Special Issue "Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2021) | Viewed by 12737

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Yannis N. Krestenitis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Oceanography & Coastal Engineering Group, Department of Hydraulics & Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: oceanographic modeling; physical oceanography; coastal hydrodynamics; marine environment monitoring; outfall design and impact evaluation; sediment transport and integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The coastal zone is under continuous anthropogenic pressures, because it includes the largest percentage of the world population and economy.

Moreover, coastal areas are also under high environmental risk due to severe meteorological and oceanic conditions. Sea level changes due to waves, tides, and storm surges in tandem with climatic-induced changes increase the risk of coastal flooding and the inundation of significant coastal areas. The potential damages to infrastructure, cost in lives, and ecological impacts increase the need for accurate operational platforms to both monitor and forecast the coastal ocean dynamics.

The pollution risks due to industry, urban environment, agriculture, oil drilling, and shipping also require the development of state-of-the-art techniques to measure and simulate the coastal environment to monitor its quality, develop the most appropriate measures in case of an accident (e.g., oil spills), and improve long-term design and management. The meteorological and river inputs in the ocean are significant factors that have to be cautiously included in both observational and modeling efforts. The coastal ocean is not only an economic source due to naval transportation, fisheries, and tourism but also due to the energy that can be produced under the exploration of ocean movements (e.g., waves, currents, sea level).

Prof. Yannis N. Krestenitis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Observational studies and monitoring of the coastal environment
  • Operational forecast platforms and monitoring systems
  • Coastal floods and inundation of coastal zones
  • Impacts of climate change to the coastal zone and adaptation measures
  • Data assimilation techniques in numerical simulations of coastal dynamics
  • Interaction between drainage basins, deltaic systems, and marginal seas
  • Monitoring and modeling of pollution in the coastal ocean
  • Oil spill modeling in the coastal environment
  • Coastal altimetry products and applications
  • Coastal erosion and protection measures
  • Techniques for energy production in the coastal zone
  • Ocean dynamics and biochemical processes in the coastal and shelf environment

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Article
Bathymetric Data Requirements for Operational Coastal Erosion Forecasting Using XBeach
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101053 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
There is an increasing interest in the broad-scale implementation of coastal erosion early warning systems (EWS) with the goal of enhancing community preparedness to extreme coastal storm wave events. These emerging systems typically rely on process-based models to predict the storm-induced morphological change. [...] Read more.
There is an increasing interest in the broad-scale implementation of coastal erosion early warning systems (EWS) with the goal of enhancing community preparedness to extreme coastal storm wave events. These emerging systems typically rely on process-based models to predict the storm-induced morphological change. A key challenge with incorporating these models in EWSs is the need for up-to-date nearshore and surf zone bathymetry data, which is difficult to measure routinely, but potentially important for accurate erosion forecasting. This study evaluates the degree to which up-to-date bathymetry is required for accurate coastal erosion predictions using the morphodynamic model XBeach and, subsequently, whether a range of “representative” and/or “synthetic” bathymetries can be used for the bottom boundary, when a survey of the immediate pre-storm bathymetry is not available. Twelve storm events at two contrasting sites were modelled using six different bathymetry scenarios, including the expected “best case” bathymetry surveyed immediately pre-storm. These results indicate that alternative bathymetries can be used to obtain sub-aerial erosion predictions that are similar (and in some cases better) than those resulting from the use of an immediately pre-storm surveyed bathymetry, provided that rigorous model calibration is undertaken prior. This generalized finding is attributed to specific parametrizations in the XBeach model structure that are optimized during the calibration process to match the particular bottom boundary condition used. This study provides practical guidance for the selection of suitable nearshore bathymetry for use in operational coastal erosion EWSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
Study on Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Environmental Response in Shantou Offshore Area
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080912 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 715
Abstract
As a coastal trading city in China, Shantou has complex terrain and changeable sea conditions in its coastal waters. In order to better protect the coastal engineering and social property along the coast, based on the numerical simulation method, this paper constructed a [...] Read more.
As a coastal trading city in China, Shantou has complex terrain and changeable sea conditions in its coastal waters. In order to better protect the coastal engineering and social property along the coast, based on the numerical simulation method, this paper constructed a detailed hydrodynamic model of the Shantou sea area, and the measured tide elevation and tidal current were used to verify the accuracy of the model. Based on the simulation results, the tide elevation and current in the study area were analyzed, including the flood and ebb tides of astronomical spring tide, the flood and ebb tides of astronomical neap tide, the high tide, and the low tide. In order to find the main tidal constituent types in this sea, the influence of different tidal constituents on tide elevation and tidal current in the study area was analyzed. At the same time, the storm surge model of the study area was constructed, and the flow field under Typhoon “Mangkhut” in the study area was simulated by using the real recorded data. Typhoon wind fields with different recurrence periods and intensities were constructed to simulate the change in the flow field, the sea water level, and the disaster situation along the coast. The results showed that under normal sea conditions, the sea water flows from southwest to northeast at flood tide and the flow direction is opposite at ebb tide. The tidal range is large in the northwest and small in the southeast of the study area. The tides in the study area are mainly controlled by M2, S2, K1, and O1 tidal constituents, but N2, K2, P1, and Q1 tidal constituents have significant effects on the high water level. The water level caused by typhoons increases significantly along the coast of Shantou City. In the west area of the Rong River estuary, a typhoon with a lower central pressure than 910 hPa may induce a water increase of more than 2 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
Nonstationary Extreme Value Analysis of Nearshore Sea-State Parameters under the Effects of Climate Change: Application to the Greek Coastal Zone and Port Structures
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080817 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 724
Abstract
In the present work, a methodological framework, based on nonstationary extreme value analysis of nearshore sea-state parameters, is proposed for the identification of climate change impacts on coastal zone and port defense structures. The applications refer to the estimation of coastal hazards on [...] Read more.
In the present work, a methodological framework, based on nonstationary extreme value analysis of nearshore sea-state parameters, is proposed for the identification of climate change impacts on coastal zone and port defense structures. The applications refer to the estimation of coastal hazards on characteristic Mediterranean microtidal littoral zones and the calculation of failure probabilities of typical rubble mound breakwaters in Greek ports. The proposed methodology hinges on the extraction of extreme wave characteristics and sea levels due to storm events affecting the coast, a nonstationary extreme value analysis of sea-state parameters and coastal responses using moving time windows, a fitting of parametric trends to nonstationary parameter estimates of the extreme value models, and an assessment of nonstationary failure probabilities on engineered port protection. The analysis includes estimation of extreme total water level (TWL) on several Greek coasts to approximate the projected coastal flooding hazard under climate change conditions in the 21st century. The TWL calculation considers the wave characteristics, sea level height due to storm surges, mean sea level (MSL) rise, and astronomical tidal ranges of the study areas. Moreover, the failure probabilities of a typical coastal defense structure are assessed for several failure mechanisms, considering variations in MSL, extreme wave climates, and storm surges in the vicinity of ports, within the framework of reliability analysis based on the nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution. The methodology supports the investigation of future safety levels and possible periods of increased vulnerability of the studied structure to different ultimate limit states under extreme marine weather conditions associated with climate change, aiming at the development of appropriate upgrading solutions. The analysis suggests that the assumption of stationarity might underestimate the total failure probability of coastal structures under future extreme marine conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
Inversion of Initial Field Based on a Temperature Transport Adjoint
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070760 - 11 Jul 2021
Viewed by 626
Abstract
The setting of initial values is one of the key problems in ocean numerical prediction, with the accuracy of sea water temperature (SWT) simulation and prediction greatly affected by the initial field quality. In this paper, we describe the development of an adjoint [...] Read more.
The setting of initial values is one of the key problems in ocean numerical prediction, with the accuracy of sea water temperature (SWT) simulation and prediction greatly affected by the initial field quality. In this paper, we describe the development of an adjoint assimilation model of temperature transport used to invert the initial temperature field by assimilating the observed data of sea surface temperature (SST) and vertical temperature. Two ideal experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility and validity of this method. By assimilating the “observed data”, the mean absolute error (MAE) between the simulated temperature data and the “observed data” decreased from 1.74 °C and 1.87 °C to 0.13 °C and 0.14 °C, respectively. The spatial distribution of SST difference and the comparison of vertical data also indicate that the regional error of vertical data assimilation is smaller. In the practical experiment, the monthly average temperature field provided by World Ocean Atlas 2018 was selected as background filed and optimized by assimilating the SST data and Argo vertical temperature observation data, to invert the temperature field at 0 a.m. on 1 December 2014 in the South China Sea. Through data assimilation, MAE was reduced from 1.29 °C to 0.65 °C. In terms of vertical observations data comparison and SST spatial distribution, the temperature field obtained by inversion is in good agreement with SST and Argo observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
An Assessment of Marine Ecosystem Damage from the Penglai 19-3 Oil Spill Accident
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070732 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
Oil spills have immediate adverse effects on marine ecological functions. Accurate assessment of the damage caused by the oil spill is of great significance for the protection of marine ecosystems. In this study the observation data of Chaetoceros and shellfish before and after [...] Read more.
Oil spills have immediate adverse effects on marine ecological functions. Accurate assessment of the damage caused by the oil spill is of great significance for the protection of marine ecosystems. In this study the observation data of Chaetoceros and shellfish before and after the Penglai 19-3 oil spill in the Bohai Sea were analyzed by the least-squares fitting method and radial basis function (RBF) interpolation. Besides, an oil transport model is provided which considers both the hydrodynamic mechanism and monitoring data to accurately simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the Bohai Sea. It was found that the abundance of Chaetoceros and shellfish exposed to the oil spill decreased rapidly. The biomass loss of Chaetoceros and shellfish are 7.25×1014~7.28×1014 ind and 2.30×1012~2.51×1012 ind in the area with TPH over 50 mg/m3 during the observation period, respectively. This study highlights the evaluation of ecological resource loss caused by the oil spill, which is useful for the protection and restoration of the biological resources following the oil spill. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
Inversion of the Degradation Coefficient of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollutants in Laizhou Bay
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060655 - 13 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
When petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants enter the ocean, besides the migration under hydrodynamic constraints, their degradation due to environmental conditions also occurs. However, available observations are usually spatiotemporally disperse, which makes it difficult to study the degradation characteristics of pollutants. In this paper, a [...] Read more.
When petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants enter the ocean, besides the migration under hydrodynamic constraints, their degradation due to environmental conditions also occurs. However, available observations are usually spatiotemporally disperse, which makes it difficult to study the degradation characteristics of pollutants. In this paper, a model of transport and degradation is used to estimate the degradation coefficient of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants with the adjoint method. Firstly, the results of a comprehensive physical–chemical–biological test of the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in Laizhou Bay provide a reference for setting the degradation coefficient on the time scale. In ideal twin experiments, the mean absolute errors between observations and simulation results obtain an obvious reduction, and the given distributions can be inverted effectively, demonstrating the feasibility of the model. In a practical experiment, the actual distribution of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in Laizhou Bay is simulated, and the simulation results are in good agreement with the observed ones. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of the degradation coefficient is inverted, making the simulation results closer to the actual observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
Multi-Platform, High-Resolution Study of a Complex Coastal System: The TOSCA Experiment in the Gulf of Trieste
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050469 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 603
Abstract
Although small in size, the Gulf of Trieste (GoT), a marginal coastal basin in the northern Adriatic Sea, is characterized by very complex dynamics and strong variability of its oceanographic conditions. In April–May 2012, a persistent, large-scale anticyclonic eddy was observed in the [...] Read more.
Although small in size, the Gulf of Trieste (GoT), a marginal coastal basin in the northern Adriatic Sea, is characterized by very complex dynamics and strong variability of its oceanographic conditions. In April–May 2012, a persistent, large-scale anticyclonic eddy was observed in the GoT. This event was captured by both High Frequency Radar (HFR) and Lagrangian drifter observations collected within the European MED TOSCA (Tracking Oil Spill and Coastal Awareness) project. The complexity of the system and the variety of forcing factors constitute major challenges from a numerical modeling perspective when it comes to simulating the observed features. In this study, we implemented a high-resolution hydrodynamic model in an attempt to reproduce and analyze the observed basin-wide eddy structure and determine its drivers. We adopted the Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model (MITgcm), tailored for the GoT, nested into a large-scale simulation of the Adriatic Sea and driven by a tidal model, measured river freshwater discharge data and surface atmospheric forcing. Numerical results were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated against HFR surface current maps, Lagrangian drifter trajectories and thermohaline data, showing good skills in reproducing the general circulation, but failing in accurately tracking the drifters. Model sensitivity to different forcing factors (wind, river and tides) was also assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
Simulating the Coastal Ocean Circulation Near the Cape Peninsula Using a Coupled Numerical Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(4), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040359 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
A coupled numerical hydrodynamic model is presented for the Cape Peninsula region of South Africa. The model is intended to support a range of interdisciplinary coastal management and research applications, given the multifaceted socio-economic and ecological value of the study area. Calibration and [...] Read more.
A coupled numerical hydrodynamic model is presented for the Cape Peninsula region of South Africa. The model is intended to support a range of interdisciplinary coastal management and research applications, given the multifaceted socio-economic and ecological value of the study area. Calibration and validation are presented, with the model reproducing the mean circulation well. Maximum differences between modelled and measured mean surface current speeds and directions of 3.9 × 10−2 m s−1 and 20.7°, respectively, were produced near Cape Town, where current velocities are moderate. At other measurement sites, the model closely reproduces mean surface and near-bed current speeds and directions and outperforms a global model. In simulating sub-daily velocity variability, the model’s skill is moderate, and similar to that of a global model, where comparison is possible. It offers the distinct advantage of producing information where the global model cannot, however. Validation for temperature and salinity is provided, indicating promising performance. The model produces a range of expected dynamical features for the domain including upwelling and vertical current shear. Nuances in circulation patterns are revealed; specifically, the development of rotational flow patterns within False Bay is qualified and an eddy in Table Bay is identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
The Seasonal Variation of the Anomalously High Salinity at Subsurface Salinity Maximum in Northern South China Sea from Argo Data
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020227 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 764
Abstract
The large variations in salinity at the salinity maximum in the northern South China Sea (NSCS), as an indicator for the changes in the Kuroshio intrusion (KI), play an important role in the hydrological cycle. The high salinity here is more than 34.65 [...] Read more.
The large variations in salinity at the salinity maximum in the northern South China Sea (NSCS), as an indicator for the changes in the Kuroshio intrusion (KI), play an important role in the hydrological cycle. The high salinity here is more than 34.65 at the salinity maximum and is intriguing. In the past, the salinity was difficult to trace in the entire NSCS over long periods due to a lack of high-quality observations. However, due to the availability of accumulated temperature and salinity (T-S) profiles from the Argo program, it is now possible to capture subsurface-maximum data on a large spatiotemporal scale. In this study, the salinity maximum distributed in the subsurface of 80 to 200 m at a density of 23.0–25.5 σθ was extracted from decades of Argo data (on the different pressure surfaces, 2006–2019). We then further studied the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of the salinity maximum and its anomalously high salinity. The results suggest that a high salinity (salinity > 34.65, most of which is located at the shallow depths < 100 m) at the subsurface salinity-maximum layer often occurs in the NSCS, especially near the Luzon Strait, which accounts for about 23% of the total salinity maximum. In winter, the anomalously high salinity at the shallow subsurface salinity maximum can extend to the south of 17° N, while it rarely reaches 18° N and tends to locate at deeper waters in summer. The T-S values of the anomalously high-salinity water are between the mean T-S values in the NSCS and north Pacific subsurface water, implying that the outer sea water gradually mixes with the South China Sea water after passing through the Luzon Strait. Finally, our results show that the factors play an important role in the appearance and distribution of the anomalously high salinity at the subsurface salinity maximum, including the strength of the Kuroshio intrusion, the local wind stress curl and the anticyclonic eddy shedding from the loop current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
The Role of Mesoscale Dynamics over Northwestern Cuba in the Loop Current Evolution in 2010, during the Deepwater Horizon Incident
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020188 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
The Loop Current (LC) system controls the connectivity between the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) region and the Straits of Florida. The evolution of the LC and the shedding sequence of the LC anticyclonic ring (Eddy Franklin) were crucial for the fate of [...] Read more.
The Loop Current (LC) system controls the connectivity between the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) region and the Straits of Florida. The evolution of the LC and the shedding sequence of the LC anticyclonic ring (Eddy Franklin) were crucial for the fate of the hydrocarbons released during the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill in 2010. In a previous study, we identified LC-related anticyclonic eddies in the southern GoM, named “Cuba anticyclones” (“CubANs”). Here, we investigate the relation between these eddies and LC evolution in 2010, focusing on the DwH period. We use high-resolution model results in tandem with observational data to describe the connection between the LC system evolution within the GoM (LC extensions, Eddy Franklin and LC Frontal Eddies—LCFEs) and the mesoscale dynamics within the Straits of Florida where CubANs propagate. Five periods of CubAN eddy activity were identified during the oil spill period, featuring different formation processes under a combination of local and regional conditions. Most of these cases are related to the retracted LC phases, when the major LC anticyclone (Eddy Franklin in 2010) is detached from the main body and CubAN eddy activity is most likely. However, two cases of CubAN eddy presence during elongated LC were detected, which led to the attenuation of the eastward flows of warm waters through the Straits (Florida Current; outflow), allowing the stronger supply of Caribbean waters through the Yucatan Channel into the Gulf (inflow), which contributed to short-term LC northward extensions. Oceanographic (LCFEs) and meteorological (wind-induced upwelling) conditions contributed to the release of CubANs from the main LC body, which, in tandem with other processes, contributed to the LC evolution during the DwH oil spill incident. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
Simulating Destructive and Constructive Morphodynamic Processes in Steep Beaches
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010086 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
Short-term beach morphodynamics are typically modelled solely through storm-induced erosion, disregarding post-storm recovery. Yet, the full cycle of beach profile response is critical to simulating and understanding morphodynamics over longer temporal scales. The XBeach model is calibrated using topographic profiles from a reflective [...] Read more.
Short-term beach morphodynamics are typically modelled solely through storm-induced erosion, disregarding post-storm recovery. Yet, the full cycle of beach profile response is critical to simulating and understanding morphodynamics over longer temporal scales. The XBeach model is calibrated using topographic profiles from a reflective beach (Faro Beach, in S. Portugal) during and after the incidence of a fierce storm (Emma) that impacted the area in early 2018. Recovery in all three profiles showed rapid steepening of the beachface and significant recovery of eroded volumes (68–92%) within 45 days after the storm, while berm heights reached 4.5–5 m. Two calibration parameters were used (facua and bermslope), considering two sets of values, one for erosive (Hm0 ≥ 3 m) and one for accretive (Hm0 < 3 m) conditions. A correction of the runup height underestimation by the model in surfbeat mode was necessary to reproduce the measured berm elevation and morphology during recovery. Simulated profiles effectively capture storm erosion, but also berm growth and gradual recovery of the profiles, showing good skill in all three profiles and recovery phases. These experiments will be the basis to formulate event-scale simulations using schematized wave forcing that will allow to calibrate the model for longer-term changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
The Impact of Tides on the Bay of Biscay Dynamics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080617 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
The impact of tides on the Bay of Biscay dynamics is investigated by means of an ocean model twin-experiment, consisted of two simulations with and without tidal forcing. The study is based on a high-resolution (1/36) regional configuration [...] Read more.
The impact of tides on the Bay of Biscay dynamics is investigated by means of an ocean model twin-experiment, consisted of two simulations with and without tidal forcing. The study is based on a high-resolution (1/36) regional configuration of NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) performing one-year simulations. The results highlight the imprint of tides on the thermohaline properties and circulation patterns in three distinct dynamical areas in the model domain: the abyssal plain, the Armorican shelf and the English Channel. When tides are activated, the bottom stress is increased in the shelf areas by about two orders of magnitude with respect to the open ocean, subsequently enhancing vertical mixing and weakening stratification in the bottom boundary layer. The most prominent feature reproduced only when tides are modelled, is the Ushant front near the entrance of the English Channel. Tides appear also to constrain the freshwater transport of rivers from the continental shelf to the open ocean. The spectral analysis revealed that the tidal forcing contributes to the SSH variance at high frequencies near the semidiurnal band and to the open ocean mesoscale and small-scale features in the presence of summer stratification pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
Developing a Pilot Operational Oceanography System for an Enclosed Basin
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(5), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050336 - 09 May 2020
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
The first stages of the development of a pilot oceanographic observatory for an enclosed basin (Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos, Greece) are described. The focus of the present work is related to the estimation of the water exchange with the open sea, using a numerical [...] Read more.
The first stages of the development of a pilot oceanographic observatory for an enclosed basin (Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos, Greece) are described. The focus of the present work is related to the estimation of the water exchange with the open sea, using a numerical model of the region, volume flux measurements based on current velocity, and sea-level measurements. Three different methods of assessment of the exchange are described and evaluated, in order to select a reference method to calibrate submarine telephone cable measurements. The high-resolution coastal circulation model for the enclosed sea, nested in a larger-domain model, is developed and evaluated against in situ data, focusing on the adequate representation of the exchange and the hydrographic structure in the basin. Monitoring the water level is selected as the best-suited method for estimating the water exchange in hourly-to-weekly time scales. The model reproduces adequately the tidal exchange and sea-level response, as well as the hydrographic characteristics of the basin. The cable voltage measurements exhibit tidal signals overwhelmed by low-frequency noise, possibly attributable to circuitry and ground failures; however, the most suitable method for estimating exchanges of the basin with the open sea appears to be sea-level monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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