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J. Intell., Volume 10, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 21 articles

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Article
Personal Intelligence Is Evident in the Sophistication of People’s Narratives about Personality
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030056 - 10 Aug 2022
Viewed by 168
Abstract
Personal intelligence concerns the ability to understand personality in oneself and others—including the understanding of motives, socioemotional traits, and abilities. We examined if people’s scores on the ability-based Test of Personal Intelligence (TOPI) would be reflected in their narratives about someone whose personality [...] Read more.
Personal intelligence concerns the ability to understand personality in oneself and others—including the understanding of motives, socioemotional traits, and abilities. We examined if people’s scores on the ability-based Test of Personal Intelligence (TOPI) would be reflected in their narratives about someone whose personality they had learned about. In a Preliminary Study (N = 220), we collected narratives and open-ended descriptions about their learning. In Study 1 (N = 212), experts rated the respondents’ open-ended narratives for their sophistication about personality, defined as their knowledge and complexity of thought around the topic. Respondents also filled out checklists concerning what they learned and their relationship outcomes. Study 2 (N = 299) was a replication and extension in which we added the TOPI. Participants who scored higher on the TOPI produced narratives higher in Sophistication, even after statistical controls for Word Count and Vocabulary (the measures also were largely independent of the Big Five). The findings here may have applications for both testing and training. Full article
Article
Academic Achievement: Influences of University Students’ Self-Management and Perceived Self-Efficacy
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030055 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Successful students are more than just those who have more effective and efficient learning techniques for acquiring and applying information. They can also motivate, evaluate, and adjust their behavior if they are not learning properly. Thus, the objective of this study was to [...] Read more.
Successful students are more than just those who have more effective and efficient learning techniques for acquiring and applying information. They can also motivate, evaluate, and adjust their behavior if they are not learning properly. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of university students’ self-management during their learning experience and their self-efficacy on their academic achievement. Additionally, the study investigated the differences between the Egyptian and Saudi students’ perceptions of self-management skills and self-efficacy in their academic achievement within the two countries. A total of 889 students from two different Arab countries took part in the study (Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). The sample was given an online questionnaire to evaluate their self-management abilities, perceived self-efficacy, and academic achievement. A quantitative approach using SmartPLS-SEM was deployed. The findings demonstrate that self-management and self-efficacy have positive influences on students’ academic achievement in both countries. Further, self-management skills have been proven to influence self-efficacy, which in turn highly influences academic achievement. Moreover, the findings of the Multi-Group Analysis (MGA) did not report significant differences between the Egyptian and Saudi students in terms of their perception of self-management, self-efficacy, and academic achievement. Full article
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Article
Cultural Intelligence: What Is It and How Can It Effectively Be Measured?
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030054 - 05 Aug 2022
Viewed by 306
Abstract
We administered both maximum-performance and typical-performance assessments of cultural intelligence to 114 undergraduates in a selective university in the Northeast of the United States. We found that cultural intelligence could be measured by both maximum-performance and typical-performance tests of cultural intelligence. Cultural intelligence [...] Read more.
We administered both maximum-performance and typical-performance assessments of cultural intelligence to 114 undergraduates in a selective university in the Northeast of the United States. We found that cultural intelligence could be measured by both maximum-performance and typical-performance tests of cultural intelligence. Cultural intelligence as assessed by a maximum-performance measure is largely distinct from the construct as assessed by a typical-performance measure. The maximum-performance test, the Sternberg Test of Cultural Intelligence (SCIT), showed high internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Sections with problems from two content domains—Business (SCIT-B) and Leisure (SCIT-L) activities—were highly intercorrelated, suggesting they measured largely the same construct. The SCIT showed substantial correlations with another maximum-performance measure of cultural intelligence, Views-on-Culture. It also was correlated, at more modest levels, with fluid intelligence and personal intelligence tests. Factorially, the (a) maximum-performance cultural intelligence tests, (b) typical-performance cultural intelligence test and a test of openness to experience, and (c) fluid intelligence tests formed three separate factors. Full article
Article
Metacognitive and Non-Metacognitive Processes in Arithmetic Performance: Can There Be More than One Meta-Level?
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030053 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 241
Abstract
The nature of the development of arithmetic performance has long been intensively studied, and available scientific evidence can be evaluated and synthesized in light of Nelson and Narens’ model of metacognition. According to the Nelson–Narens model, human cognition can be split into two [...] Read more.
The nature of the development of arithmetic performance has long been intensively studied, and available scientific evidence can be evaluated and synthesized in light of Nelson and Narens’ model of metacognition. According to the Nelson–Narens model, human cognition can be split into two or more interrelated levels. Obviously, in the case of more than two levels, cognitive processes from at least one level can be described as both meta- and object-level processes. The question arises whether it is possible that the very same cognitive processes are both controlled and controlling. The feasibility of owning the same cognitive processes—which are considered the same from an external point of view of assessment—as both meta- and object-level processes within the same individual opens the possibility of investigating the transition from meta-level to object-level. Modeling cognitive development by means of a series of such transitions calls forth an understanding of possible developmental phases in a given domain of learning. The developmental phases of arithmetic performance are described as a series of transitions from arithmetical facts to strategies of arithmetic word problem solving. For school learning and instruction, the role of metacognitive scaffolding as a powerful educational approach is emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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Article
The Relationship between Early Word Reading, Phonological Awareness, Early Music Reading and Musical Aptitude
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030050 - 03 Aug 2022
Viewed by 272
Abstract
A wide range of evidence has demonstrated the impact of music learning on phonological awareness and the development of reading. Music reading, its relationship with linguistic abilities and reading skills are all highly researched areas. However, limited information is available regarding the relationship [...] Read more.
A wide range of evidence has demonstrated the impact of music learning on phonological awareness and the development of reading. Music reading, its relationship with linguistic abilities and reading skills are all highly researched areas. However, limited information is available regarding the relationship between early text reading and early music reading. This study examined the relationship between word reading and music reading, musical aptitude and phonological awareness. The sample consisted of 119 Hungarian grade 1 elementary school students, who were at the beginning of both their text-reading and music-reading studies. They had commenced their studies just nine months before the point of assessment. Phonological awareness, musical aptitude and music reading were the independent variables in the linear-regression model, whilst word reading was the dependent variable. Together, the independent variables explained 50% of the level of development of word reading. The findings suggest a link between early word reading and early music reading. Moreover, further research as well as transfer research may benefit from looking at the possible effects of acquiring and practicing symbol reading, a process most frequently accompanying music learning, on the development of text reading. Full article
Article
Age-Related Changes and Reorganization of Creativity and Intelligence Indices in Schoolchildren and University Students
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030052 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Despite the lasting interest towards the relationship between intelligence and creativity, comparably less attention is paid to its age-related changes. Our paper considers the organization of fluid intelligence and psychometric indicators of creativity and is based on the experimental data obtained for children [...] Read more.
Despite the lasting interest towards the relationship between intelligence and creativity, comparably less attention is paid to its age-related changes. Our paper considers the organization of fluid intelligence and psychometric indicators of creativity and is based on the experimental data obtained for children aged 11 (n = 99) and for young adults (n = 77). We used two figural and verbal tasks with and without time limit. We found that the age-related differences in creativity are dependent on the context and the type of testing. The young adults were different from the children, having higher indicators of verbal and figurative creativity, except for the originality of the drawings created within the Incomplete Figures test, and having considerably higher test results for fluid intelligence. These age-related differences, together with the discovered closer relationship between the creativity indicators in the young adults group compared to the children, might suggest insufficient contribution of the components of the executive control of information selection (inhibition, shifting, and updating), which had not fully formed in eleven-year-olds. The comparison of the various indicators of creativity suggests that the most complex task for the children was the composition of an original sentence by joining nouns from various semantic categories. Full article
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Article
Fluid Intelligence Emerges from Representing Relations
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030051 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 196
Abstract
Based on recent findings in cognitive neuroscience and psychology as well as computational models of working memory and reasoning, I argue that fluid intelligence (fluid reasoning) can amount to representing in the mind the key relation(s) for the task at hand. Effective representation [...] Read more.
Based on recent findings in cognitive neuroscience and psychology as well as computational models of working memory and reasoning, I argue that fluid intelligence (fluid reasoning) can amount to representing in the mind the key relation(s) for the task at hand. Effective representation of relations allows for enormous flexibility of thinking but depends on the validity and robustness of the dynamic patterns of argument–object (role–filler) bindings, which encode relations in the brain. Such a reconceptualization of the fluid intelligence construct allows for the simplification and purification of its models, tests, and potential brain mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Flexibility: Concepts, Issues and Assessment)
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Article
Intelligence IS Cognitive Flexibility: Why Multilevel Models of Within-Individual Processes Are Needed to Realise This
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030049 - 01 Aug 2022
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Despite substantial evidence for the link between an individual’s intelligence and successful life outcomes, questions about what defines intelligence have remained the focus of heated dispute. The most common approach to understanding intelligence has been to investigate what performance on tests of intellect [...] Read more.
Despite substantial evidence for the link between an individual’s intelligence and successful life outcomes, questions about what defines intelligence have remained the focus of heated dispute. The most common approach to understanding intelligence has been to investigate what performance on tests of intellect is and is not associated with. This psychometric approach, based on correlations and factor analysis is deficient. In this review, we aim to substantiate why classic psychometrics which focus on between-person accounts will necessarily provide a limited account of intelligence until theoretical considerations of within-person accounts are incorporated. First, we consider the impact of entrenched psychometric presumptions that support the status quo and impede alternative views. Second, we review the importance of process-theories, which are critical for any serious attempt to build a within-person account of intelligence. Third, features of dynamic tasks are reviewed, and we outline how static tasks can be modified to target within-person processes. Finally, we explain how multilevel models are conceptually and psychometrically well-suited to building and testing within-individual notions of intelligence, which at its core, we argue is cognitive flexibility. We conclude by describing an application of these ideas in the context of microworlds as a case study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Flexibility: Concepts, Issues and Assessment)
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Article
Predicting Actual Social Skill Expression from Personality and Skill Self-Concepts
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030048 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Social skills are of key importance in everyday and work life. However, the way in which they are typically assessed via self-report questionnaires has one potential downside; self-reports assess individuals’ global self-concepts, which do not necessarily reflect individuals’ actual social behaviors. In this [...] Read more.
Social skills are of key importance in everyday and work life. However, the way in which they are typically assessed via self-report questionnaires has one potential downside; self-reports assess individuals’ global self-concepts, which do not necessarily reflect individuals’ actual social behaviors. In this research, we aimed to investigate how self-concepts assessed via questionnaires relate to skill expression assessed via behavioral observations after short interpersonal simulations. For this, we used an alternative behavior-based skill assessment approach designed to capture expressions of predefined social skills. Self- and observer ratings were collected to assess three different social skills: agency (i.e., getting ahead in social situations), communion (i.e., getting along in social situations), and interpersonal resilience (i.e., staying calm in social situations). We explored how these skills were related to self-concepts by differentiating between a classic personality measure (i.e., Big Five Inventory 2; BFI-2) and a novel skill questionnaire (i.e., Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Skills Inventory; BESSI). The results (N = 137) showed that both personality and skill self-concepts predicted self-rated skill expression, with the BESSI showing incremental validity. For both personality and skills self-concepts, the relationships with observer-rated skill expression were significant for agency but not for communion or interpersonal resilience. We discuss these results and highlight the theoretical and practical importance of differentiating between skill self-concepts and actual skill expression. Full article
Article
Online Assessment of Morphological Awareness in Grades 2–4: Its Development and Relation to Reading Comprehension
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030047 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 284
Abstract
The aims of the study are to construct an online instrument to assess different aspects of morphological awareness and to examine its development and its relation to reading comprehension in grades 2–4 in Hungarian children. Altogether, 4134 students were tested. The online test [...] Read more.
The aims of the study are to construct an online instrument to assess different aspects of morphological awareness and to examine its development and its relation to reading comprehension in grades 2–4 in Hungarian children. Altogether, 4134 students were tested. The online test evaluated inflectional, derivational, and compound morphological skills with five subtests. The instrument proved to be reliable. CFA examinations revealed that the five subtests were empirically distinguishable dimensions. Inflectional, derivational, and compound morphology as the three main dimensions of morphological awareness were also empirically supported by our data. Morphological awareness skills improved significantly and developed in parallel with reading skills throughout grades 2–4. The increase in the development of morphological awareness from grade 2 to grade 3 tends to be faster than the growth between grade 3 and 4. Positive moderate correlations were found between morphological skills and reading comprehension and the relationships seem to be stable throughout the three grades. The most significant predictor of reading comprehension is the Affix Identification for Nonwords subtest. Our study showed that morphological awareness could be assessed efficiently through online media and drew attention to the importance of morphological awareness in the development of reading comprehension and linguistic intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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Article
Analysing Complex Problem-Solving Strategies from a Cognitive Perspective: The Role of Thinking Skills
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030046 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Complex problem solving (CPS) is considered to be one of the most important skills for successful learning. In an effort to explore the nature of CPS, this study aims to investigate the role of inductive reasoning (IR) and combinatorial reasoning (CR) in the [...] Read more.
Complex problem solving (CPS) is considered to be one of the most important skills for successful learning. In an effort to explore the nature of CPS, this study aims to investigate the role of inductive reasoning (IR) and combinatorial reasoning (CR) in the problem-solving process of students using statistically distinguishable exploration strategies in the CPS environment. The sample was drawn from a group of university students (N = 1343). The tests were delivered via the eDia online assessment platform. Latent class analyses were employed to seek students whose problem-solving strategies showed similar patterns. Four qualitatively different class profiles were identified: (1) 84.3% of the students were proficient strategy users, (2) 6.2% were rapid learners, (3) 3.1% were non-persistent explorers, and (4) 6.5% were non-performing explorers. Better exploration strategy users showed greater development in thinking skills, and the roles of IR and CR in the CPS process were varied for each type of strategy user. To sum up, the analysis identified students’ problem-solving behaviours in respect of exploration strategy in the CPS environment and detected a number of remarkable differences in terms of the use of thinking skills between students with different exploration strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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Article
Developmental Assessment of Visual Communication Skills in Primary Education
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030045 - 22 Jul 2022
Viewed by 277
Abstract
In this paper, we describe subskills of visual communication based on the skill structure outlined in the Common European Framework of Visual Literacy. We have developed this Framework further through assessing the development of subskills related to visual communication in the “produce” and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we describe subskills of visual communication based on the skill structure outlined in the Common European Framework of Visual Literacy. We have developed this Framework further through assessing the development of subskills related to visual communication in the “produce” and “respond” domains of CEFR-VC in primary school grades. We developed and validated online digital assessment tools to facilitate the introduction of authentic assessment as a standard practice in curriculum development. The results of this study include the definition of its components, development of innovative tools for their assessment, and description of the development of its subskills in the “produce” and “respond” domains. Our tests for the “respond” domain of the visual literacy framework were administered in the eDia interactive diagnostic testing environment in Grades 4–6 (ages 10–12 years) of the Hungarian primary school system. The tools for the second experiment about the “create” domain of visual communication were developed in the GeoGebra free educational software environment and tested major components of the “produce” domain of visual communication in primary Grades 5–8 (ages 11–14 years). Results show increasing attainment in subskills through the age groups in the “produce” domain and less significant or no development in the “respond” domain, which is underrepresented in Hungarian art education curricula. Development is unrelated to school achievement in non-art disciplines, showing the distinctiveness of the visual domain, and is weakly related to gender and digital literacy. Using our subskill descriptions and the assessment tools, teachers may select those subskills that they find most important to develop during the limited teaching time for visual arts. The paper ends with suggestions to enhance visual communication as a cross-curricular competency that develops visual-spatial intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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Article
Adversity Quotient Promotes Teachers’ Professional Competence More Strongly Than Emotional Intelligence: Evidence from Indonesia
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030044 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Teachers’ professional competence has become a popular issue since the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study investigates teachers’ professional competence, in terms of emotional intelligence (EI), adversity quotient (AQ), and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), when teachers need to deal with abnormal situations, such as [...] Read more.
Teachers’ professional competence has become a popular issue since the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study investigates teachers’ professional competence, in terms of emotional intelligence (EI), adversity quotient (AQ), and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), when teachers need to deal with abnormal situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, this study also seeks to explore the relationship of EI and AQ with teachers’ professional competence mediated by OCB. The research data were collected through a questionnaire using a Likert scale from 589 participants: elementary school teachers in Indonesia were chosen through accidental sampling. The data analysis used structural equation modeling (SEM), complemented by common method bias, correlational, and descriptive analysis. The result shows that EI, AQ, and OCB have a significant relationship with teachers’ professional competence. However, AQ more strongly promotes teachers’ OCB and professional competence than EI does. In addition, OCB mediates the relationship between EI and AQ with teachers’ professional competence. Accordingly, a new model regarding the relationship of EI and AQ with teachers’ professional competence mediated by OCB was confirmed. Therefore, it is suggested that teachers’ professional competence can increase through EI, AQ, and OCB. Hence, the new empirical model deserves to be discussed, adapted, and even adopted by practitioners and researchers to develop the professional competence of teachers in the future. Full article
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Article
Interest–Ability Profiles: An Integrative Approach to Knowledge Acquisition
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030043 - 16 Jul 2022
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Cognitive abilities and interests both play an important role in guiding knowledge acquisition, but most previous studies have examined them separately. The current study used a large and representative dataset to integrate interests and abilities using a person-centered approach that examines how distinct [...] Read more.
Cognitive abilities and interests both play an important role in guiding knowledge acquisition, but most previous studies have examined them separately. The current study used a large and representative dataset to integrate interests and abilities using a person-centered approach that examines how distinct profiles of interests and abilities relate to individual strengths and weaknesses in knowledge. Two key findings emerged. First, eight interest–ability profiles were generated from Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), which replicated and extended the interrelations of interests and abilities found in previous studies using variable-centered approaches. Second, each profile’s strongest knowledge scores corresponded to their strongest abilities and interests, highlighting the importance of interest–ability profiles for guiding the development of knowledge. Importantly, in some domains, the lower ability profiles were actually more knowledgeable than higher ability profiles. Overall, these findings suggest that people learn best when given opportunities to acquire knowledge relevant to both their interests and abilities. We discuss how interest–ability profiles inform integrative theories of psychological development and present implications for education and career development. Full article
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Article
Language and Intelligence: A Relationship Supporting the Embodied Cognition Hypothesis
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030042 - 14 Jul 2022
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Cognitive science has gathered robust evidence supporting the hypothesis that cognitive processes do not occur in an amodal format but take shape through the activation of the sensorimotor systems of the agent body, which works as simulation system upon which concepts, words, and [...] Read more.
Cognitive science has gathered robust evidence supporting the hypothesis that cognitive processes do not occur in an amodal format but take shape through the activation of the sensorimotor systems of the agent body, which works as simulation system upon which concepts, words, and thought are based. However, studies that have investigated the relationship between language and cognitive processes, as both embedded processes, are very rare. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that intelligence is associated with referential competence, conceived as the ability to find words to refer to our subjective and perceptual experience, and to evoke understanding of this experience in the listener. We administered the WAIS-IV test to 32 nonclinical subjects and collected autobiographical narratives from them through the Relationship Anecdotes Paradigm Interview. The narratives were analyzed linguistically by applying computerized measures of referential competence. Intelligence scores were found to correlate with the use in narratives of words related to somatic and sensory sensations, while they were not associated with other measures of referential competence related to more abstract domains of experience or based on vivid or reflective dimensions of language style. The results support the hypothesis that sensorimotor schemas have an intrinsic role in language and cognition. Full article
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Article
Development and Validation of the Open Matrices Item Bank
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030041 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Figural matrices tasks are one of the most prominent item formats used in intelligence tests, and their relevance for the assessment of cognitive abilities is unquestionable. However, despite endeavors of the open science movement to make scientific research accessible on all levels, there [...] Read more.
Figural matrices tasks are one of the most prominent item formats used in intelligence tests, and their relevance for the assessment of cognitive abilities is unquestionable. However, despite endeavors of the open science movement to make scientific research accessible on all levels, there is a lack of royalty-free figural matrices tests. The Open Matrices Item Bank (OMIB) closes this gap by providing free and unlimited access (GPLv3 license) to a large set of empirically validated figural matrices items. We developed a set of 220 figural matrices based on well-established construction principles commonly used in matrices tests and administered them to a sample of N = 2572 applicants to medical schools. The results of item response models and reliability analyses demonstrate the excellent psychometric properties of the items. In the discussion, we elucidate how researchers can already use the OMIB to gain access to high-quality matrices tests for their studies. Furthermore, we provide perspectives for features that could additionally improve the utility of the OMIB. Full article
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Article
Examining the Influence of Using First-Person View Drones as Auxiliary Devices in Matte Painting Courses on College Students’ Continuous Learning Intention
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030040 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
In terms of the teaching process of matte painting, it is essential for students to develop a sound understanding of the relationship between virtual and physical environments. In this study, first-person view (FPV) drones are applied to matte painting courses to evaluate the [...] Read more.
In terms of the teaching process of matte painting, it is essential for students to develop a sound understanding of the relationship between virtual and physical environments. In this study, first-person view (FPV) drones are applied to matte painting courses to evaluate the effectiveness of the teaching, and to propose more effective design suggestions for FPV drones that are more suitable for teaching. This provides students with a better learning environment using a digital education system. The results of the study indicate that the flow experience, learning interest, and continuous learning intention of students who use FPV drones in matte painting are significantly greater than those of students who only utilize traditional teaching methods. Furthermore, the technology incentive model (TIM) was developed in this study after being verified by the structural equation model. The results demonstrate that the second-order construct ‘technology incentive’ comprising perceived interactivity, perceived vividness, and novel experience positively influence students’ learning interest and continuous learning intentions under the mediation of flow experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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Article
Exploring Automated Classification Approaches to Advance the Assessment of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030039 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Competency in skills associated with collaborative problem solving (CPS) is critical for many contexts, including school, the workplace, and the military. Innovative approaches for assessing individuals’ CPS competency are necessary, as traditional assessment types such as multiple -choice items are not well suited [...] Read more.
Competency in skills associated with collaborative problem solving (CPS) is critical for many contexts, including school, the workplace, and the military. Innovative approaches for assessing individuals’ CPS competency are necessary, as traditional assessment types such as multiple -choice items are not well suited for such a process-oriented competency. In a move to computer-based environments to support CPS assessment, innovative computational approaches are also needed to understand individuals’ CPS behaviors. In the current study, we describe the use of a simulation-based task on electronics concepts as an environment for higher education students to display evidence of their CPS competency. We further describe computational linguistic methods for automatically characterizing students’ display of various CPS skills in the task. Comparisons between such an automated approach and an approach based on human annotation to characterize student CPS behaviors revealed above average agreement. These results give credence to the potential for automated approaches to help advance the assessment of CPS and to circumvent the time-intensive human annotation approaches that are typically used in these contexts. Full article
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Article
Examining Humans’ Problem-Solving Styles in Technology-Rich Environments Using Log File Data
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030038 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
This study investigated how one’s problem-solving style impacts his/her problem-solving performance in technology-rich environments. Drawing upon experiential learning theory, we extracted two behavioral indicators (i.e., planning duration for problem solving and human–computer interaction frequency) to model problem-solving styles in technology-rich environments. We employed [...] Read more.
This study investigated how one’s problem-solving style impacts his/her problem-solving performance in technology-rich environments. Drawing upon experiential learning theory, we extracted two behavioral indicators (i.e., planning duration for problem solving and human–computer interaction frequency) to model problem-solving styles in technology-rich environments. We employed an existing data set in which 7516 participants responded to 14 technology-based tasks of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) 2012. Clustering analyses revealed three problem-solving styles: Acting indicates a preference for active explorations; Reflecting represents a tendency to observe; and Shirking shows an inclination toward scarce tryouts and few observations. Explanatory item response modeling analyses disclosed that individuals with the Acting style outperformed those with the Reflecting or the Shirking style, and this superiority persisted across tasks with different difficulties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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Article
Traits of Complex Thinking: A Bibliometric Review of a Disruptive Construct in Education
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030037 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 371
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to contextualize the behavior of publications on complex thinking in education. A total of 428 documents compiled in Scopus from 1937 to 2022 were analyzed with a bibliometric study considering criteria such as “complex thinking”, “complex thought”, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to contextualize the behavior of publications on complex thinking in education. A total of 428 documents compiled in Scopus from 1937 to 2022 were analyzed with a bibliometric study considering criteria such as “complex thinking”, “complex thought”, and “reasoning for complexity”, all combined with education. The results show 153, 47, and 5 publications for each criterion with their related disciplines, citations, types of documents, universities, prominent authors, researching countries, and the general diachronic evolution of the subject, this allows to establish an idea about the implications of the present study according to one of the most important databases in the world. It is concluded that complex thinking and its relationship with education awakens a greater interest in the academy, not only because of its incidence in diverse fields that are nourished by it for the generation of new multidisciplinary knowledge but also because of the published research that demonstrates its transcendence. Full article
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Article
Long-Term Impacts of Early Musical Abilities on Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030036 - 29 Jun 2022
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Numerous neurological, psychological, and transfer studies confirmed the role of learning music in cognitive development and education. However, exploring the long-term impacts of early musical abilities on academic achievement has gained relatively little attention thus far. In a seven-year longitudinal study, we examined [...] Read more.
Numerous neurological, psychological, and transfer studies confirmed the role of learning music in cognitive development and education. However, exploring the long-term impacts of early musical abilities on academic achievement has gained relatively little attention thus far. In a seven-year longitudinal study, we examined the predictive role of musical abilities in future success in school. The sample consisted of 76 Hungarian students. The independent variables were mothers’ education and the tests administered to Grade-1 students, which included Raven’s Progressive Matrices and tests on word reading, mathematics, and musical abilities. The dependent variable was GPA in Grade 7. All tests demonstrated adequate reliability. In the regression model with the most significant predictive role, the independent variables explained 46% of GPA in Grade 7 when taken together. We established the long-term predictive role of musical abilities in later success in school. Rhythm perception and reproduction demonstrated the most significant explanatory power (11%) of variance for GPA. Mathematics and mothers’ education each explained 10% of the variance. The findings shed light on the positive impacts that early musical training may play in later academic achievement, even in the long run. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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