membrane distillation. In this [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Investigation on the Mechanical Properties and Post-Cracking Behavior of Polyolefin Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
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Abstract
This paper deals with the behavior of concrete’s self-compatibility in a fresh state and its compressive and flexural strength in a hardened state with the addition of polyolefin macro fibers. Four different amounts (3 kg/m3, 4.5 kg/m3, 6 kg/m [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the behavior of concrete’s self-compatibility in a fresh state and its compressive and flexural strength in a hardened state with the addition of polyolefin macro fibers. Four different amounts (3 kg/m3, 4.5 kg/m3, 6 kg/m3, and 9 kg/m3) of polyolefin macro fibers were mixed into the concrete mixture to observe the differences in workability and strength properties between the concrete specimens. As a partial replacement of cement, class C type of fly ash was added to make up 25% of the total cement mass. The water-binder ratio (W/B) of the concrete mix was 0.36. Superplasticizer was added to the concrete mixture to achieve self-compacting properties. The slump test was carried out in the fresh state for determining the flowability. On the 7th and 28th days of the curing process, compression strength tests were performed, and on the 28th day, flexural strength tests and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) analyses were carried out to determine the strength properties and post-cracking behavior of the concrete samples. Bending strength and post-cracking behavior of the samples were improved by the addition of fibers. The fiber concentration in the concrete mixture greatly influenced the slump flow and self-compaction properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Chemical and Physical Surface Changes of Thermally Conditioned Glass Fibres
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
A number of analytical techniques were applied to investigate changes to the surface of unsized boron-free E-glass fibres after thermal conditioning at temperatures up to 700 °C. Novel systematic studies were carried out to investigate the fundamental strength loss from thermal conditioning. Surface [...] Read more.
A number of analytical techniques were applied to investigate changes to the surface of unsized boron-free E-glass fibres after thermal conditioning at temperatures up to 700 °C. Novel systematic studies were carried out to investigate the fundamental strength loss from thermal conditioning. Surface chemical changes studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed a consistent increase in the surface concentration of calcium with increasing conditioning temperature, although this did not correlate well with a loss of fibre strength. Scanning electron microscopy fractography confirmed the difficulty of analysing failure-inducing flaws on individual fibre fracture surfaces. Analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) did not reveal any likely surface cracks or flaws of significant dimensions to cause failure: the observation of cracks before fibre fracture may not be possible when using this technique. Fibre surface roughness increased over the whole range of the conditioning temperatures investigated. Although surface roughness did not correlate precisely with fibre strength, there was a clear inverse relationship at temperatures exceeding 400 °C. The interpretation of the surface topography that formed between 400–700 °C produced evidence that the initial stage of phase separation by spinodal decomposition may have occurred at the fibre surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glass Fibers 2018)
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Open AccessArticle One-Step Surface Functionalized Hydrophilic Polypropylene Meshes for Hernia Repair Using Bio-Inspired Polydopamine
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
An ideal hernia mesh is one that absorbs drugs and withstands muscle forces after mesh implantation. Polypropylene (PP) mesh devices have been accepted as a standard material to repair abdominal hernia, but the hydrophobicity of PP fibers makes them unsuitable to carry drugs [...] Read more.
An ideal hernia mesh is one that absorbs drugs and withstands muscle forces after mesh implantation. Polypropylene (PP) mesh devices have been accepted as a standard material to repair abdominal hernia, but the hydrophobicity of PP fibers makes them unsuitable to carry drugs during the pre-implantation of PP meshes. In this study, for the first time, one-step functionalization of PP mesh surfaces was performed to incorporate bio-inspired polydopamine (PDA) onto PP surfaces. All PP mesh samples were dipped in the same concentration of dopamine solution. The surface functionalization of PP meshes was performed for 24 h at 37 °C and 80 rpm. It was proved by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results that a thin layer of PDA was connected with PP surfaces. Moreover, water contact angle results proved that surface functionalized PP meshes were highly hydrophilic (73.1°) in comparison to untreated PP mesh surfaces (138.5°). Thus, hydrophilic PP meshes with bio-inspired poly-dopamine functionalization could be a good choice for hernia mesh implantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Coatings on Fibers and Textiles)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Fibers in 2018
Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Surface Modified Polysulfone Hollow Fiber Membranes for Ethane/Ethylene Separation Using Gas-Liquid Membrane Contactors with Ionic Liquid-Based Absorbent
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
Olefin/paraffin separation is an important technological process. A promising alternative to conventional energy-consuming methods is employment of gas-liquid membrane contactors. In the present work, the membranes used were polysulfone (PSf) asymmetrical porous hollow fibers fabricated via the NIPS (non-solvent induced phase separation) technique [...] Read more.
Olefin/paraffin separation is an important technological process. A promising alternative to conventional energy-consuming methods is employment of gas-liquid membrane contactors. In the present work, the membranes used were polysulfone (PSf) asymmetrical porous hollow fibers fabricated via the NIPS (non-solvent induced phase separation) technique in the free spinning mode. The surface of the fine-pored selective layer from the lumen side of the fibers was modified by layer-by-layer deposition of perfluorinated acrylic copolymer Protect Guard® in order to hydrophobized the surface and to avoid penetration of the liquid absorbent in the porous structure of the membranes. The absorbents studied were silver salts (AgNO3 and AgBF4) solutions in five ionic liquids (ILs) based on imidazolium and phosphonium cations. The membranes were analyzed through gas permeance measurement, SEM and dispersive X-ray (EDXS). Contact angle values of both unmodified and modified membranes were determined for water, ethylene glycol, ILs and silver salts solutions in ILs. It was shown that the preferable properties for employment in membrane contactor refer to the PSf hollow fiber membranes modified by two layers of Protect Guard®, and to the absorbent based on 1 M AgNO3 solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. Using the membrane contactor designed, ethylene/ethane mixture (80/20) separation was carried out. The fluxes of both components as well as their overall mass transport coefficients (MTC) were calculated. It was shown that the membrane absorption system developed provides absorption of approx. 37% of the initial ethylene volume in the mixture. The overall MTC value for ethylene was 4.7 GPU (gas permeance unit). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Hollow Fiber Membrane 2019)
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Open AccessArticle Flammability Characteristics of Animal Fibers: Single Breed Wools, Alpaca/Wool, and Llama/Wool Blends
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
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Abstract
Animal protein-based fibers used in textiles often are assumed to have uniform properties independent of source, and yet are different when considering texture, structure, and color. Differences between fibers from animal species have been studied in regard to general flammability behavior, but differences [...] Read more.
Animal protein-based fibers used in textiles often are assumed to have uniform properties independent of source, and yet are different when considering texture, structure, and color. Differences between fibers from animal species have been studied in regard to general flammability behavior, but differences between fibers from breeds of the same species have not been studied. Fibers from two sheep breeds (Jacob, CVM/Romeldale) and two camelids (Alpaca, Llama) were studied for flammability effects on fabrics hand knit from yarns made from these different fibers. A total of five different yarns were studied: 100% Jacob, 100% CVM/Romeldale, 100% Alpaca, 50% Llama/Merino wool, and 50% Alpaca/Merino wool. Flammability was studied with cone calorimeter, microcombustion calorimeter, and vertical flame spread techniques. The results from this limited study demonstrate that there are differences between fibers from different breeds and differences between species, but the differences cannot be easily explained on the basis of inherent heat release or chemistry of the fiber. Sometimes yarn density and the tightness of the knit have more of an effect on self-extinguishment in vertical flame spread tests than does fiber heat release/chemistry. Pure Alpaca fiber, however, displays self-extinguishing behavior and low heat release when subjected to combustion conditions. This may be related to the amount of sulfur in its chemical structure, and its ability to be spun into a yarn which yields a tighter hand-knit density. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Solvent-Free Reactive Vapor Deposition for Functional Fabrics: Separating Oil–Water Mixtures with Fabrics
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
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Abstract
A facile, solvent-minimized approach to functionalize commercial raw fabrics is described. Reactive vapor deposition of conjugated polymers followed by post-deposition functionalization transforms common, off-the-shelf textiles into distinctly hydrophobic or superhydrophilic materials. The fabric coatings created by reactive vapor deposition are especially resistant to [...] Read more.
A facile, solvent-minimized approach to functionalize commercial raw fabrics is described. Reactive vapor deposition of conjugated polymers followed by post-deposition functionalization transforms common, off-the-shelf textiles into distinctly hydrophobic or superhydrophilic materials. The fabric coatings created by reactive vapor deposition are especially resistant to mechanical and solvent washing, as compared to coatings applied by conventional, solution-phase silane chemistries. Janus fabrics with dissimilar wettability on each face are also easily created using a simple, three-step vapor coating process, which cannot be replicated using conventional solution phase functionalization strategies. Hydrophobic fabrics created using reactive vapor deposition and post-deposition functionalization are effective, reusable, large-volume oil–water separators, either under gravity filtration or as immersible absorbants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Coatings on Fibers and Textiles)
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Open AccessArticle Capillary Polypropylene Membranes for Membrane Distillation
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract
Only nonwetted porous membranes can be used in membrane distillation. The possibility of application in this process the capillary polypropylene membranes manufactured by thermally-induced phase separation was studied. The performance of a few types of membranes available commercially was presented. The resistance of [...] Read more.
Only nonwetted porous membranes can be used in membrane distillation. The possibility of application in this process the capillary polypropylene membranes manufactured by thermally-induced phase separation was studied. The performance of a few types of membranes available commercially was presented. The resistance of the membranes to wetting was tested in the continuous process of water desalination. These studies were carried out for 1000 h without module cleaning. The presence of scaling layer on the membranes surface was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscope observations. Both the permeate flux and distillate conductivity were almost not varied after the studied period of time, what indicates that the used membranes maintained their nonwettability, and the negative influence of scaling was limited. The role of surface porosity on the pore wetting and influence of membrane wettability on the quality of the distillate obtained were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Hollow Fiber Membrane)
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Fibers EISSN 2079-6439 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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