Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice

A special issue of Journal of Intelligence (ISSN 2079-3200).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2022) | Viewed by 62545

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Special Issue Editor

Centre for Research in Applied Measurement and Evaluation, University of Alberta, 6-110 Education Centre North, 11210 87 Ave NW, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G5, Canada
Interests: psychometrics; psycho-educational assessments; educational data mining; big data modeling; large-scale testing; learning analytics; digital assessments; computerized adaptive testing; statistical programming
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Psycho-educational assessments (e.g., intelligence tests, cognitive test batteries, and behavioral measures) are important instruments that help both school psychologists and educators to better understand children’s learning and behavioral profiles. Using psycho-educational assessments, school psychologists and educators can identify each student’s strengths and weaknesses in terms of academic and cognitive abilities. Furthermore, these assessments can be used for identifying children with learning disabilities, intellectual differences, and social–emotional challenges as well as gifted and talented children. The results of psycho-educational assessments are useful not only for diagnosing possible learning or developmental problems but also for planning timely interventions and support programs to accommodate the specific needs of students.

The focus of this Special Issue is psycho-educational assessments designed for the population of school-aged children (i.e., children aged 5 to 19). We encourage submissions that present findings of empirical research or theoretical work related to the design, use, analysis, interpretation, and reporting processes of psycho-educational assessments. The topics that this Special Issue is soliciting submissions on include, but are not limited to:

  • Innovative assessment methods and models;
  • Individual and group psycho-educational assessments;
  • Validity studies of new or existing psycho-educational assessments;
  • The diagnostic accuracy of psycho-educational assessments;
  • Psycho-educational assessments and report writing;
  • Data science methods for analyzing the results of psycho-educational assessments.

Prof. Okan Bulut
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Intelligence is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • intelligence
  • cognitive ability
  • psychometric testing
  • diagnostic assessment
  • learning disability
  • social–emotional problems

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice
by Okan Bulut
J. Intell. 2024, 12(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12030031 - 5 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2210
Abstract
Psycho-educational assessments, such as intelligence tests, cognitive test batteries, and behavioral measures, serve as invaluable tools for school psychologists and educators [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

34 pages, 864 KiB  
Article
Estimating Local Structural Equation Models
by Alexander Robitzsch
J. Intell. 2023, 11(9), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11090175 - 1 Sep 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2123
Abstract
Local structural equation models (LSEM) are structural equation models that study model parameters as a function of a moderator. This article reviews and extends LSEM estimation methods and discusses the implementation in the R package sirt. In previous studies, LSEM was fitted as [...] Read more.
Local structural equation models (LSEM) are structural equation models that study model parameters as a function of a moderator. This article reviews and extends LSEM estimation methods and discusses the implementation in the R package sirt. In previous studies, LSEM was fitted as a sequence of models separately evaluated as each value of the moderator variables. In this article, a joint estimation approach is proposed that is a simultaneous estimation method across all moderator values and also allows some model parameters to be invariant with respect to the moderator. Moreover, sufficient details on the main estimation functions in the R package sirt are provided. The practical implementation of LSEM is demonstrated using illustrative datasets and an empirical example. Moreover, two simulation studies investigate the statistical properties of parameter estimation and significance testing in LSEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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16 pages, 947 KiB  
Article
Measurement Efficiency of a Teacher Rating Scale to Screen for Students at Risk for Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems
by Gino Casale, Moritz Herzog and Robert J. Volpe
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030057 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2611
Abstract
Teacher rating scales are broadly used for psycho-educational assessment in schools. In particular, they play an important role in screening students for social, emotional, and behavioral problems. In order to optimize the efficiency of these measures, it is important to minimize the number [...] Read more.
Teacher rating scales are broadly used for psycho-educational assessment in schools. In particular, they play an important role in screening students for social, emotional, and behavioral problems. In order to optimize the efficiency of these measures, it is important to minimize the number of items comprising them while maintaining sound psychometric characteristics. This study examines the measurement efficiency of a teacher rating scale for student social, emotional, and behavioral risk. The goal was to shorten an existing behavior screening tool. A total of 139 classroom teachers and 2566 students from Grades 1–6 (Mage = 8.96 years, SD = 1.61) participated in the study. In sum, 35 items assessing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were analyzed applying the item response theory (generalized partial credit model). The results show that social, emotional, and behavioral risks can be captured with a total of 12 items. This reduction of almost 66% of the initial item pool would take teachers about 90 s to fill out for one student. Thus, the rating scale can be used by teachers in an efficient yet psychometrically sound manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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25 pages, 3623 KiB  
Article
Playful Testing of Executive Functions with Yellow-Red: Tablet-Based Battery for Children between 6 and 11
by Ricardo Rosas, Victoria Espinoza, Camila Martínez and Catalina Santa-Cruz
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040125 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3794
Abstract
Executive functions are psychological processes of great importance for proper functioning in various areas of human development, including academic performance. For this reason, from both clinical and educational perspectives, there is great interest in how they are assessed. This article describes the development [...] Read more.
Executive functions are psychological processes of great importance for proper functioning in various areas of human development, including academic performance. For this reason, from both clinical and educational perspectives, there is great interest in how they are assessed. This article describes the development and standardization process of Yellow-Red, an instrument for directly assessing executive functions in children between 6 and 11 years of age in a playful format using digital support. The test was based on a three-factor model of executive functioning: inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Yellow-Red comprises six subtests: cognitive inhibition, behavioral inhibition, auditory working memory, visual working memory, cognitive flexibility, and a global assessment test of executive functions. The test was administered to 245 boys and girls between 6 and 11 years of age. Along with the Yellow-Red subtests, gold standard tests were applied for each of the executive functions assessed. The test’s psychometric properties are powerful in both reliability and validity evidence. The reliability indices are all greater than 0.8. As evidence of convergent validity, correlations were established between the tests, and the tests considered gold standards. All correlations were significant, with values ranging between 0.42 and 0.73. On the other hand, the factor structure of the test was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. Although it is possible to demonstrate the progressive differentiation of the factor structure with age, it was only possible to find two factors at older ages, one for inhibition/flexibility and one for working memory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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32 pages, 3786 KiB  
Article
Multidimensional Scaling of Cognitive Ability and Academic Achievement Scores
by Em M. Meyer and Matthew R. Reynolds
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040117 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3189
Abstract
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used as an alternate multivariate procedure for investigating intelligence and academic achievement test score correlations. Correlation coefficients among Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-5) and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third Edition (WIAT-III) validity sample scores and among [...] Read more.
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used as an alternate multivariate procedure for investigating intelligence and academic achievement test score correlations. Correlation coefficients among Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-5) and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third Edition (WIAT-III) validity sample scores and among Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition (KTEA-2) co-norming sample scores were analyzed using multidimensional scaling (MDS). Three-dimensional MDS configurations were the best fit for interpretation in both datasets. Subtests were more clearly organized by CHC ability and academic domain instead of complexity. Auditory-linguistic, figural-visual, reading-writing, and quantitative-numeric regions were visible in all models. Results were mostly similar across different grade levels. Additional analysis with WISC-V and WIAT-III tests showed that content (verbal, numeric, figural) and response process facets (verbal, manual, paper-pencil) were also useful in explaining test locations. Two implications from this study are that caution may be needed when interpreting fluency scores across academic areas, and MDS provides more empirically based validity evidence regarding content and response mode processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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21 pages, 1391 KiB  
Article
Cognitive and Developmental Functions in Autistic and Non-Autistic Children and Adolescents: Evidence from the Intelligence and Development Scales–2
by Salome D. Odermatt, Wenke Möhring, Silvia Grieder and Alexander Grob
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040112 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3484
Abstract
Autistic individuals often show impairments in cognitive and developmental domains beyond the core symptoms of lower social communication skills and restricted repetitive behaviors. Consequently, the assessment of cognitive and developmental functions constitutes an essential part of the diagnostic evaluation. Yet, evidence on differential [...] Read more.
Autistic individuals often show impairments in cognitive and developmental domains beyond the core symptoms of lower social communication skills and restricted repetitive behaviors. Consequently, the assessment of cognitive and developmental functions constitutes an essential part of the diagnostic evaluation. Yet, evidence on differential validity from intelligence and developmental tests, which are commonly used with autistic individuals, varies widely. In the current study, we investigated the cognitive (i.e., intelligence, executive functions) and developmental (i.e., psychomotor skills, social–emotional skills, basic skills, motivation and attitude, participation during testing) functions of autistic and non-autistic children and adolescents using the Intelligence and Development Scales–2 (IDS-2). We compared 43 autistic (Mage = 12.30 years) with 43 non-autistic (Mage = 12.51 years) participants who were matched for age, sex, and maternal education. Autistic participants showed significantly lower mean values in psychomotor skills, language skills, and the evaluation of participation during testing of the developmental functions compared to the control sample. Our findings highlight that autistic individuals show impairments particularly in motor and language skills using the IDS-2, which therefore merit consideration in autism treatment in addition to the core symptoms and the individuals’ intellectual functioning. Moreover, our findings indicate that particularly motor skills might be rather neglected in autism diagnosis and may be worthy of receiving more attention. Nonsignificant group differences in social–emotional skills could have been due to compensatory effects of average cognitive abilities in our autistic sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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18 pages, 374 KiB  
Article
The Impact of an Enrichment Program on the Emirati Verbally Gifted Children
by Hala Elhoweris, Najwa Alhosani, Negmeldin Alsheikh, Rhoda-Myra Garces Bacsal and Eleni Bonti
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030068 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2688
Abstract
Most researchers agree that verbally gifted learners should be provided with differentiated curriculum experiences that will allow them to reach their full potential. However, research is scarce in the field. The present study examined the impact of a reading enrichment program on fourth-grade [...] Read more.
Most researchers agree that verbally gifted learners should be provided with differentiated curriculum experiences that will allow them to reach their full potential. However, research is scarce in the field. The present study examined the impact of a reading enrichment program on fourth-grade students’ critical reading abilities. The program was based on the Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM). The sample consisted of forty fourth-grade verbally gifted students from a school in Dubai, who were randomly assigned to either an experimental instruction condition or a traditional instruction condition and completed pre and post-tests of language arts. A pre-and post-experimental design was used. The overall results indicated the efficacy of the differentiated enrichment program in enhancing Emirati gifted learners’ critical reading abilities. The study also provides a framework for better provision and teacher training planning regarding gifted education in the UAE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
18 pages, 1848 KiB  
Article
Examining Humans’ Problem-Solving Styles in Technology-Rich Environments Using Log File Data
by Yizhu Gao, Xiaoming Zhai, Okan Bulut, Ying Cui and Xiaojian Sun
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030038 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
This study investigated how one’s problem-solving style impacts his/her problem-solving performance in technology-rich environments. Drawing upon experiential learning theory, we extracted two behavioral indicators (i.e., planning duration for problem solving and human–computer interaction frequency) to model problem-solving styles in technology-rich environments. We employed [...] Read more.
This study investigated how one’s problem-solving style impacts his/her problem-solving performance in technology-rich environments. Drawing upon experiential learning theory, we extracted two behavioral indicators (i.e., planning duration for problem solving and human–computer interaction frequency) to model problem-solving styles in technology-rich environments. We employed an existing data set in which 7516 participants responded to 14 technology-based tasks of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) 2012. Clustering analyses revealed three problem-solving styles: Acting indicates a preference for active explorations; Reflecting represents a tendency to observe; and Shirking shows an inclination toward scarce tryouts and few observations. Explanatory item response modeling analyses disclosed that individuals with the Acting style outperformed those with the Reflecting or the Shirking style, and this superiority persisted across tasks with different difficulties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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34 pages, 544 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Fourth Edition as a Measurement Instrument
by A. Alexander Beaujean and Jason R. Parkin
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10020030 - 22 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6714
Abstract
The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-4) is the latest iteration of a popular instrument that psychologists employ to assess academic achievement. The WIAT-4 authors make both pragmatic and measurement claims about the instrument. The pragmatic claims involve being useful for identifying individuals in [...] Read more.
The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-4) is the latest iteration of a popular instrument that psychologists employ to assess academic achievement. The WIAT-4 authors make both pragmatic and measurement claims about the instrument. The pragmatic claims involve being useful for identifying individuals in certain academic achievement-related groups (e.g., specific learning disability). The measurement claims are twofold: (a) the instrument’s scores represent psychological attributes, and (b) scores transformed to standard score values have equal-interval properties. The WIAT-4 authors did not provide the evidence necessary to support the pragmatic claims in the technical manual, so we could not evaluate them. Thus, we limited our evaluation to the measurement claims for the composite scores. To do so, we used information in the technical manual along with some additional factor analyses. Support for the first measurement claim varies substantially across scores. Although none of the evidence is particularly strong, scores in mathematics and reading domains tend to have more support than the writing and total achievement scores. Support for the second claim was insufficient for all scores. Consequently, we recommend that psychologists wishing to interpret WIAT-4 composite scores limit those interpretations to just a few in the mathematics and reading domains. Second, psychologists should completely refrain from using any composite score in a way that requires equal-interval values (e.g., quantitative score comparisons). Neither of these recommendations necessarily disqualifies the scores from being useful for pragmatic purposes, but support for these uses will need to come from evidence not currently provided in the WIAT-4 technical manual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
19 pages, 347 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Culture Capital, Social Security, and Living Conditions on Children’s Cognitive Ability: Evidence from 2018 China Family Panel Studies
by Xianhua Dai and Wenchao Li
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10020019 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2937
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of economic capital, culture capital, social capital, social security, and living conditions on children’s cognitive ability. However, most studies only focus on the impact of family socio-economic status/culture capital on children’s cognitive ability [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of economic capital, culture capital, social capital, social security, and living conditions on children’s cognitive ability. However, most studies only focus on the impact of family socio-economic status/culture capital on children’s cognitive ability by ordinary least squares regression analysis. To this end, we used the data from the China Family Panel Studies in 2018 and applied proxy variable, instrumental variables, and two-stage least squares regression analysis with a total of 2647 samples with ages from 6 to 16. The results showed that family education, education expectation, books, education participation, social communication, and tap water had a positive impact on both the Chinese and math cognitive ability of children, while children’s age, gender, and family size had a negative impact on cognitive ability, and the impact of genes was attenuated by family capital. In addition, these results are robust, and the heterogeneity was found for gender and urban location. Specifically, in terms of gender, the culture, social capital, and social security are more sensitive to the cognitive ability of girls, while living conditions are more sensitive to the cognitive ability of boys. In urban locations, the culture and social capital are more sensitive to rural children’s cognitive ability, while the social security and living conditions are more sensitive to urban children’s cognitive ability. These findings provide theoretical support to further narrow the cognitive differences between children from many aspects, which allows social security and living conditions to be valued. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
16 pages, 964 KiB  
Article
Shaky Student Growth? A Comparison of Robust Bayesian Learning Progress Estimation Methods
by Boris Forthmann, Natalie Förster and Elmar Souvignier
J. Intell. 2022, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10010016 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2884
Abstract
Monitoring the progress of student learning is an important part of teachers’ data-based decision making. One such tool that can equip teachers with information about students’ learning progress throughout the school year and thus facilitate monitoring and instructional decision making is learning progress [...] Read more.
Monitoring the progress of student learning is an important part of teachers’ data-based decision making. One such tool that can equip teachers with information about students’ learning progress throughout the school year and thus facilitate monitoring and instructional decision making is learning progress assessments. In practical contexts and research, estimating learning progress has relied on approaches that seek to estimate progress either for each student separately or within overarching model frameworks, such as latent growth modeling. Two recently emerging lines of research for separately estimating student growth have examined robust estimation (to account for outliers) and Bayesian approaches (as opposed to commonly used frequentist methods). The aim of this work was to combine these approaches (i.e., robust Bayesian estimation) and extend these lines of research to the framework of linear latent growth models. In a sample of N = 4970 second-grade students who worked on the quop-L2 test battery (to assess reading comprehension) at eight measurement points, we compared three Bayesian linear latent growth models: (a) a Gaussian model, (b) a model based on Student’s t-distribution (i.e., a robust model), and (c) an asymmetric Laplace model (i.e., Bayesian quantile regression and an alternative robust model). Based on leave-one-out cross-validation and posterior predictive model checking, we found that both robust models outperformed the Gaussian model, and both robust models performed comparably well. While the Student’s t model performed statistically slightly better (yet not substantially so), the asymmetric Laplace model yielded somewhat more realistic posterior predictive samples and a higher degree of measurement precision (i.e., for those estimates that were either associated with the lowest or highest degree of measurement precision). The findings are discussed for the context of learning progress assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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12 pages, 909 KiB  
Article
Assessing Children ‘At Risk’: Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) into Arabic and Pilot Use in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)
by Maria Efstratopoulou, Hala Elhoweris, Abeer Arafa Eldib and Eleni Bonti
J. Intell. 2022, 10(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10010011 - 5 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3684
Abstract
Children’s emotional, behavioral, and developmental problems can be properly identified and assessed based on observations from their teachers and parents. The Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) was designed to assist classroom teachers and Physical Education (PE) teachers in assessing their students’ motor-related behaviors. The [...] Read more.
Children’s emotional, behavioral, and developmental problems can be properly identified and assessed based on observations from their teachers and parents. The Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) was designed to assist classroom teachers and Physical Education (PE) teachers in assessing their students’ motor-related behaviors. The instrument has already been successfully translated and culturally adapted into six languages and used in a number of research studies internationally. The present study aimed to develop the Arabic version of the MBC checklist and proceed with the necessary cross-cultural adaptations for the use of the instrument in Arabic speaking countries and especially in United Arab Emirates (UAE) primary schools. The translation and cultural adaptation of the MBC was based on the ten-step process: forward translation of the original instrument; development of a synthesized version, back-translation; linguistic and semantic comparisons; back translators evaluation of divergent items; development of a synthesized version; based on the back translators’ suggestions; clarity assessment of the synthesized version by professionals (teachers); additional assessment of clarity indicators by a focus group of experts; and development of the final version. Results indicated a satisfactory level of agreement between the original and the back-translated versions, while nine items required minor adjustments and two items needed major adaptations and word replacements to clarify their content and be fully adapted into the UAE culture. In the pilot use, UAE teachers confirmed the clarity of the items in an 84% percentage. The final translated version’s overall content was found sufficiently compatible with the original version of the instrument. The study highlights the importance of a rigorous translation process and the process of cultural adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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12 pages, 536 KiB  
Article
Linguistic Influences on Cognitive Test Performance: Examinee Characteristics Are More Important than Test Characteristics
by Damien C. Cormier, Okan Bulut, Kevin S. McGrew and Kathleen Kennedy
J. Intell. 2022, 10(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10010008 (registering DOI) - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3475
Abstract
Consideration of the influence of English language skills during testing is an understandable requirement for fair and valid cognitive test interpretation. Several professional standards and expert recommendations exist to guide psychologists as they attempt to engage in best practices when assessing English learners [...] Read more.
Consideration of the influence of English language skills during testing is an understandable requirement for fair and valid cognitive test interpretation. Several professional standards and expert recommendations exist to guide psychologists as they attempt to engage in best practices when assessing English learners (ELs). Nonetheless, relatively few evidence-based recommendations for practice have been specified for psychologists. To address this issue, we used a mixed-effects modeling approach to examine the influences of test characteristics (i.e., test directions) and examinee characteristics (i.e., expressive and receptive language abilities) on cognitive test performance. Our results suggest that language abilities appear to have a significant influence on cognitive test performance, whereas test characteristics do not influence performance, after accounting for language abilities. Implications for practice include the assessment of expressive and receptive language abilities of EL students prior to administering, scoring, and interpreting cognitive test scores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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17 pages, 357 KiB  
Article
Flexibility to Change the Solution: An Indicator of Problem Solving That Predicted 9th Grade Students’ Academic Achievement during Distance Learning, in Parallel to Reasoning Abilities and Parental Education
by Liena Hacatrjana
J. Intell. 2022, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10010007 (registering DOI) - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3944
Abstract
The relation between academic achievement and various measurements of cognitive abilities, problem-solving skills and self-managed learning has been established in the research before the COVID-19 pandemic and distance learning. The aim of the current research was to analyze the extent to which these [...] Read more.
The relation between academic achievement and various measurements of cognitive abilities, problem-solving skills and self-managed learning has been established in the research before the COVID-19 pandemic and distance learning. The aim of the current research was to analyze the extent to which these aspects predicted the educational achievement of 9th grade students (mean age 15.4 years) during distance learning, when students had to do relatively more tasks independently, organize their daily learning and deal with problems on their own. Relations between self-assessed problem-solving skills, self-management skills, tests of reasoning abilities and the results of diagnostic tests in Mathematics and Latvian were analyzed for n = 256 and n = 244 students, respectively. The results show that: (1) diagnostic test results in Mathematics are best predicted by the parental education level, fluid nonverbal reasoning and verbal reasoning; (2) the best predictors for the results in the diagnostic test in Latvian are parental education, flexibility to change the solution, fluid nonverbal reasoning and verbal reasoning; (3) self-management cannot significantly predict the results of either of the two tests, although it correlates to the results of the tests in both Mathematics and Latvian; (4) only one of the aspects of problem-solving, flexibility to change the solution, can significantly predict results in diagnostic tests. The results confirm the significance of cognitive abilities as an important predictor of academic achievement, as well as the role of parents’ education level. The results also suggest that the flexibility to change the solution, an aspect of problem-solving, might play a role in students’ success in academic tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
16 pages, 371 KiB  
Article
Parental Stress and Children’s Self-Regulation Problems in Families with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
by Maria Efstratopoulou, Maria Sofologi, Sofia Giannoglou and Eleni Bonti
J. Intell. 2022, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10010004 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6295
Abstract
Background: Increased parental stress is strongly related to the severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology. Parents’ coping strategies and social support issues add to the complexity of this relationship. Aim: The present study investigated the relationship between self-regulation skills and [...] Read more.
Background: Increased parental stress is strongly related to the severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology. Parents’ coping strategies and social support issues add to the complexity of this relationship. Aim: The present study investigated the relationship between self-regulation skills and parenting stress in parents of nonverbal children with ASD. Methods and procedure: The Parenting Stress Index–Short Form (PSI-SF) was administered to 75 families, and self-regulation scores on a Motor Behavior Checklist for children (MBC) were recorded by students’ class teachers (level of functioning-behavioral problems). In addition, interviews were conducted with a focus group of six parents (four mothers and two fathers) to explore the underline factors of parental stressin-depth. Results: Correlation analyses revealed that parenting stress was positively correlated with elevated scores on MBC children’s self-regulation subscale. On the other hand, parenting stress was negatively correlated with the level of social functional support reported. Qualitative data were analyzed using transcripts, revealing additional stressors for families and parents, and resulting in recommendations to overcome these factors. Conclusions and implications: Aiming at developing strategies to improve self-regulation skills in nonverbal children with ASD may be particularly important in reducing parental stress for families having nonverbal children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Parents’ stressors and suggestions during interviews are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
11 pages, 1308 KiB  
Article
Reconsidering the Use of the Mindset Assessment Profile in Educational Contexts
by Alexander P. Burgoyne and Brooke N. Macnamara
J. Intell. 2021, 9(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence9030039 - 4 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4095
Abstract
The Mindset Assessment Profile is a popular questionnaire purportedly designed to measure mindset—an individual’s belief in whether intelligence is malleable or stable. Despite its widespread use, the questionnaire appears to assess an individual’s need for cognition and goal orientation more than mindset. We [...] Read more.
The Mindset Assessment Profile is a popular questionnaire purportedly designed to measure mindset—an individual’s belief in whether intelligence is malleable or stable. Despite its widespread use, the questionnaire appears to assess an individual’s need for cognition and goal orientation more than mindset. We assessed the reliability, construct validity, and factor structure of the Mindset Assessment Profile in a sample of 992 undergraduates. The reliability of the Mindset Assessment Profile was questionable (α = .63) and significantly lower than the reliability of the Implicit Theories of Intelligence Questionnaire (α = .94), an established measure of mindset. The Mindset Assessment Profile also lacked convergent and discriminant validity. Overall scores on the Mindset Assessment Profile correlated significantly more strongly with need for cognition than with mindset. Item-level analyses supported this finding: most items correlated weakly or not at all with mindset, and correlated significantly more strongly with need for cognition and learning goal orientation. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that three factors were underlying scores on the Mindset Assessment Profile: need for cognition, mindset, and performance goal orientation. Based on its questionable reliability and poor construct validity, we do not recommend that researchers and educators use the Mindset Assessment Profile to measure mindset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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14 pages, 362 KiB  
Perspective
Clinical Reasoning: A Missing Piece for Improving Evidence-Based Assessment in Psychology
by Gabrielle Wilcox, Meadow Schroeder and Michelle A. Drefs
J. Intell. 2023, 11(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11020026 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2510
Abstract
Clinical reasoning is a foundational component of conducting evidence-based psychological assessments. In spite of its importance, limited attention has been paid to the teaching or measurement of clinical reasoning skills relative to psychological assessment, as well as how clinical reasoning develops or how [...] Read more.
Clinical reasoning is a foundational component of conducting evidence-based psychological assessments. In spite of its importance, limited attention has been paid to the teaching or measurement of clinical reasoning skills relative to psychological assessment, as well as how clinical reasoning develops or how its efficacy can be measured. Improving clinical reasoning throughout the assessment process, from initial case conceptualization to hypotheses testing, to recommendation writing, has the potential to address commonly noted concerns regarding diagnostic accuracy, as well as the accessibility and utility of psychological reports and recommendations, and will, ultimately, lead to improved outcomes for clients. Consequently, we provide a definition of clinical reasoning in relation to psychological assessment, followed by a critique of graduate training assessment and the current challenges of measuring clinical reasoning in psychology. Lastly, this paper provides suggestions for how to incorporate clinical reasoning throughout the assessment process as a way to answer client questions more effectively and provide meaningful recommendations to improve outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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