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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 103 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Bivalve relevance for ecosystem functioning and human food security emphasizes the importance of predictions of mussel performance under different climate stressors. Here, we address the effect of a latitudinal gradient of temperature and food availability on the fecundity of mussels to try to better parameterize environmental forcing over reproductive output. We show that temperature plays a major role, acting as a switching on–off mechanism for gametogenesis, while food availability has a lower influence but also modulates the number of gametes produced. Our results support the view that gametogenesis responds nonlinearly to temperature and chlorophyll concentration, an issue that is largely overlooked in predictive models that can overestimate the capability of mussel populations to deal with future climate change scenarios. View this paper
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18 pages, 21243 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Floating Breakwater in Special Configurations for Protecting Nearshore Infrastructures
by Chi Zhang and Allan R. Magee
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070785 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4304
Abstract
This paper investigates the effectiveness of floating breakwaters consisting of two barges (L-shape), three barges (U-shape), four barges (barge frame), and conventional single floating breakwater. The floating breakwaters of different spatial layouts have sheltered internal gaps/moonpools when compared to their conventional counterparts. The [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the effectiveness of floating breakwaters consisting of two barges (L-shape), three barges (U-shape), four barges (barge frame), and conventional single floating breakwater. The floating breakwaters of different spatial layouts have sheltered internal gaps/moonpools when compared to their conventional counterparts. The motions of these floating breakwaters and their effectiveness in wave transmission and motion reduction of the protected floating bodies are evaluated. The study is conducted based on a subsystem of a floating hydrocarbon storage facility that combines a floating breakwater with two floating tanks, studied previously. Numerical models based on linear potential flow theory are built for these floating breakwaters with and without the floating tanks. The numerical models of the barge frame are validated through laboratory experiments, and the dipole damping lids to reduce the resonant fluid motions in the gaps/moonpools are calibrated with experimental results. The L-shape floating breakwater is found effective in reducing wave transmissions without the presence of the floating tanks, while the barge frame is the most effective in the motion reduction of the floating tanks. In addition, significant fluid resonant motions are identified for all investigated floating breakwaters, including the conventional one. Orienting the structure obliquely can improve the performance of the floating breakwaters of special configurations, especially the barge frame. The results and findings show the importance of considering the protected floating structures in the analysis when designing floating breakwaters for many types of marine structures, including floating fish farms and floating cities in coastal waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Floating Structures)
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22 pages, 8826 KiB  
Article
Statistics of Simulated Storm Waves over Bathymetry
by Arnida Lailatul Latifah, Durra Handri, Ayu Shabrina, Henokh Hariyanto and E. van Groesen
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070784 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
This paper shows simulations of high waves over different bathymetries to collect statistical information, particularly kurtosis and crest exceedance, that quantifies the occurrence of exceptionally extreme waves. This knowledge is especially pertinent for the design and operation of marine structures, safe ship trafficking, [...] Read more.
This paper shows simulations of high waves over different bathymetries to collect statistical information, particularly kurtosis and crest exceedance, that quantifies the occurrence of exceptionally extreme waves. This knowledge is especially pertinent for the design and operation of marine structures, safe ship trafficking, and mooring strategies for ships near the coast. Taking advantage of the flexibility to perform numerical simulations with HAWASSI software, with the aim of investigating the physical and statistical properties for these cases, this paper investigates the change in wave statistics related to changes in depth, breaking and differences between long- and short-crested waves. Three different types of bathymetry are considered: run-up to the coast with slope 1/20, waves over a shoal, and deep open-water waves. Simulations show good agreement in the examined cases compared with the available experimental data and simulations. Then predictive simulations for cases with a higher significant wave height illustrate the changes that may occur during storm events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Storm Models in Marine Engineering Practical Problems)
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13 pages, 32837 KiB  
Article
Maritime Broadband Communication: Wireless Channel Measurement and Characteristic Analysis for Offshore Waters
by Changzhen Li, Junyi Yu, Jie Xue, Wei Chen, Shoufeng Wang and Kun Yang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070783 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3137
Abstract
For a long time, the development of maritime communication has been restricted by the low data rate, high-latency and high cost of the current communication systems. The upgrade of new generation mobile communication technologies is attracting more and more attention to conduct a [...] Read more.
For a long time, the development of maritime communication has been restricted by the low data rate, high-latency and high cost of the current communication systems. The upgrade of new generation mobile communication technologies is attracting more and more attention to conduct a shore-based broadband mobile communication network with high-latency and high reliability to serve the maritime industries. This paper presents a solution by means of building a ship-to-infrastructure (S2I) and a ship-to-ship (S2S) wireless communication networks for an offshore region. We characterize the S2I and S2S channels at 5.9 GHz band based on the channel measurements in realistic environments. The channel characteristics, including power delay profile, delay spread, propagation path loss, are extracted and analyzed. In view of the difference between marine and terrestrial communications, we analyze the influencing factors of the offshore water, including effective reflection, divergence and shadowing from the water surface, and diffraction loss caused by the earth curvature. We also predict the power coverage range and the channel capacity for S2I and S2S wireless communications. Finally, the communication performance is evaluated according to the channel measurement and characterization analysis. The research results can be a reference for the construction of maritime communication networks. Full article
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27 pages, 5429 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of a Mooring System for a Wave Energy Converter
by Francesco Depalo, Shan Wang, Sheng Xu and C. Guedes Soares
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070782 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4799
Abstract
The objective of this work is to develop an efficient method to carry out the preliminary design of the mooring system for a wave energy converter. A practical mooring design procedure is applied to a specific case of study, and it can be [...] Read more.
The objective of this work is to develop an efficient method to carry out the preliminary design of the mooring system for a wave energy converter. A practical mooring design procedure is applied to a specific case of study, and it can be replicated for other cases. Firstly, the static analysis is performed for a configuration with three mooring cables with different pre-tensions on fairlead, diameters of the cables, and materials. Based on these configurations from the static analysis, a quasi-static analysis is carried out in the frequency domain and a preliminary design is conducted according to DNV rules. Then, a 3-h dynamic analysis in the time domain is performed on several selected configurations, considering the same environmental conditions in the quasi-static analysis using the finite element method. Extreme dynamic responses of the system, such as extreme surge motion and mooring tensions, are estimated by the global maximum method, which is performed by fitting 20 individual maximum observations by Gumbel distribution. The quasi-static method is validated by comparing the results of extreme tension and displacement with the coupled time domain analysis. In addition, the influence of pre-tensions and cable diameters on the static and dynamic responses of the mooring system are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrodynamics and Mooring Analysis of Floating Structures)
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17 pages, 3482 KiB  
Article
Time and Frequency Domain Dynamic Analysis of Offshore Mooring
by Shi He and Aijun Wang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070781 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2499
Abstract
The numerical procedures for dynamic analysis of mooring lines in the time domain and frequency domain were developed in this work. The lumped mass method was used to model the mooring lines. In the time domain dynamic analysis, the modified Euler method was [...] Read more.
The numerical procedures for dynamic analysis of mooring lines in the time domain and frequency domain were developed in this work. The lumped mass method was used to model the mooring lines. In the time domain dynamic analysis, the modified Euler method was used to solve the motion equation of mooring lines. The dynamic analyses of mooring lines under horizontal, vertical, and combined harmonic excitations were carried out. The cases of single-component and multicomponent mooring lines under these excitations were studied, respectively. The case considering the seabed contact was also included. The program was validated by comparing with the results from commercial software, Orcaflex. For the frequency domain dynamic analysis, an improved frame invariant stochastic linearization method was applied to the nonlinear hydrodynamic drag term. The cases of single-component and multicomponent mooring lines were studied. The comparison of results shows that frequency domain results agree well with nonlinear time domain results. Full article
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15 pages, 7101 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Cognitive Components of Coastal Risk Assessment
by Maria Francesca Bruno, Giulia Motta Zanin, Angela Barbanente and Leonardo Damiani
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070780 - 18 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3449
Abstract
Nowadays, erosion and flooding risks represent a serious threat to coastal areas and this trend will be worsened due to climate change. The increasing concentration of population in coastal areas has a negative impact on the coastal ecosystem due to change in land [...] Read more.
Nowadays, erosion and flooding risks represent a serious threat to coastal areas and this trend will be worsened due to climate change. The increasing concentration of population in coastal areas has a negative impact on the coastal ecosystem due to change in land use and the exploitation of natural resources, which has also increased exposure to coastal hazards. Risk assessment is hence a primary topic in coastal areas and are often affected by mismanagement and competition of interest between stakeholders. This paper presents an integrated model for coastal risk assessment as well as its application on a test site in the Puglia Region (Southern Italy). An innovative approach has been developed combining a traditional index-based model, exploiting a Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response framework (DPSIR), with stakeholder’s and policy makers’ engagement by using the Future Workshop method and complementary individual working sessions structured through the use of Fuzzy-Cognitive Maps. The study shows that stakeholders’ and policy makers’ risk perception play a key role in coastal risk management and that the integration of physical risk with social perception is relevant to develop more effective management following the basics of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Full article
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4 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Climate Change and Marine Geological Dynamics
by George Kontakiotis and Assimina Antonarakou
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070779 - 18 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2097
Abstract
The tendency for climate to change has been one of the most surprising outcomes of the study of Earth history [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Marine Geological Dynamics)
25 pages, 12607 KiB  
Article
Application of Large Eddy Simulation to Predict Underwater Noise of Marine Propulsors. Part 2: Noise Generation
by Julian Kimmerl, Paul Mertes and Moustafa Abdel-Maksoud
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070778 - 18 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3440
Abstract
Methods to predict underwater acoustics are gaining increased significance, as the propulsion industry is required to confirm noise spectrum limits, for instance in compliance with classification society rules. Propeller–ship interaction is a main contributing factor to the underwater noise emissions by a vessel, [...] Read more.
Methods to predict underwater acoustics are gaining increased significance, as the propulsion industry is required to confirm noise spectrum limits, for instance in compliance with classification society rules. Propeller–ship interaction is a main contributing factor to the underwater noise emissions by a vessel, demanding improved methods for both hydrodynamic and high-quality noise prediction. Implicit large eddy simulation applying volume-of-fluid phase modeling with the Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model is confirmed to be a capable tool for propeller cavitation simulation in part 1. In this part, the near field sound pressure of the hydrodynamic solution of the finite volume method is examined. The sound level spectra for free-running propeller test cases and pressure pulses on the hull for propellers under behind ship conditions are compared with the experimental measurements. For a propeller-free running case with priory mesh refinement in regions of high vorticity to improve the tip vortex cavity representation, good agreement is reached with respect to the spectral signature. For behind ship cases without additional refinements, partial agreement was achieved for the incompressible hull pressure fluctuations. Thus, meshing strategies require improvements for this approach to be widely applicable in an industrial environment, especially for non-uniform propeller inflow. Full article
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16 pages, 3150 KiB  
Article
Flow Field Measurement of Laboratory-Scaled Cross-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbines: Part II—The Near-Wake of Twin Turbines in Counter-Rotating Configurations
by Minh N. Doan, Takuya Kawata and Shinnosuke Obi
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070777 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
Cross-flow hydrokinetic turbines have sparked interest among fluid dynamicists for their potential for power enhancement in paired configuration. Following the first part of a laboratory-scaled turbine wake measurement project, this second part presents a monoscopic particle image velocimetry measurement of the near-wake of [...] Read more.
Cross-flow hydrokinetic turbines have sparked interest among fluid dynamicists for their potential for power enhancement in paired configuration. Following the first part of a laboratory-scaled turbine wake measurement project, this second part presents a monoscopic particle image velocimetry measurement of the near-wake of two cross-flow hydrokinetic turbines in six different counter-rotating configurations. The turbines operated in a small water flume at an average diameter-based Reynolds number of 2×104 with the incoming streamwise velocity of 0.316 m/s. The six configurations included two turbine separation distances, two turbine phase angles differences, and two different relative incoming flow angles. Similar to the observation of the single turbine configurations in part I, a correlation between flow field structures and the corresponding power output was observed. Effects of each parameter of the counter-rotating configurations are further discussed, which suggest guidelines for setting up multiple devices in a power farm. This article is accompanied by all full numeric data sets and videos of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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16 pages, 1720 KiB  
Article
Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) from Submarine Power Cables Can Trigger Strength-Dependent Behavioural and Physiological Responses in Edible Crab, Cancer pagurus (L.)
by Kevin Scott, Petra Harsanyi, Blair A. A. Easton, Althea J. R. Piper, Corentine M. V. Rochas and Alastair R. Lyndon
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070776 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 15613
Abstract
The current study investigated the effects of different strength Electromagnetic Field (EMF) exposure (250 µT, 500 µT, 1000 µT) on the commercially important decapod, edible crab (Cancer pagurus, Linnaeus, 1758). Stress related parameters were measured (l-Lactate, d-Glucose, Total Haemocyte [...] Read more.
The current study investigated the effects of different strength Electromagnetic Field (EMF) exposure (250 µT, 500 µT, 1000 µT) on the commercially important decapod, edible crab (Cancer pagurus, Linnaeus, 1758). Stress related parameters were measured (l-Lactate, d-Glucose, Total Haemocyte Count (THC)) in addition to behavioural and response parameters (shelter preference and time spent resting/roaming) over 24 h periods. EMF strengths of 250 µT were found to have limited physiological and behavioural impacts. Exposure to 500 µT and 1000 µT were found to disrupt the l-Lactate and d-Glucose circadian rhythm and alter THC. Crabs showed a clear attraction to EMF exposed (500 µT and 1000 µT) shelters with a significant reduction in time spent roaming. Consequently, EMF emitted from MREDs will likely affect crabs in a strength-dependent manner thus highlighting the need for reliable in-situ measurements. This information is essential for policy making, environmental assessments, and in understanding the impacts of increased anthropogenic EMF on marine organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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21 pages, 15567 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Cavitation on the Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial-Flow Pump
by Hu Zhang, Jun Wang, Desheng Zhang, Weidong Shi and Jianbo Zang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070775 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2603
Abstract
To understand the effect of cavitation on the tip leakage vortex (TLV), turbulent cavitating flows were numerically investigated using the shear-stress transport (SST) k–ω turbulence model and the Zwart–Gerber–Belamri cavitation model. In this work, two computations were performed—one without cavitation and the other [...] Read more.
To understand the effect of cavitation on the tip leakage vortex (TLV), turbulent cavitating flows were numerically investigated using the shear-stress transport (SST) k–ω turbulence model and the Zwart–Gerber–Belamri cavitation model. In this work, two computations were performed—one without cavitation and the other with cavitation—by changing the inlet pressure of the pump. The results showed that cavitation had little effect on the pressure difference between the blade surfaces for a certain cavitation number. Instead, it changed the clearance flow and TLV vortex structure. Cavitation caused the TLV core trajectory to be farther from the suction surface and closer to the endwall upstream of the blade. Cavitation also changed the vortex strength distribution, making the vortex more dispersed. The vortex flow velocity and turbulent kinetic energy were lower, and the pressure pulsation was more intense in the cavitating case. The vorticity transport equation was used to further analyze the influence of cavitation on the evolution of vortices. Cavitation could change the vortex stretching term and delay the vortex bending term. In addition, the vortex dilation term was drastically changed at the vapor–liquid interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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10 pages, 861 KiB  
Article
Cooperation between Sea Ports and Carriers in the Logistics Chain
by Elena A. Lezhnina and Yulia E. Balykina
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070774 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3652
Abstract
In a modern economy, international trade is an important factor in the development of various regions. Shipping is one of the most important elements of the global supply chain. However, after the economic crisis of 2008, global shipping revenues plummeted. One way to [...] Read more.
In a modern economy, international trade is an important factor in the development of various regions. Shipping is one of the most important elements of the global supply chain. However, after the economic crisis of 2008, global shipping revenues plummeted. One way to restore profitability is the consolidation of shipping routes and the globalization of shipping lines. As container transport lines move to larger ships, the structure of the delivery route becomes a structure with intermediate points. This trend put forward higher demands on the port infrastructure, which aggravated the competition between regional ports, as well as ports that could degrade into a large cargo consolidation port. The economic advantage is enhanced by cooperation between shipping lines and ports. Thus, ports and shipping lines in the same supply chain can be mutually beneficial partners. The study analyses the effectiveness of horizontal and vertical cooperation between ports and carriers. As a source of information, a review of the literature on this issue, expert opinions, and statistical data is taken. Next, a mathematical model is built on the basis of cooperative game theory, and numerical analysis is carried out. The results show that the strategy of cooperation of shipping lines strongly depends on the situation with the supply and demand of vessels. A port that interacts with shipping lines will significantly reduce port charges, which creates the advantage of receiving more port requests. However, cooperation may lead to losses for the port, so a redistribution of profits is necessary to maintain the coalition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and Routing of Marine Vessels)
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32 pages, 9422 KiB  
Article
Energy, Economic and Environmental Effects of the Marine Diesel Engine Trigeneration Energy Systems
by Ivan Gospić, Ivica Glavan, Igor Poljak and Vedran Mrzljak
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070773 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2495
Abstract
The paper discusses the possibility of applying the trigeneration energy concept (cogeneration + absorption cooling) on diesel-powered refrigerated ships, based on systematic analyses of variable energy loads during the estimated life of the ship on a predefined navigation route. From a methodological point [...] Read more.
The paper discusses the possibility of applying the trigeneration energy concept (cogeneration + absorption cooling) on diesel-powered refrigerated ships, based on systematic analyses of variable energy loads during the estimated life of the ship on a predefined navigation route. From a methodological point of view, mathematical modeling of predictable energy interactions of a ship with a realistic environment yields corresponding models of simultaneously occurring energy loads (propulsion, electrical and thermal), as well as the preferred trigenerational thermal effect (cooling and heating). Special emphasis is placed on the assessment of the upcoming total heat loads (refrigeration and heating) in live cargo air conditioning systems (unfrozen fruits and vegetables) as in ship accommodations. The obtained results indicate beneficiary energy, economic and environmental effects of the application of diesel engine trigeneration systems on ships intended for cargo transport whose storage temperatures range from −25 to 15 °C. Further analysis of trigeneration system application to the passenger ship air conditioning system indicates even greater achievable savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Power Systems)
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22 pages, 4256 KiB  
Article
Formation Control of Unmanned Vessels with Saturation Constraint and Extended State Observation
by Huixuan Fu, Shichuan Wang, Yan Ji and Yuchao Wang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070772 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
This paper addressed the formation control problem of surface unmanned vessels with model uncertainty, parameter perturbation, and unknown environmental disturbances. A formation control method based on the control force saturation constraint and the extended state observer (ESO) was proposed. Compared with the control [...] Read more.
This paper addressed the formation control problem of surface unmanned vessels with model uncertainty, parameter perturbation, and unknown environmental disturbances. A formation control method based on the control force saturation constraint and the extended state observer (ESO) was proposed. Compared with the control methods which only consider the disturbances from external environment, the method proposed in this paper took model uncertainties, parameter perturbation, and external environment disturbances as the compound disturbances, and the ESO was used to estimate and compensate for the disturbances, which improved the anti-disturbance performance of the controller. The formation controller was designed with the virtual leader strategy, and backstepping technique was designed with saturation constraint (SC) function to avoid the lack of force of the actuator. The stability of the closed-loop system was analyzed with the Lyapunov method, and it was proved that the whole system is uniformly and ultimately bounded. The tracking error can converge to arbitrarily small by choosing reasonable controller parameters. The comparison and analysis of simulation experiments showed that the controller designed in this paper had strong anti-disturbance and anti-saturation performance to the compound disturbances of vessels and can effectively complete the formation control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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21 pages, 10212 KiB  
Article
Nature-Inspired Modified Bat Algorithm for the High-Efficiency Optimization of a Multistage Centrifugal Pump for a Reverse Osmosis Desalination System
by Xiaobo Gong, Ji Pei, Wenjie Wang, Majeed Koranteng Osman, Wei Jiang, Jiantao Zhao and Qifan Deng
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070771 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
The high-pressure multistage centrifugal pump is the main piece of energy-consuming equipment in the reverse osmosis desalination process, and it consumes about 35% of the entire system’s operating cost. The optimization process of multi-stage pumps undoubtedly requires the performance comparison of multiple schemes [...] Read more.
The high-pressure multistage centrifugal pump is the main piece of energy-consuming equipment in the reverse osmosis desalination process, and it consumes about 35% of the entire system’s operating cost. The optimization process of multi-stage pumps undoubtedly requires the performance comparison of multiple schemes in order to verify the effectiveness of the optimized design and the optimization method. Therefore, based on ANSYS Workbench and an improved bat algorithm, an intelligent optimization scheme was designed and carried out on a three-stage reverse osmosis desalination high-pressure pump for efficiency improvement by optimizing the matching relationship between the impeller and the guide vane. An external characteristic test was carried out in an open test rig system in order to verify the numerical model. After modifying the positive guide vane structure, the efficiency was improved for both the rated design and the non-design flow conditions without obvious separation and backflow. With the improved bat algorithm, there was a 3.98% increase in the design point efficiency after the final optimization. Under the design conditions, all of the large vortices disappeared after the optimization. The study provides a reference for the optimization design of the impeller–guide vane matching effect in a multistage pump using an improved bat algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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16 pages, 7578 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of Efficiency Indices to Evaluate the Effect of Layout Mode of Artificial Reef Unit on Flow Field
by Jiating Zhang, Lixin Zhu, Zhenlin Liang, Liyuan Sun, Zhaoyi Nie, Jiahao Wang, Wude Xie and Zhaoyang Jiang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070770 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Artificial reefs (ARs) have been widely used to restore the seabed habitat and protect biodiversity. They can effectively increase the dissolved oxygen content in the bottom water layer by their disturbing effect of upwelling and downwelling. The bottom water is prone to hypoxia [...] Read more.
Artificial reefs (ARs) have been widely used to restore the seabed habitat and protect biodiversity. They can effectively increase the dissolved oxygen content in the bottom water layer by their disturbing effect of upwelling and downwelling. The bottom water is prone to hypoxia in summer due to the extreme weather of the global climate and excessive biomass in some marine ranching in northern China. Therefore, how to effectively use the upwelling effect of artificial reefs to alleviate this problem is a necessary subject of research. Generally, ARs are arranged by different intervals in a unit form on the seafloor, and the flow field effect is different from that of the individual reefs. However, few studies have been focused on the effect of layout mode on the flow field of a unit reef (UR). In this paper, we selected the interval between reefs (IR) and the angle of inflow (AI) as the influencing factors to study the flow field effect of UR. The upwelling and wake regions of 64 URs were presented by the efficiency and disturbance indices related to the flow characteristics and proposed an optimal layout mode having the best performance of the upwelling effect. The results showed that the interactions among the AI, the transverse, and longitudinal IRs were significant, and the AI has a significant influence on the flow field. These indices were effective and contribute to the layout optimization of UR. The AI close to 45° has a significant influence on the flow field effect of UR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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15 pages, 5748 KiB  
Article
Modeling of the Turkish Strait System Using a High Resolution Unstructured Grid Ocean Circulation Model
by Mehmet Ilicak, Ivan Federico, Ivano Barletta, Sabri Mutlu, Haldun Karan, Stefania Angela Ciliberti, Emanuela Clementi, Giovanni Coppini and Nadia Pinardi
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070769 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3558
Abstract
The Turkish Strait System, which is the only connection between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, is a challenging region for ocean circulation models due to topographic constraints and water mass structure. We present a newly developed high resolution unstructured finite element [...] Read more.
The Turkish Strait System, which is the only connection between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, is a challenging region for ocean circulation models due to topographic constraints and water mass structure. We present a newly developed high resolution unstructured finite element grid model to simulate the Turkish Strait System using realistic atmospheric forcing and lateral open boundary conditions. We find that the jet flowing from the Bosphorus Strait into the Marmara creates an anticyclonic circulation. The eddy kinetic energy field is high around the jets exiting from the Bosphorus Strait, Dardanelles Strait, and also the leeward side of the islands in the Marmara Sea. The model successfully captures the two-layer structure of the Sea of Marmara. The volume transport at the Bosphorus is around 120 km3/year which is consistent with the recent observations. The largest bias in the model is at the interface depth due to the shallower mixed layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Modelling in Support of Operational Ocean and Coastal Services)
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23 pages, 2633 KiB  
Article
Kernel Function Definition Completion for Time–Domain State–Space Representations of Radiation Forces: Application to the Hankel Singular Value Decomposition
by Romain Lecuyer-Le Bris, Marc Le Boulluec, Jean-Frédéric Charpentier and Mohamed Benbouzid
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070768 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2143
Abstract
This paper focuses on the formulation of state–space representations of radiation forces for marine structures using Hankel Singular Value Decomposition (HSVD), a method used to obtain a state–space realization from a Hankel matrix, with the classical definition of the kernel function and its [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the formulation of state–space representations of radiation forces for marine structures using Hankel Singular Value Decomposition (HSVD), a method used to obtain a state–space realization from a Hankel matrix, with the classical definition of the kernel function and its new definition given in this paper. The first part shows the influence of a term commonly neglected and the resulting improvement by taking this term into account. The second part will focus on the feedthrough matrix to understand why some models have none and why some others, such as HSVD, have one. An exact definition of the kernel function will be given underlying its discontinuity and its causality. This study also shows the interest of extrapolating hydrodynamic coefficients before approaching radiation forces by a state–space model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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29 pages, 9233 KiB  
Article
Application of Deep Reinforcement Learning to Predict Shaft Deformation Considering Hull Deformation of Medium-Sized Oil/Chemical Tanker
by Shin-Pyo Choi, Jae-Ung Lee and Jun-Bum Park
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070767 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2646
Abstract
The enlargement of ships has increased the relative hull deformation owing to draft changes. Moreover, design changes such as an increased propeller diameter and pitch changes have occurred to compensate for the reduction in the engine revolution and consequent ship speed. In terms [...] Read more.
The enlargement of ships has increased the relative hull deformation owing to draft changes. Moreover, design changes such as an increased propeller diameter and pitch changes have occurred to compensate for the reduction in the engine revolution and consequent ship speed. In terms of propulsion shaft alignment, as the load of the stern tube support bearing increases, an uneven load distribution occurs between the shaft support bearings, leading to stern accidents. To prevent such accidents and to ensure shaft system stability, a shaft system design technique is required in which the shaft deformation resulting from the hull deformation is considered. Based on the measurement data of a medium-sized oil/chemical tanker, this study presents a novel approach to predicting the shaft deformation following stern hull deformation through inverse analysis using deep reinforcement learning, as opposed to traditional prediction techniques. The main bearing reaction force, which was difficult to reflect in previous studies, was predicted with high accuracy by comparing it with the measured value, and reasonable shaft deformation could be derived according to the hull deformation. The deep reinforcement learning technique in this study is expected to be expandable for predicting the dynamic behavior of the shaft of an operating vessel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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19 pages, 5636 KiB  
Article
Nitrogen Fixation in Subtropical Seagrass Sediments: Seasonal Patterns in Activity in Santa Rosa Sound, Florida, USA
by Rachel Presley and Jane M. Caffrey
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070766 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2923
Abstract
Seagrass beds are important coastal habitats that are diminishing globally. Nitrogen, a key nutrient, often limits seagrass growth. Nitrogen fixation provides new, bioavailable nitrogen to the plants. This study explores its importance and factors controlling rates in sediments colonized by two dominant taxa [...] Read more.
Seagrass beds are important coastal habitats that are diminishing globally. Nitrogen, a key nutrient, often limits seagrass growth. Nitrogen fixation provides new, bioavailable nitrogen to the plants. This study explores its importance and factors controlling rates in sediments colonized by two dominant taxa in Northwest Florida, Thalassia testudinum and Halodule wrightii, compared to unvegetated sediments. We hypothesized that nitrogen fixation rates would be greater in seagrass colonized sediments, particularly during high growth periods. We expected to observe a positive relationship between rates and porewater sulfide concentrations because sulfate reducers were the dominant diazotrophs in similar studies. Rates were higher in vegetated areas. In H. wrightii beds, nitrogen fixation was driven by the decreased availability of porewater ammonium relative to phosphorus. In T. testudinum beds, rates were highest during winter. Organic matter may be a controlling factor in all substrate types albeit the exact mechanism driving nitrogen fixation differs slightly. During the summer and fall, nitrogen fixation provided between 1–15% of T. testudinum nitrogen demand. Annually, nitrogen fixation provided 4% and 1% of T. testudinum and H. wrightii nitrogen demand, respectively. Nitrogen fixation was an important source of nitrogen during periods of senescence and dormancy when organic matter content was high. Full article
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24 pages, 19774 KiB  
Article
Sea Lice Are Sensitive to Low Frequency Sounds
by Marta Solé, Marc Lenoir, José-Manuel Fortuño, Steffen De Vreese, Mike van der Schaar and Michel André
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070765 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3415
Abstract
The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a major disease problem in salmonids farming and there are indications that it also plays a role in the decline of wild salmon stocks. This study shows the first ultrastructural images of pathological changes in the sensory [...] Read more.
The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a major disease problem in salmonids farming and there are indications that it also plays a role in the decline of wild salmon stocks. This study shows the first ultrastructural images of pathological changes in the sensory setae of the first antenna and in inner tissues in different stages of L. salmonis development after sound exposure in laboratory and sea conditions. Given the current ineffectiveness of traditional methods to eradicate this plague, and the strong impact on the environment these treatments often provoke, the described response to sounds and the associated injuries in the lice sensory organs could represent an interesting basis for developing a bioacoustics method to prevent lice infection and to treat affected salmons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Noise: From Science to Management)
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16 pages, 4087 KiB  
Article
Noble Pen Shell (Pinna nobilis) Mortalities along the Eastern Adriatic Coast with a Study of the Spreading Velocity
by Željko Mihaljević, Željko Pavlinec, Ivana Giovanna Zupičić, Dražen Oraić, Aleksandar Popijač, Osvin Pećar, Ivan Sršen, Miroslav Benić, Boris Habrun and Snježana Zrnčić
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070764 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
Noble pen shells (Pinna nobilis) along the Eastern Adriatic coast were affected by mass mortalities similarly to the populations across the Mediterranean basin. Samples of live animals and organs originating from sites on Mljet Island on the south and the Istrian [...] Read more.
Noble pen shells (Pinna nobilis) along the Eastern Adriatic coast were affected by mass mortalities similarly to the populations across the Mediterranean basin. Samples of live animals and organs originating from sites on Mljet Island on the south and the Istrian peninsula on the north of the Croatian Adriatic coast were analyzed using histology and molecular techniques to detect the presence of the previously described Haplosporidium pinnae and Mycobacterium spp. as possible causes of these mortalities. To obtain more information on the pattern of the spread of the mortalities, a study was undertaken in Mljet National Park, an area with a dense population of noble pen shells. The results of the diagnostic analysis and the velocity of the spread of the mortalities showed a significant correlation between increases in water temperature and the onset of mortality. Moderate to heavy lesions of the digestive glands were observed in specimens infected with H. pinnae. A phylogenetic analysis of the detected Haplosporidium pinnae showed an identity of 99.7 to 99.8% with isolates from other Mediterranean areas, while isolated Mycobacterium spp. showed a higher heterogeneity among isolates across the Mediterranean. The presence of Mycobacterium spp. in clinically healthy animals a few months before the onset of mortality imposes the need for further clarification of its role in mortality events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diseases of Marine Organisms)
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13 pages, 3252 KiB  
Article
Response to Environmental Factors of Spawning Ground in the Pearl River Estuary, China
by Dongliang Wang, Lijun Yao, Jing Yu, Pimao Chen and Ruirui Hu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070763 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
Spawning grounds are important areas for fish survival and reproduction, and play a key role in the supplement of fishery resources. This study investigated environmental effects on the spatiotemporal variability of spawning ground in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China, using the generalized [...] Read more.
Spawning grounds are important areas for fish survival and reproduction, and play a key role in the supplement of fishery resources. This study investigated environmental effects on the spatiotemporal variability of spawning ground in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China, using the generalized additive model (GAM), based on satellite remote sensing (sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), sea surface salinity (SSS), depth), and in situ observations. Results showed that 39.8% of the total variation in fish egg density was explained by these factors. Among them, the most important factor was SST, accounting for 14.3%, followed by Depth, SSS, and Chl-a, with contributions of 9.7%, 8.5%, and 7.3%, respectively. Spawning grounds in the PRE were mainly distributed in the waters with SST of 22 °C, depth of 30–50 m, SSS of 16–35 ‰, and Chl-a of 6–15 mg/m3. From spring to summer, the spawning ground moved from the outlet of the PRE to the east. The distribution of the spawning ground in the PRE was mainly affected by the Pearl River Plume (PRP), Guangdong Coastal Current (GCC), and monsoons in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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21 pages, 11520 KiB  
Article
Trends in Vessel Atmospheric Emissions in the Central Mediterranean over the Last 10 Years and during the COVID-19 Outbreak
by Martin Saliba, Francelle Azzopardi, Rebecca Muscat, Marvic Grima, Alexander Smyth, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Lasse Johansson, Alan Deidun, Adam Gauci, Charles Galdies, Tonio Caruana and Raymond Ellul
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070762 - 11 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3074
Abstract
Giordan Lighthouse, located on the island of Gozo in the Malta-Sicily Channel within the central Mediterranean region, is ideally located to study the primary sources of atmospheric pollution. A total of 10 years of data have been accumulated from the reactive gas and [...] Read more.
Giordan Lighthouse, located on the island of Gozo in the Malta-Sicily Channel within the central Mediterranean region, is ideally located to study the primary sources of atmospheric pollution. A total of 10 years of data have been accumulated from the reactive gas and greenhouse gas detectors and the aerosol analyzers found at this Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) regional station. The data has been evaluated, resulting in trends in emissions from shipping recorded within the same region coming to the fore. The other source of emissions that was evident within the recorded data originated from Mt. Etna, located on the island of Sicily and representing the highest active volcano in Europe. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of ship emissions on trace gases and aerosol background measurements at Giordan Lighthouse, including the putative influence of COVID-19 on the same emissions. The model used to evaluate ship emissions was the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM). From trace gas measurements at Giordan Lighthouse, a slowly decreasing trend in sulfur oxide (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was noted. To better understand the air quality results obtained, the STEAM model was fed, as an input, an Automatic Identification System (AIS) dataset to describe the vessel activity in the area concerned. This study also investigates the effects of the COVID19 pandemic on marine traffic patterns within the area and any corresponding changes in the air quality. Such an analysis was carried out through the use of SENTINEL 5 data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Environmental Science)
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22 pages, 9961 KiB  
Article
Path Planning for Autonomous Ships: A Hybrid Approach Based on Improved APF and Modified VO Methods
by Liang Zhang, Junmin Mou, Pengfei Chen and Mengxia Li
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070761 - 11 Jul 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3102
Abstract
In this research, a hybrid approach for path planning of autonomous ships that generates both global and local paths, respectively, is proposed. The global path is obtained via an improved artificial potential field (APF) method, which makes up for the shortcoming that the [...] Read more.
In this research, a hybrid approach for path planning of autonomous ships that generates both global and local paths, respectively, is proposed. The global path is obtained via an improved artificial potential field (APF) method, which makes up for the shortcoming that the typical APF method easily falls into a local minimum. A modified velocity obstacle (VO) method that incorporates the closest point of approach (CPA) model and the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS), based on the typical VO method, can be used to get the local path. The contribution of this research is two-fold: (1) improvement of the typical APF and VO methods, making up for previous shortcomings, and integrated COLREGS rules and good seamanship, making the paths obtained more in line with navigation practice; (2) the research included global and local path planning, considering both the safety and maneuverability of the ship in the process of avoiding collision, and studied the whole process of avoiding collision in a relatively entirely way. A case study was then conducted to test the proposed approach in different situations. The results indicate that the proposed approach can find both global and local paths to avoid the target ship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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14 pages, 5929 KiB  
Article
Inversion of Initial Field Based on a Temperature Transport Adjoint
by Shengyi Jiao, Shengmao Huang, Jianfeng Wang and Xianqing Lv
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070760 - 11 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1720
Abstract
The setting of initial values is one of the key problems in ocean numerical prediction, with the accuracy of sea water temperature (SWT) simulation and prediction greatly affected by the initial field quality. In this paper, we describe the development of an adjoint [...] Read more.
The setting of initial values is one of the key problems in ocean numerical prediction, with the accuracy of sea water temperature (SWT) simulation and prediction greatly affected by the initial field quality. In this paper, we describe the development of an adjoint assimilation model of temperature transport used to invert the initial temperature field by assimilating the observed data of sea surface temperature (SST) and vertical temperature. Two ideal experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility and validity of this method. By assimilating the “observed data”, the mean absolute error (MAE) between the simulated temperature data and the “observed data” decreased from 1.74 °C and 1.87 °C to 0.13 °C and 0.14 °C, respectively. The spatial distribution of SST difference and the comparison of vertical data also indicate that the regional error of vertical data assimilation is smaller. In the practical experiment, the monthly average temperature field provided by World Ocean Atlas 2018 was selected as background filed and optimized by assimilating the SST data and Argo vertical temperature observation data, to invert the temperature field at 0 a.m. on 1 December 2014 in the South China Sea. Through data assimilation, MAE was reduced from 1.29 °C to 0.65 °C. In terms of vertical observations data comparison and SST spatial distribution, the temperature field obtained by inversion is in good agreement with SST and Argo observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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17 pages, 1548 KiB  
Article
Main Drivers of Fecundity Variability of Mussels along a Latitudinal Gradient: Lessons to Apply for Future Climate Change Scenarios
by Gabriela F. Oliveira, Hanifah Siregar, Henrique Queiroga and Laura G. Peteiro
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070759 - 9 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2379
Abstract
Bivalve relevance for ecosystem functioning and human food security emphasize the importance of predictions of mussel performance under different climate stressors. Here, we address the effect of a latitudinal gradient of temperature and food availability on the fecundity of the Mediterranean mussel to [...] Read more.
Bivalve relevance for ecosystem functioning and human food security emphasize the importance of predictions of mussel performance under different climate stressors. Here, we address the effect of a latitudinal gradient of temperature and food availability on the fecundity of the Mediterranean mussel to try to better parameterize environmental forcing over reproductive output. We show that temperature plays a major role, acting as a switching on–off mechanism for gametogenesis, while food availability has a lower influence but also modulates the number of gametes produced. Temperature and food availability also show different effects over fecundity depending on the temporal scale evaluated. Our results support the view that the gametogenesis responds non-linearly with temperature and chlorophyll concentration, an issue that is largely overlooked in growth, production and energy budgets of bivalve populations, leading to predictive models that can overestimate the capability of the mussel’s populations to deal with climate change future scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Shellfisheries)
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45 pages, 6565 KiB  
Article
Techno-Economic Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy in the Philippines
by Gerard Lorenz D. Maandal, Mili-Ann M. Tamayao-Kieke and Louis Angelo M. Danao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070758 - 9 Jul 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 12920
Abstract
The technical and economic assessments for emerging renewable energy technologies, specifically offshore wind energy, is critical for their improvement and deployment. These assessments serve as one of the main bases for the construction of offshore wind farms, which would be beneficial to the [...] Read more.
The technical and economic assessments for emerging renewable energy technologies, specifically offshore wind energy, is critical for their improvement and deployment. These assessments serve as one of the main bases for the construction of offshore wind farms, which would be beneficial to the countries gearing toward a sustainable future such as the Philippines. This study presents the technical and economic viability of offshore wind farms in the Philippines. The analysis was divided into four phases, namely, application of exclusion criteria, technical analysis, economic assessment, and sensitivity analysis. Arc GIS 10.5 was used to spatially visualize the results of the study. Exclusion criteria were applied to narrow down the potential siting for offshore wind farms, namely, active submerged cables, local ferry routes, marine protected areas, reefs, oil and gas extraction areas, bathymetry, distance to grid, typhoons, and earthquakes. In the technical analysis, the turbines SWT-3.6-120 and 6.2 M126 Senvion were considered. The offshore wind speed data were extrapolated from 80 m to 90 m and 95 m using power law. The wind power density, wind power, and annual energy production were calculated from the extrapolated wind speed. Areas in the Philippines with a capacity factor greater than 30% and performance greater than 10% were considered technically viable. The economic assessment considered the historical data of constructed offshore wind farms from 2008 to 2018. Multiple linear regression was done to model the cost associated with the construction of offshore wind farms, namely, turbine, foundation, electrical, and operation and maintenance costs (i.e., investment cost). Finally, the levelized cost of electricity and break-even selling price were calculated to check the economic viability of the offshore wind farms. Sensitivity analysis was done to investigate how LCOE and price of electricity are sensitive to the discount rate, capacity factor, investment cost, useful life, mean wind speed, and shape parameter. Upon application of exclusion criteria, several sites were determined to be viable with the North of Cagayan having the highest capacity factor. The calculated capacity factor ranges from ~42% to ~50% for SWT-3.6-120 and ~38.56% to ~48% for 6.2M126 turbines. The final regression model with investment cost as the dependent variable included the minimum sea depth and the plant capacity as the predictor variables. The regression model had an adjusted R2 of 90.43%. The regression model was validated with existing offshore wind farms with a mean absolute percentage error of 11.33%. The LCOE calculated for a 25.0372 km2 offshore area ranges from USD 157.66/MWh and USD 154.1/MWh. The breakeven electricity price for an offshore wind farm in the Philippines ranges from PHP 8.028/kWh to PHP 8.306/kWh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewables for a Transition to a Low Carbon Society)
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6 pages, 215 KiB  
Review
When Is Temporary Threshold Shift Injurious to Marine Mammals?
by Dorian S. Houser
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070757 - 9 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2713
Abstract
Evidence for synaptopathy, the acute loss of afferent auditory nerve terminals, and degeneration of spiral ganglion cells associated with temporary threshold shift (TTS) in traditional laboratory animal models (e.g., mice, guinea pigs) has brought into question whether TTS should be considered a non-injurious [...] Read more.
Evidence for synaptopathy, the acute loss of afferent auditory nerve terminals, and degeneration of spiral ganglion cells associated with temporary threshold shift (TTS) in traditional laboratory animal models (e.g., mice, guinea pigs) has brought into question whether TTS should be considered a non-injurious form of noise impact in marine mammals. Laboratory animal studies also demonstrate that both neuropathic and non-neuropathic forms of TTS exist, with synaptopathy and neural degeneration beginning over a narrow range of noise exposures differing by ~6–9 dB, all of which result in significant TTS. Most TTS studies in marine mammals characterize TTS within minutes of noise exposure cessation, and TTS generally does not achieve the levels measured in neuropathic laboratory animals, which have had initial TTS measurements made 6–24 h post-exposure. Given the recovery of the ear following the cessation of noise exposure, it seems unlikely that the magnitude of nearly all shifts studied in marine mammals to date would be sufficient to induce neuropathy. Although no empirical evidence in marine mammals exists to support this proposition, the regulatory application of impact thresholds based on the onset of TTS (6 dB) is certain to capture the onset of recoverable fatigue without tissue destruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Noise: From Science to Management)
19 pages, 5950 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Object Geometric Features on Frequency Inflection Point of Underwater Active Electrolocation System
by Yuanjian Han, Hailong Wu, Jiegang Peng and Bin Ou
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070756 - 8 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
Biologists have discovered a kind of weakly electric fish that identifies its prey by using active electrolocation in virtual darkness. In this study, we built an underwater active electrolocation system platform designed to investigate the biological mechanism allowing these fish to distinguish objects [...] Read more.
Biologists have discovered a kind of weakly electric fish that identifies its prey by using active electrolocation in virtual darkness. In this study, we built an underwater active electrolocation system platform designed to investigate the biological mechanism allowing these fish to distinguish objects and determine how the amplitude information-frequency characteristic (AIFC) response are affected by the geometric characteristics of target objects in the active electrolocation system. We used a single-frequency sinusoidal signal to scan metal objects in different orientations and observed the amplitude information response variation of the disturbed detection signal. The detection frequency dead zone (DFDZ) and the frequency inflection point (FIP) were used to characterize the variation. In addition, we repeated the experiments after replacing the metal objects with objects of different materials and geometric characteristics to summarize the general laws. Our results showed that the FIP value of the detection signal was lowest when the object was detected in the orientation of its corner and highest when the object was detected in the orientation of its surface. The geometrical characteristics of metal objects in different orientations have a certain influence on the amplitude of the detection signal. Article Highlights: (1) The general law between the shape of metal probed objects, and electric field detection signal was found and summarized. (2) We used a single-frequency sinusoidal signal to scan regular metal probed objects, and it was found that the frequency inflection point (FIP) of the metal probed objects edge was the highest, whereas that of the corner was the lowest. (3) The shape of a metal object can be recognized by scanning regular metal objects with an electric field signal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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