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Nanomaterials, Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2020) – 195 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In this paper, we describe the synthesis of nano zero-valent iron immobilized on the surface of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
SERS Immunosensor of Array Units Surrounded by Particles: A Platform for Auxiliary Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2090; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102090 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the diseases with high mortality worldwide, so its early diagnosis and treatment have attracted much attention. Due to the advantages of the high sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection, SERS has excellent application value in the [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the diseases with high mortality worldwide, so its early diagnosis and treatment have attracted much attention. Due to the advantages of the high sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection, SERS has excellent application value in the diagnosis of HCC. In this paper, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are modified by magnetron sputtering on the surface of polystyrene (PS) templates with spheres of two different diameters. The array of units surrounded by particles is successfully prepared and the SERS performance is characterized. The effect of the gap between AgNPs on plasmon coupling and hot spot distribution is discussed. Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation is used to verify the electric fields and hot spot distribution of the array. The differences in the concentrations of HCC markers are analyzed by using the change of SERS signal intensity of the array. The whole process proves that the preparation of structures with a strong local electric field to provide highly sensitive SERS signals is a key link in the detection of HCC markers, which is conducive to the diagnosis of HCC and has potential application value in clinical diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanofabrication and Nanomanufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
Formulation, Characterization and Evaluation against SH-SY5Y Cells of New Tacrine and Tacrine-MAP Loaded with Lipid Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102089 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 216
Abstract
Tacrine (TAC) was the first FDA approved drug for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, resulting in increased memory and enhanced cognitive symptoms in patients. However, long-term therapy presents poor patient compliance associated with undesired side effects such as nausea, vomiting and hepatoxicity. To [...] Read more.
Tacrine (TAC) was the first FDA approved drug for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, resulting in increased memory and enhanced cognitive symptoms in patients. However, long-term therapy presents poor patient compliance associated with undesired side effects such as nausea, vomiting and hepatoxicity. To improve its therapeutic efficacy and decrease toxicity, the use of nanoparticles could be applied as a possible solution to delivery TAC. In this context, a project has been designed to develop a new nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) as a delivery system for TAC and conjugate TAC and model amphipathic peptide (MAP) to decrease TAC limitations. Different formulations loaded with TAC and TAC + MAP were prepared using a combination of Compritol 888 ATO as the solid lipid and Transcutol HP as the liquid lipid component. Physical characterization was evaluated in terms of particle size, surface charge, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release studies. Particle size distributions within the nanometer range were obtained with encapsulation efficiencies of 72.4% for the TAC and 85.6% for the TAC + MAP conjugate. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of all NLC formulations was determined against neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. The optimized TAC delivery system revealed low toxicity suggesting this could be a potential carrier system to deliver TAC. However, TAC + MAP conjugated even encapsulated in the NLC system demonstrated toxicity against the SH-SY5Y cell line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bionanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Automobile Exhaust Removal Performance of Pervious Concrete with Nano TiO2 under Photocatalysis
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2088; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102088 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 207
Abstract
The urban environment is facing serious problems caused by automobile exhaust pollution, which has led to a great impact on human health and climate, and aroused widespread concern of the government and the public. Nano titanium dioxide (TiO2), as a photocatalyst, [...] Read more.
The urban environment is facing serious problems caused by automobile exhaust pollution, which has led to a great impact on human health and climate, and aroused widespread concern of the government and the public. Nano titanium dioxide (TiO2), as a photocatalyst, can be activated by ultraviolet irradiation and then form a strong REDOX potential on the surface of the nano TiO2 particles. The REDOX potential can degrade the automobile exhaust, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons (HC). In this paper, a photocatalytic environmentally friendly pervious concrete (PEFPC) was manufactured by spraying nano TiO2 on the surface of it and the photocatalytic performance of PEFPC was researched. The nano TiO2 particle size, TiO2 dosage, TiO2 spraying amount, and dispersant dosage were selected as factors to investigate the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of automobile exhaust by PEFPC. Moreover, the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) was used to evaluate the distribution of nano TiO2 on the surface of the pervious concrete, the distribution area of nano TiO2 was obtained through Image-Pro Plus, and the area ratio of nano TiO2 to the surface of the pervious concrete was calculated. The results showed that the recommended nano TiO2 particle size is 25 nm. The optimum TiO2 dosage was 10% and the optimum dispersant dosage was 5.0%. The photocatalytic performance of PEFPC was best when the TiO2 spraying amount was 333.3 g/m2. The change in the photocatalytic ratio of HC and NOx is consistent with the distribution area of nano TiO2 on the surface of the pervious concrete. In addition, the photocatalytic performance of PEFPC under two light sources (ultraviolet light and sunlight) was compared. The results indicated that both light sources were able to stimulate the photocatalytic performance of PEFPC. The research provided a reference for the evaluation of automobile exhaust removal performance of PEFPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano‐Photocatalytic Materials: Possibilities and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
How Thermal Aging Affects Ignition and Combustion Properties of Reactive Al/CuO Nanolaminates: A Joint Theoretical/Experimental Study
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102087 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
The paper reports a joint experimental/theoretical study on the aging of reactive Al/CuO nanolaminates, investigating both structural modifications and combustion properties of aged systems. We first show theoretically that the long-term storage (over several decades) in ambient temperature marginally affects nanolaminates structural properties [...] Read more.
The paper reports a joint experimental/theoretical study on the aging of reactive Al/CuO nanolaminates, investigating both structural modifications and combustion properties of aged systems. We first show theoretically that the long-term storage (over several decades) in ambient temperature marginally affects nanolaminates structural properties with an increase in an interfacial layer of only 0.3 nm after 30 years. Then, we observe that the first thermal aging step occurs after 14 days at 200 °C, which corresponds to the replacement of the natural Al/CuO interfaces by a proper ~11 nm thick amorphous alumina. We show that this aging step does impact the nanolaminates structure, leading, for thin bilayer thicknesses, to a substantial loss of the energetic reservoir: considering a stoichiometric Al/CuO stack, the heat of reaction can be reduced by 6–40% depending on the bilayer thickness ranging from 150 nm (40%) to 1 µm (6%). The impact of such thermal aging (14 days at 200 °C) and interfacial modification on the initiation and combustion properties have been evaluated experimentally and theoretically. Varying Al to CuO ratio of nanolaminates from 1 to 3, we show that ignition time of aged systems does not increase over 10% at initiation power densities superior to 15 W·mm−2. In contrast, burn rate can be greatly impacted depending on the bilayer thickness: annealing a stoichiometric nanolaminates with a bilayer thickness of 300 nm at 200 °C for 14 days lowers its burn rate by ~25%, whereas annealing a fuel rich nanolaminates with the same bilayer thickness under the same thermal conditions leads to a burn rate decrease of 20%. When bilayer thickness is greater than 500 nm, the burn rate is not really affected by the thermal aging. Finally, this paper also proposes a time–temperature diagram to perform accelerated thermal aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoenergetic Materials: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
EMI Shielding of the Hydrophobic, Flexible, Lightweight Carbonless Nano-Plate Composites
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102086 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 205
Abstract
The cost-effective spray coated composite was successfully synthesis and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The one step synthetic strategy was used for the synthesis of nanoplates that have a crystalline nature. The composites are [...] Read more.
The cost-effective spray coated composite was successfully synthesis and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The one step synthetic strategy was used for the synthesis of nanoplates that have a crystalline nature. The composites are amorphous and hydrophobic with micron thickness (<400 μm). The maximum contact angle showed by composite is 132.65° and have wetting energy of −49.32 mN m−1, spreading coefficient −122.12 mN m−1, and work of adhesion 23.48 mN m−1. The minimum thickness of synthesized nanoplate is 3 nm while the maximum sheet resistance, resistivity, and electrical conductivity of the composites are 11.890 ohm sq−1, 0.4399 Ω.cm−1, and 8.967 S.cm−1, respectively. The cobalt nanoplate coated non-woven carbon fabric (CoFC) possesses excellent sheet resistance, hydrophobic nature, and EMI shielding efficiency of 99.99964%. The composite can block above 99.9913% of incident radiation (X band). Hence, the composite can be utilized in application areas such as medical clothes, mobile phones, automobiles, aerospace, and military equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Materials and Their Heterostructures and Superlattices)
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Open AccessArticle
Epitaxial Stabilization of Single-Crystal Multiferroic YCrO3 Thin Films
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2085; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102085 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 187
Abstract
We report on the growth of stoichiometric, single-crystal YCrO3 epitaxial thin films on (001) SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy reveal that the films grew in a layer-by-layer fashion with excellent crystallinity and atomically smooth [...] Read more.
We report on the growth of stoichiometric, single-crystal YCrO3 epitaxial thin films on (001) SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy reveal that the films grew in a layer-by-layer fashion with excellent crystallinity and atomically smooth surfaces. Magnetization measurements demonstrate that the material is ferromagnetic below 144 K. The temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity shows a characteristic relaxor-ferroelectric behavior at TC = 375–408 K. A dielectric anomaly at the magnetic transition temperature indicates a close correlation between magnetic and electric order parameters in these multiferroic YCrO3 films. These findings provide guidance to synthesize rare-earth, chromite-based multifunctional heterostructures and build a foundation for future studies on the understanding of magnetoelectric effects in similar material systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Analysis and Characterization of High-Purity Aluminum Nanoparticles (Al-NPs) by Electromagnetic Levitation Gas Condensation (ELGC)
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102084 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 178
Abstract
The production of high-purity aluminum nanoparticles (Al-NPs) is challenging due to the highly reactive nature of Al metals. Electromagnetic levitation gas condensation (ELGC) is a promising method to produce high-purity metallic particles as it avoids the interaction between molten metal and refractory-lined, which [...] Read more.
The production of high-purity aluminum nanoparticles (Al-NPs) is challenging due to the highly reactive nature of Al metals. Electromagnetic levitation gas condensation (ELGC) is a promising method to produce high-purity metallic particles as it avoids the interaction between molten metal and refractory-lined, which guarantees the removal of impurities such as oxygen (O). In this research, high-purity Al-NPs were successfully fabricated via ELGC process and fully characterized. The effects of power input and gas flow rate on particle size and distribution were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results showed that the Al-NPs have spherical morphologies with an average diameter of 17 nm and size distribution of NPs is narrow under helium (He) flow rate of 15 L/min at a constant temperature of 1683 ± 10 K. The purity of the NPs was confirmed by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Finally, metal purity of 99.976% and 99.97% was measured by AAS and XRF analyses, respectively. Moreover, it was found that increasing gas flow rate and sample temperature results in a decrease in the particle size. The particle sizes for the Al-NPs obtained under He atmosphere were smaller than those obtained under Ar atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Nanoscience and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Combining Spin-Seebeck and Nernst Effects in Aligned MnBi/Bi Composites
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2083; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102083 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 198
Abstract
The spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) is an advective transport process traditionally studied in bilayers composed of a ferromagnet (FM) and a non-magnetic metal (NM) with strong spin-orbit coupling. In a temperature gradient, the flux of magnons in the FM transfers spin-angular momentum to electrons [...] Read more.
The spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) is an advective transport process traditionally studied in bilayers composed of a ferromagnet (FM) and a non-magnetic metal (NM) with strong spin-orbit coupling. In a temperature gradient, the flux of magnons in the FM transfers spin-angular momentum to electrons in the NM, which by the inverse spin-Hall effect generates an SSE voltage. In contrast, the Nernst effect is a bulk transport phenomenon in homogeneous NMs or FMs. These effects share the same geometry, and we show here that they can be added to each other in a new combination of FM/NM composites where synthesis via in-field annealing results in the FM material (MnBi) forming aligned needles inside an NM matrix with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) (Bi). Through examination of the materials’ microstructural, magnetic, and transport properties, we searched for signs of enhanced transverse thermopower facilitated by an SSE contribution from MnBi adding to the Nernst effect in Bi. Our results indicate that these two signals are additive in samples with lower MnBi concentrations, suggesting a new way forward in the study of SSE composite materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bactericidal and In-Vitro Cytotoxic Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) Fabricated by Endophytic Actinomycetes and Their Use as Coating for the Textile Fabrics
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2082; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102082 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 260
Abstract
An endophytic strain of Streptomyces antimycoticus L-1 was isolated from healthy medicinal plant leaves of Mentha longifolia L. and used for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), through the use of secreted enzymes and proteins. UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron [...] Read more.
An endophytic strain of Streptomyces antimycoticus L-1 was isolated from healthy medicinal plant leaves of Mentha longifolia L. and used for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), through the use of secreted enzymes and proteins. UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyses of the Ag-NPs were carried out. The XRD, TEM, and FT-IR analysis results demonstrated the successful biosynthesis of crystalline, spherical Ag-NPs with a particle size of 13–40 nm. Further, the stability of the Ag-NPs was assessed by detecting the surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) at 415 nm for one month or by measuring the NPs surface charge (−19.2 mV) by zeta potential analysis (ζ). The green-synthesized Ag-NPs exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity at different concentrations (6.25–100 ppm) against the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium with a clear inhibition zone ranging from (9.5 ± 0.4) nm to (21.7 ± 1.0) mm. Furthermore, the green-synthesized Ag-NPs displayed high efficacy against the Caco-2 cancerous cell line (the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 5.7 ± 0.2 ppm). With respect to antibacterial and in-vitro cytotoxicity analyses, the Ag-NPs concentration of 100 ppm was selected as a safe dose for loading onto cotton fabrics. The scanning electron microscopy connected with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) for the nano-finished fabrics showed the distribution of Ag-NPs as 2% of the total fabric elements. Moreover, the nano-finished fabrics exhibited more activity against pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, even after 10 washing cycles, indicating the stability of the treated fabrics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Electrocatalytic and Gas Transport Characteristics of Pentagonally Structured Star-Shaped Nanocrystallites of Pd-Ag
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2081; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102081 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 206
Abstract
The method of synthesis of bimetallic Pd–Ag pentagonally structured catalyst “nanostar” on the surface of Pd-23%Ag alloy films has been developed. The resulting catalyst was studied as a highly active functional layer for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in alkaline media and the intensification [...] Read more.
The method of synthesis of bimetallic Pd–Ag pentagonally structured catalyst “nanostar” on the surface of Pd-23%Ag alloy films has been developed. The resulting catalyst was studied as a highly active functional layer for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in alkaline media and the intensification of hydrogen transport through the Pd-23%Ag membrane in the processes of hydrogen diffusion purification. A modifying layer with a controlled size, composition and excellent electrocatalytic activity was synthesized by electrochemical deposition at a reduced current density compared to classical methods. The low deposition rate affects the formation of pentagonally structured nanocrystallites, allowing Pd and Ag particles to form well-defined structures due to the properties of the surfactant used. Electrochemical studies have demonstrated that the catalyst synthesized by the “nanostar” method shows better electrocatalytic activity in relation to MOR and demonstrates a higher peak current (up to 17.82 µA cm−2) in comparison with one for the catalyst synthesized by the “nanoparticle” method (up to 10.66 µA cm−2) in a cyclic voltammetric study. The nanostar catalyst electrode releases the highest current density (0.25 µA cm−2) for MOR and demonstrates higher catalytic activity for the oxidation of possible intermediates such as sodium formate in MOR. In the processes of diffusion membrane purification of hydrogen, a multiple increase in the density of the penetrating flux of hydrogen through the membranes modified by the “nanostar” catalyst (up to 10.6 mmol s−1 m−2) was demonstrated in comparison with the membranes modified by the “nanoparticles” method (up to 4.49 mmol s−1 m−2). Research data may indicate that the properties of the developed pentagonally structured catalyst “nanostar” and its enhanced activity with respect to reactions involving hydrogen increase the desorption activity of the membrane, which ultimately accelerates the overall stepwise transfer of hydrogen across the membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Noble Metal Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Liposome-Mediated Inhibition of Inflammation by Hydroxycitrate
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102080 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Hydroxycitrate (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, is a natural citrate analog that can inhibit the ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) enzyme with a consequent reduction of inflammatory mediators (i.e., nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species [...] Read more.
Hydroxycitrate (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, is a natural citrate analog that can inhibit the ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) enzyme with a consequent reduction of inflammatory mediators (i.e., nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)) levels. Therefore, HCA has been proposed as a novel means to prevent, treat, and ameliorate conditions involving inflammation. However, HCA presents a low membrane permeability, and a large quantity is required to have a biological effect. To overcome this problem, HCA was formulated in liposomes in this work, and the enhancement of HCA cell availability along with the reduction in the amount required to downregulate NO, ROS, and PGE2 in macrophages were assessed. The liposomes were small in size (~60 nm), monodispersed, negatively charged (−50 mV), and stable on storage. The in vitro results showed that the liposomal encapsulation increased by approximately 4 times the intracellular accumulation of HCA in macrophages, and reduced by 10 times the amount of HCA required to abolish LPS-induced NO, ROS, and PGE2 increase. This suggests that liposomal HCA can be exploited to target the citrate pathway involved in inflammatory processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoencapsulation Strategies for Active Compounds Delivery)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Topology Challenge for the Assessment of Living Cell Deposits with Shear Bulk Acoustic Biosensor
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102079 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 184
Abstract
Shear bulk acoustic type of resonant biosensors, such as the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), give access to label-free in-liquid analysis of surface interactions. The general understanding of the sensing principles was inherited from past developments in biofilms measurements and applied to cells while [...] Read more.
Shear bulk acoustic type of resonant biosensors, such as the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), give access to label-free in-liquid analysis of surface interactions. The general understanding of the sensing principles was inherited from past developments in biofilms measurements and applied to cells while keeping the same basic assumptions. Thus, the biosensor readouts are still quite often described using ‘mass’ related terminology. This contribution aims to show that assessment of cell deposits with acoustic biosensors requires a deep understanding of the sensor transduction mechanism. More specifically, the cell deposits should be considered as a structured viscoelastic load and the sensor response depends on both material and topological parameters of the deposits. This shifts the paradigm of acoustic biosensor away from the classical mass loading perspective. As a proof of the concept, we recorded QCM frequency shifts caused by blood platelet deposits on a collagen surface under different rheological conditions and observed the final deposit shape with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results vividly demonstrate that the frequency shift is highly impacted by the platelet topology on the bio-interface. We support our findings with numerical simulations of viscoelastic unstructured and structured loads in liquid. Both experimental and theoretical studies underline the complexity behind the frequency shift interpretation when acoustic biosensing is used with cell deposits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Studies in Nano-BioAnalytical Physico-Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Absorbing Dielectric Materials for Surface-Enhanced Spectroscopies and Chiral Sensing in the UV
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2078; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102078 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Low-loss dielectric nanomaterials are being extensively studied as novel platforms for enhanced light-matter interactions. Dielectric materials are more versatile than metals when nanostructured as they are able to generate simultaneously electric- and magnetic-type resonances. This unique property gives rise to a wide gamut [...] Read more.
Low-loss dielectric nanomaterials are being extensively studied as novel platforms for enhanced light-matter interactions. Dielectric materials are more versatile than metals when nanostructured as they are able to generate simultaneously electric- and magnetic-type resonances. This unique property gives rise to a wide gamut of new phenomena not observed in metal nanostructures such as directional scattering conditions or enhanced optical chirality density. Traditionally studied dielectrics such as Si, Ge or GaP have an operating range constrained to the infrared and/or the visible range. Tuning their resonances up to the UV, where many biological samples of interest exhibit their absorption bands, is not possible due to their increased optical losses via heat generation. Herein, we report a quantitative survey on the UV optical performance of 20 different dielectric nanostructured materials for UV surface light-matter interaction based applications. The near-field intensity and optical chirality density averaged over the surface of the nanoparticles together with the heat generation are studied as figures of merit for this comparative analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasmonics and Nano-Optics from UV to THz: Materials and Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Graphene Derivatives in Biopolymer-Based Composites for Food Packaging Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102077 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 367
Abstract
This review aims to showcase the current use of graphene derivatives, graphene-based nanomaterials in particular, in biopolymer-based composites for food packaging applications. A brief introduction regarding the valuable attributes of available and emergent bioplastic materials is made so that their contributions to the [...] Read more.
This review aims to showcase the current use of graphene derivatives, graphene-based nanomaterials in particular, in biopolymer-based composites for food packaging applications. A brief introduction regarding the valuable attributes of available and emergent bioplastic materials is made so that their contributions to the packaging field can be understood. Furthermore, their drawbacks are also disclosed to highlight the benefits that graphene derivatives can bring to bio-based formulations, from physicochemical to mechanical, barrier, and functional properties as antioxidant activity or electrical conductivity. The reported improvements in biopolymer-based composites carried out by graphene derivatives in the last three years are discussed, pointing to their potential for innovative food packaging applications such as electrically conductive food packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation and Development of Graphene Oxide-Based Materials)
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Microscale, Rheological, Mechanical, Thermoelectrical and Piezoresistive Properties of Graphene Based Cement Composite
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102076 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 218
Abstract
Extensive research on functionalized graphene, graphene oxide, and carbon nanotube based cement composites has been carried out to strengthen and overcome the shortcomings of construction materials. However, less literature is available on the pure graphene based cement composite. In this review paper, an [...] Read more.
Extensive research on functionalized graphene, graphene oxide, and carbon nanotube based cement composites has been carried out to strengthen and overcome the shortcomings of construction materials. However, less literature is available on the pure graphene based cement composite. In this review paper, an in-depth study on a graphene-based cement composite was performed. Various structural forms of graphene and classifications of graphene-based nanomaterial have been presented. The dispersion mechanism and techniques, which are important for effective utilization in the construction industry, are reviewed critically. Micro-scale characterization of carbon-based cement composite using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis, x-ray diffractometric (XRD) analysis, and morphological analysis has also been reviewed. As per the authors’ knowledge, for the first time, a review of flow, energy harvesting, thermoelectrical, and self-sensing properties of graphene and its derivatives as the bases of cement composite are presented. The self-sensing properties of the composite material are reported by exploring physical applications by reinforcing graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) into concrete beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Properties and Applications of Graphene and Its Derivatives)
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Open AccessArticle
Voltage-Controlled Anodic Oxidation of Porous Fluorescent SiC for Effective Surface Passivation
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102075 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 219
Abstract
This study investigated the fabrication of porous fluorescent SiC using a constant voltage-controlled anodic oxidation process. The application of a high, constant voltage resulted in a spatial distinction between the porous structures formed inside the fluorescent SiC substrates, due to the different etching [...] Read more.
This study investigated the fabrication of porous fluorescent SiC using a constant voltage-controlled anodic oxidation process. The application of a high, constant voltage resulted in a spatial distinction between the porous structures formed inside the fluorescent SiC substrates, due to the different etching rates at the terrace and the large step bunches. Large, dendritic porous structures were formed as the etching process continued and the porous layer thickened. Under the conditions of low hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration, the uniformity of the dendritic porous structures through the entire porous layer was considerably improved compared with the conditions of high HF concentration. The resulting large uniform structure offered a sizable surface area, and promoted the penetration of atomic layer-deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films (ALD–Al2O3). The emission intensity in the porous fluorescent SiC was confirmed via photoluminescence (PL) measurements to be significantly improved by a factor of 128 after ALD passivation. With surface passivation, there was a clear blueshift in the emission wavelength, owing to the effective suppression of the non-radiative recombination rate in the porous structures. Furthermore, the spatial uniformity of emitted light was examined via PL mapping using three different excitation lasers, which resulted in the observation of uniform and distinctive emissions in the fluorescent SiC bulk and porous areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microalgae-Templated Spray Drying for Hierarchical and Porous Fe3O4/C Composite Microspheres as Li-ion Battery Anode Materials
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2074; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102074 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 223
Abstract
A method of microalgae-templated spray drying to develop hierarchical porous Fe3O4/C composite microspheres as anode materials for Li-ion batteries was developed. During the spray-drying process, individual microalgae serve as building blocks of raspberry-like hollow microspheres via self-assembly. In the [...] Read more.
A method of microalgae-templated spray drying to develop hierarchical porous Fe3O4/C composite microspheres as anode materials for Li-ion batteries was developed. During the spray-drying process, individual microalgae serve as building blocks of raspberry-like hollow microspheres via self-assembly. In the present study, microalgae-derived carbon matrices, naturally doped heteroatoms, and hierarchical porous structural features synergistically contributed to the high electrochemical performance of the Fe3O4/C composite microspheres, enabling a discharge capacity of 1375 mA·h·g−1 after 700 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. Notably, the microalgal frameworks of the Fe3O4/C composite microspheres were maintained over the course of charge/discharge cycling, thus demonstrating the structural stability of the composite microspheres against pulverization. In contrast, the sample fabricated without microalgal templating showed significant capacity drops (up to ~40% of initial capacity) during the early cycles. Clearly, templating of microalgae endows anode materials with superior cycling stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Nanomaterials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries and Beyond)
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Open AccessEditorial
From Basic Research to New Tools and Challenges for the Genotoxicity Testing of Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2073; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102073 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 167
Abstract
Genotoxicity is one of the key endpoints investigated as early as possible before marketing a product [...] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Magnetoelectric Composites: Applications, Coupling Mechanisms, and Future Directions
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2072; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102072 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 205
Abstract
Multiferroic (MF)-magnetoelectric (ME) composites, which integrate magnetic and ferroelectric materials, exhibit a higher operational temperature (above room temperature) and superior (several orders of magnitude) ME coupling when compared to single-phase multiferroic materials. Room temperature control and the switching of magnetic properties via an [...] Read more.
Multiferroic (MF)-magnetoelectric (ME) composites, which integrate magnetic and ferroelectric materials, exhibit a higher operational temperature (above room temperature) and superior (several orders of magnitude) ME coupling when compared to single-phase multiferroic materials. Room temperature control and the switching of magnetic properties via an electric field and electrical properties by a magnetic field has motivated research towards the goal of realizing ultralow power and multifunctional nano (micro) electronic devices. Here, some of the leading applications for magnetoelectric composites are reviewed, and the mechanisms and nature of ME coupling in artificial composite systems are discussed. Ways to enhance the ME coupling and other physical properties are also demonstrated. Finally, emphasis is given to the important open questions and future directions in this field, where new breakthroughs could have a significant impact in transforming scientific discoveries to practical device applications, which can be well-controlled both magnetically and electrically. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Icariin-Functionalized Nanodiamonds to Enhance Osteogenic Capacity In Vitro
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102071 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 216
Abstract
Nanodiamonds (NDs) have been used as drug delivery vehicles due to their low toxicity and biocompatibility. Recently, it has been reported that NDs have also osteogenic differentiation capacity. However, their capacity using NDs alone is not enough. To significantly improve their osteogenic activity, [...] Read more.
Nanodiamonds (NDs) have been used as drug delivery vehicles due to their low toxicity and biocompatibility. Recently, it has been reported that NDs have also osteogenic differentiation capacity. However, their capacity using NDs alone is not enough. To significantly improve their osteogenic activity, we developed icariin (ICA)-functionalized NDs (ICA-NDs) and evaluated whether ICA-NDs enhance their in vitro osteogenic capacity. Unmodified NDs and ICA-NDs showed nanosized particles that were spherical in shape. The ICA-NDs achieved a prolonged ICA release for up to 4 weeks. The osteogenic capacities of NDs, ICA (10 μg)-NDs, and ICA (50 μg)-NDs were demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity; calcium content; and mRNA gene levels of osteogenic-related markers, including ALP, runt-related transcript factor 2 (RUNX2), collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1), and osteopontin (OPN). In vitro cell studies revealed that ICA (50 μg)-ND-treated MC3T3-E1 cells greatly increased osteogenic markers, including ALP, calcium content, and mRNA gene levels of osteogenic-related markers, including ALP, RUNX2, COL1A1, and OPN compared to ICA (10 μg)-NDs or ND-treated cells. These our data suggest that ICA-NDs can promote osteogenic capacity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Topography: A Biophysical Approach to Direct the Fate of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2070; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102070 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Tissue engineering is a promising strategy to treat tissue and organ loss or damage caused by injury or disease. During the past two decades, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted a tremendous amount of interest in tissue engineering due to their multipotency and [...] Read more.
Tissue engineering is a promising strategy to treat tissue and organ loss or damage caused by injury or disease. During the past two decades, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted a tremendous amount of interest in tissue engineering due to their multipotency and self-renewal ability. MSCs are also the most multipotent stem cells in the human adult body. However, the application of MSCs in tissue engineering is relatively limited because it is difficult to guide their differentiation toward a specific cell lineage by using traditional biochemical factors. Besides biochemical factors, the differentiation of MSCs also influenced by biophysical cues. To this end, much effort has been devoted to directing the cell lineage decisions of MSCs through adjusting the biophysical properties of biomaterials. The surface topography of the biomaterial-based scaffold can modulate the proliferation and differentiation of MSCs. Presently, the development of micro- and nano-fabrication techniques has made it possible to control the surface topography of the scaffold precisely. In this review, we highlight and discuss how the main topographical features (i.e., roughness, patterns, and porosity) are an efficient approach to control the fate of MSCs and the application of topography in tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue Engineering, Biomimetics and Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Level Analog Resistive Switching Characteristics in Tri-Layer HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2 Based Memristor on ITO Electrode
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102069 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 212
Abstract
Atomic layer deposited (ALD) HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2 tri-layer resistive random access memory (RRAM) structure has been studied with a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode. Highly stable and reliable multilevel conductance can be controlled by the set [...] Read more.
Atomic layer deposited (ALD) HfO2/Al2O3/HfO2 tri-layer resistive random access memory (RRAM) structure has been studied with a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode. Highly stable and reliable multilevel conductance can be controlled by the set current compliance and reset stop voltage in bipolar resistive switching. Improved gradual resistive switching was achieved because of the interdiffusion in the HfO2/Al2O3 interface where tri-valent Al incorporates with HfO2 and produces HfAlO. The uniformity in bipolar resistive switching with Ion/Ioff ratio (>10) and excellent endurance up to >103 cycles was achieved. Multilevel conductance levels in potentiation/depression were realized with constant amplitude pulse train and increasing pulse amplitude. Thus, tri-layer structure-based RRAM can be a potential candidate for the synaptic device in neuromorphic computing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Semi-Automated Workflow for FAIR Maturity Indicators in the Life Sciences
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2068; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102068 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Data sharing and reuse are crucial to enhance scientific progress and maximize return of investments in science. Although attitudes are increasingly favorable, data reuse remains difficult due to lack of infrastructures, standards, and policies. The FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable) principles aim to [...] Read more.
Data sharing and reuse are crucial to enhance scientific progress and maximize return of investments in science. Although attitudes are increasingly favorable, data reuse remains difficult due to lack of infrastructures, standards, and policies. The FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable) principles aim to provide recommendations to increase data reuse. Because of the broad interpretation of the FAIR principles, maturity indicators are necessary to determine the FAIRness of a dataset. In this work, we propose a reproducible computational workflow to assess data FAIRness in the life sciences. Our implementation follows principles and guidelines recommended by the maturity indicator authoring group and integrates concepts from the literature. In addition, we propose a FAIR balloon plot to summarize and compare dataset FAIRness. We evaluated the feasibility of our method on three real use cases where researchers looked for six datasets to answer their scientific questions. We retrieved information from repositories (ArrayExpress, Gene Expression Omnibus, eNanoMapper, caNanoLab, NanoCommons and ChEMBL), a registry of repositories, and a searchable resource (Google Dataset Search) via application program interfaces (API) wherever possible. With our analysis, we found that the six datasets met the majority of the criteria defined by the maturity indicators, and we showed areas where improvements can easily be reached. We suggest that use of standard schema for metadata and the presence of specific attributes in registries of repositories could increase FAIRness of datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Nanoinformatics to Nanomaterials Risk Assessment and Governance)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Trastuzumab Modified Barium Ferrite Magnetic Nanoparticles Labeled with Radium-223: A New Potential Radiobioconjugate for Alpha Radioimmunotherapy
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2067; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102067 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 227
Abstract
Barium ferrite nanoparticles (BaFeNPs) were investigated as vehicles for 223Ra radionuclide in targeted α-therapy. BaFe nanoparticles were labeled using a hydrothermal Ba2+ cations replacement by 223Ra with yield reaching 61.3 ± 1.8%. Radiolabeled nanoparticles were functionalized with 3-phosphonopropionic acid (CEPA) [...] Read more.
Barium ferrite nanoparticles (BaFeNPs) were investigated as vehicles for 223Ra radionuclide in targeted α-therapy. BaFe nanoparticles were labeled using a hydrothermal Ba2+ cations replacement by 223Ra with yield reaching 61.3 ± 1.8%. Radiolabeled nanoparticles were functionalized with 3-phosphonopropionic acid (CEPA) linker followed by covalent conjugation to trastuzumab (Herceptin®). Thermogravimetric analysis and radiometric method with the use of [131I]-labeled trastuzumab revealed that on average 19–21 molecules of trastuzumab are attached to the surface of one BaFe–CEPA nanoparticle. The hydrodynamic diameter of BaFe–CEPA–trastuzumab conjugate is 99.9 ± 3.0 nm in water and increases to 218.3 ± 3.7 nm in PBS buffer, and the zeta potential varies from +27.2 ± 0.7 mV in water to −8.8 ± 0.7 in PBS buffer. The [223Ra]BaFe–CEPA–trastuzumab radiobioconjugate almost quantitatively retained 223Ra (>98%) and about 96% of 211Bi and 94% of 211Pb over 30 days. The obtained radiobioconjugate exhibited high affinity, cell internalization and cytotoxicity towards the human ovarian adenocarcinoma SKOV-3 cells overexpressing HER2 receptor. Confocal studies indicated that [223Ra]BaFe–CEPA–trastuzumab was located in peri-nuclear space. High cytotoxicity of the [223Ra]BaFe–CEPA–trastuzumab bioconjugate was confirmed by radiotoxicity studies on SKOV-3 cell monolayers and 3D-spheroids. In addition, the magnetic properties of the radiobioconjugate should allow for its use in guide drug delivery driven by magnetic field gradient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotopes Labeled Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of CuIn1−xGaxSe2 Semiconductor Nanocrystals
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2066; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102066 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 283
Abstract
In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of CuIn1−xGaxSe2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nanocrystals are reported with the influences of x value on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the nanocrystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) [...] Read more.
In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of CuIn1−xGaxSe2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nanocrystals are reported with the influences of x value on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the nanocrystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the nanocrystals were of chalcopyrite structure with particle size in the range of 11.5–17.4 nm. Their lattice constants decreased with increasing Ga content. Thus, the x value of the CuIn1−xGaxSe2 nanocrystals was estimated by Vegard’s law. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the average particle size of the nanocrystals agreed with the results of XRD. Well-defined lattice fringes were shown in the TEM images. An analysis of the absorption spectra indicated that the band gap energy of these CuIn1−xGaxSe2 nanocrystals was tuned from 1.11 to 1.72 eV by varying the x value from 0 to 1. The Raman spectra indicated that the A1 optical vibrational mode of the nanocrystals gradually shifted to higher wavenumber with increasing x value. A simple theoretical equation for the A1 mode frequency was proposed. The plot of this equation showed the same trend as the experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocrystals: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Are Titania Photocatalysts and Titanium Implants Safe? Review on the Toxicity of Titanium Compounds
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102065 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Titanium and its compounds are broadly used in both industrial and domestic products, including jet engines, missiles, prostheses, implants, pigments, cosmetics, food, and photocatalysts for environmental purification and solar energy conversion. Although titanium/titania-containing materials are usually safe for human, animals and environment, increasing [...] Read more.
Titanium and its compounds are broadly used in both industrial and domestic products, including jet engines, missiles, prostheses, implants, pigments, cosmetics, food, and photocatalysts for environmental purification and solar energy conversion. Although titanium/titania-containing materials are usually safe for human, animals and environment, increasing concerns on their negative impacts have been postulated. Accordingly, this review covers current knowledge on the toxicity of titania and titanium, in which the behaviour, bioavailability, mechanisms of action, and environmental impacts have been discussed in detail, considering both light and dark conditions. Consequently, the following conclusions have been drawn: (i) titania photocatalysts rarely cause health and environmental problems; (ii) despite the lack of proof, the possible carcinogenicity of titania powders to humans is considered by some authorities; (iii) titanium alloys, commonly applied as implant materials, possess a relatively low health risk; (iv) titania microparticles are less toxic than nanoparticles, independent of the means of exposure; (v) excessive accumulation of titanium in the environment cannot be ignored; (vi) titanium/titania-containing products should be clearly marked with health warning labels, especially for pregnant women and young children; (vi) a key knowledge gap is the lack of comprehensive data about the environmental content and the influence of titania/titanium on biodiversity and the ecological functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-cytotoxic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Progress on the Gold-Free Integration of Ternary III–As Antimonide Nanowires Directly on Silicon
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2064; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102064 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 175
Abstract
During the last few years, there has been renewed interest in the monolithic integration of gold-free, Ternary III–As Antimonide (III–As–Sb) compound semiconductor materials on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)—compatible silicon substrate to exploit its scalability, and relative abundance in high-performance and cost-effective integrated circuits based [...] Read more.
During the last few years, there has been renewed interest in the monolithic integration of gold-free, Ternary III–As Antimonide (III–As–Sb) compound semiconductor materials on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)—compatible silicon substrate to exploit its scalability, and relative abundance in high-performance and cost-effective integrated circuits based on the well-established technology. Ternary III–As–Sb nanowires (NWs) hold enormous promise for the fabrication of high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices with tunable bandgap. However, the direct epitaxial growth of gold-free ternary III–As–Sb NWs on silicon is extremely challenging, due to the surfactant effect of Sb. This review highlights the recent progress towards the monolithic integration of III–As–Sb NWs on Si. First, a comprehensive and in-depth review of recent progress made in the gold-free growth of III–As–Sb NWs directly on Si is explicated, followed by a detailed description of the root cause of Sb surfactant effect and its influence on the morphology and structural properties of Au-free ternary III–As–Sb NWs. Then, the various strategies that have been successfully deployed for mitigating the Sb surfactant effect for enhanced Sb incorporation are highlighted. Finally, recent advances made in the development of CMOS compatible, Ternary III–As–Sb NWs based, high-performance optoelectronic devices are elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures)
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Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Effect of Graphene/Silver Nanowire Hybrid Fillers on Highly Stretchable Strain Sensors Based on Spandex Composites
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102063 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Embedding conductive nanomaterials into elastomeric polymer matrices is one of the most promising approaches for fabricating stretchable strain sensors capable of monitoring large mechanical movements or deformation through the detection of resistance changes. Here, hybrid fillers comprising graphene and silver nanowires (AgNWs) are [...] Read more.
Embedding conductive nanomaterials into elastomeric polymer matrices is one of the most promising approaches for fabricating stretchable strain sensors capable of monitoring large mechanical movements or deformation through the detection of resistance changes. Here, hybrid fillers comprising graphene and silver nanowires (AgNWs) are incorporated into extremely stretchable spandex to fabricate strain sensors. Composites containing only graphene and those containing the graphene/AgNW hybrid fillers are systematically investigated by evaluating their electrical and mechanical properties. The synergistic effect between graphene and AgNWs enable the strain sensors based on the composites to experience a large strain range of up to 120%, and low hysteresis with a high gauge factor of 150.3 at a strain of 120%. These reliable strain sensors are utilized for monitoring human motions such as heartbeats and body movements. The findings of this study indicate the significant applicability of graphene/AgNW/spandex composites in future applications that demand high-performance stretchable strain sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Eco-Friendly Supercapacitors Based on Biodegradable Poly(3-Hydroxy-Butyrate) and Ionic Liquids
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102062 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 193
Abstract
The interest for biodegradable electronic devices is rapidly increasing for application in the field of wearable electronics, precision agriculture, biomedicine, and environmental monitoring. Energy storage devices integrated on polymeric substrates are of particular interest to enable the large-scale on field use of complex [...] Read more.
The interest for biodegradable electronic devices is rapidly increasing for application in the field of wearable electronics, precision agriculture, biomedicine, and environmental monitoring. Energy storage devices integrated on polymeric substrates are of particular interest to enable the large-scale on field use of complex devices. This work presents a novel class of eco-friendly supercapacitors based on biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrrate) PHB, ionic liquids, and cluster-assembled gold electrodes. By electrochemical characterization, we demonstrate the possibility of tuning the supercapacitor energetic performance according to the type and amount of the ionic liquid employed. Our devices based on hydrophobic plastic materials are stable under cyclic operation and resistant to moisture exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Nanoscience and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Hexagonal and Monoclinic Phases of La2O2CO3 Nanoparticles and Their Phase-Related CO2 Behavior
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102061 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 213
Abstract
In this study, we prepared hexagonal and monoclinic phases of La2O2CO3 nanoparticles by different wet preparation methods and investigated their phase-related CO2 behavior through field-emission scanning microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, CO [...] Read more.
In this study, we prepared hexagonal and monoclinic phases of La2O2CO3 nanoparticles by different wet preparation methods and investigated their phase-related CO2 behavior through field-emission scanning microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, CO2-temperature programmed desorption, and linear sweeping voltammetry of CO2 electrochemical reduction. The monoclinic La2O2CO3 phase was synthesized by a conventional precipitation method via La(OH)CO3 when the precipitation time was longer than 12 h. In contrast, the hydrothermal method produced only the hexagonal La2O2CO3 phase, irrespective of the hydrothermal reaction time. The La(OH)3 phase was determined to be the initial phase in both preparation methods. During the precipitation, the La(OH)3 phase was transformed into La(OH)CO3 owing to the continuous supply of CO2 from air whereas the hydrothermal method of a closed system crystallized only the La(OH)3 phase. Based on the CO2-temperature programmed desorption and thermogravimetric analysis, the hexagonal La2O2CO3 nanoparticles (HL-12h) showed a higher surface CO2 adsorption and thermal stability than those of the monoclinic La2O2CO3 (PL-12h). The crystalline structures of both La2O2CO3 phases predicted by the density functional theory calculation explained the difference in the CO2 behavior on each phase. Consequently, HL-12h showed a higher current density and a more positive onset potential than PL-12h in CO2 electrochemical reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Selected Papers from CCMR)
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