Special Issue "Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Yannis N. Krestenitis
Website
Guest Editor
Oceanography & Coastal Engineering Group, Department of Hydraulics & Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: Oceanographic modeling; Physical oceanography; Coastal hydrodynamics; Marine environment monitoring; Outfall design and impact evaluation; Sediment transport and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The coastal zone is under continuous anthropogenic pressures, because it includes the largest percentage of the world population and economy.

Moreover, coastal areas are also under high environmental risk due to severe meteorological and oceanic conditions. Sea level changes due to waves, tides, and storm surges in tandem with climatic-induced changes increase the risk of coastal flooding and the inundation of significant coastal areas. The potential damages to infrastructure, cost in lives, and ecological impacts increase the need for accurate operational platforms to both monitor and forecast the coastal ocean dynamics.

The pollution risks due to industry, urban environment, agriculture, oil drilling, and shipping also require the development of state-of-the-art techniques to measure and simulate the coastal environment to monitor its quality, develop the most appropriate measures in case of an accident (e.g., oil spills), and improve long-term design and management. The meteorological and river inputs in the ocean are significant factors that have to be cautiously included in both observational and modeling efforts. The coastal ocean is not only an economic source due to naval transportation, fisheries, and tourism but also due to the energy that can be produced under the exploration of ocean movements (e.g., waves, currents, sea level).

Prof. Yannis N. Krestenitis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Observational studies and monitoring of the coastal environment
  • Operational forecast platforms and monitoring systems
  • Coastal floods and inundation of coastal zones
  • Impacts of climate change to the coastal zone and adaptation measures
  • Data assimilation techniques in numerical simulations of coastal dynamics
  • Interaction between drainage basins, deltaic systems, and marginal seas
  • Monitoring and modeling of pollution in the coastal ocean
  • Oil spill modeling in the coastal environment
  • Coastal altimetry products and applications
  • Coastal erosion and protection measures
  • Techniques for energy production in the coastal zone
  • Ocean dynamics and biochemical processes in the coastal and shelf environment

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Seasonal Variation of the Anomalously High Salinity at Subsurface Salinity Maximum in Northern South China Sea from Argo Data
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020227 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 148
Abstract
The large variations in salinity at the salinity maximum in the northern South China Sea (NSCS), as an indicator for the changes in the Kuroshio intrusion (KI), play an important role in the hydrological cycle. The high salinity here is more than 34.65 [...] Read more.
The large variations in salinity at the salinity maximum in the northern South China Sea (NSCS), as an indicator for the changes in the Kuroshio intrusion (KI), play an important role in the hydrological cycle. The high salinity here is more than 34.65 at the salinity maximum and is intriguing. In the past, the salinity was difficult to trace in the entire NSCS over long periods due to a lack of high-quality observations. However, due to the availability of accumulated temperature and salinity (T-S) profiles from the Argo program, it is now possible to capture subsurface-maximum data on a large spatiotemporal scale. In this study, the salinity maximum distributed in the subsurface of 80 to 200 m at a density of 23.0–25.5 σθ was extracted from decades of Argo data (on the different pressure surfaces, 2006–2019). We then further studied the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of the salinity maximum and its anomalously high salinity. The results suggest that a high salinity (salinity > 34.65, most of which is located at the shallow depths < 100 m) at the subsurface salinity-maximum layer often occurs in the NSCS, especially near the Luzon Strait, which accounts for about 23% of the total salinity maximum. In winter, the anomalously high salinity at the shallow subsurface salinity maximum can extend to the south of 17° N, while it rarely reaches 18° N and tends to locate at deeper waters in summer. The T-S values of the anomalously high-salinity water are between the mean T-S values in the NSCS and north Pacific subsurface water, implying that the outer sea water gradually mixes with the South China Sea water after passing through the Luzon Strait. Finally, our results show that the factors play an important role in the appearance and distribution of the anomalously high salinity at the subsurface salinity maximum, including the strength of the Kuroshio intrusion, the local wind stress curl and the anticyclonic eddy shedding from the loop current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Mesoscale Dynamics over Northwestern Cuba in the Loop Current Evolution in 2010, during the Deepwater Horizon Incident
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020188 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 233
Abstract
The Loop Current (LC) system controls the connectivity between the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) region and the Straits of Florida. The evolution of the LC and the shedding sequence of the LC anticyclonic ring (Eddy Franklin) were crucial for the fate of [...] Read more.
The Loop Current (LC) system controls the connectivity between the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) region and the Straits of Florida. The evolution of the LC and the shedding sequence of the LC anticyclonic ring (Eddy Franklin) were crucial for the fate of the hydrocarbons released during the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill in 2010. In a previous study, we identified LC-related anticyclonic eddies in the southern GoM, named “Cuba anticyclones” (“CubANs”). Here, we investigate the relation between these eddies and LC evolution in 2010, focusing on the DwH period. We use high-resolution model results in tandem with observational data to describe the connection between the LC system evolution within the GoM (LC extensions, Eddy Franklin and LC Frontal Eddies—LCFEs) and the mesoscale dynamics within the Straits of Florida where CubANs propagate. Five periods of CubAN eddy activity were identified during the oil spill period, featuring different formation processes under a combination of local and regional conditions. Most of these cases are related to the retracted LC phases, when the major LC anticyclone (Eddy Franklin in 2010) is detached from the main body and CubAN eddy activity is most likely. However, two cases of CubAN eddy presence during elongated LC were detected, which led to the attenuation of the eastward flows of warm waters through the Straits (Florida Current; outflow), allowing the stronger supply of Caribbean waters through the Yucatan Channel into the Gulf (inflow), which contributed to short-term LC northward extensions. Oceanographic (LCFEs) and meteorological (wind-induced upwelling) conditions contributed to the release of CubANs from the main LC body, which, in tandem with other processes, contributed to the LC evolution during the DwH oil spill incident. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulating Destructive and Constructive Morphodynamic Processes in Steep Beaches
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010086 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Short-term beach morphodynamics are typically modelled solely through storm-induced erosion, disregarding post-storm recovery. Yet, the full cycle of beach profile response is critical to simulating and understanding morphodynamics over longer temporal scales. The XBeach model is calibrated using topographic profiles from a reflective [...] Read more.
Short-term beach morphodynamics are typically modelled solely through storm-induced erosion, disregarding post-storm recovery. Yet, the full cycle of beach profile response is critical to simulating and understanding morphodynamics over longer temporal scales. The XBeach model is calibrated using topographic profiles from a reflective beach (Faro Beach, in S. Portugal) during and after the incidence of a fierce storm (Emma) that impacted the area in early 2018. Recovery in all three profiles showed rapid steepening of the beachface and significant recovery of eroded volumes (68–92%) within 45 days after the storm, while berm heights reached 4.5–5 m. Two calibration parameters were used (facua and bermslope), considering two sets of values, one for erosive (Hm0 ≥ 3 m) and one for accretive (Hm0 < 3 m) conditions. A correction of the runup height underestimation by the model in surfbeat mode was necessary to reproduce the measured berm elevation and morphology during recovery. Simulated profiles effectively capture storm erosion, but also berm growth and gradual recovery of the profiles, showing good skill in all three profiles and recovery phases. These experiments will be the basis to formulate event-scale simulations using schematized wave forcing that will allow to calibrate the model for longer-term changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Tides on the Bay of Biscay Dynamics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080617 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 493
Abstract
The impact of tides on the Bay of Biscay dynamics is investigated by means of an ocean model twin-experiment, consisted of two simulations with and without tidal forcing. The study is based on a high-resolution (1/36) regional configuration [...] Read more.
The impact of tides on the Bay of Biscay dynamics is investigated by means of an ocean model twin-experiment, consisted of two simulations with and without tidal forcing. The study is based on a high-resolution (1/36) regional configuration of NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) performing one-year simulations. The results highlight the imprint of tides on the thermohaline properties and circulation patterns in three distinct dynamical areas in the model domain: the abyssal plain, the Armorican shelf and the English Channel. When tides are activated, the bottom stress is increased in the shelf areas by about two orders of magnitude with respect to the open ocean, subsequently enhancing vertical mixing and weakening stratification in the bottom boundary layer. The most prominent feature reproduced only when tides are modelled, is the Ushant front near the entrance of the English Channel. Tides appear also to constrain the freshwater transport of rivers from the continental shelf to the open ocean. The spectral analysis revealed that the tidal forcing contributes to the SSH variance at high frequencies near the semidiurnal band and to the open ocean mesoscale and small-scale features in the presence of summer stratification pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing a Pilot Operational Oceanography System for an Enclosed Basin
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(5), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050336 - 09 May 2020
Viewed by 637
Abstract
The first stages of the development of a pilot oceanographic observatory for an enclosed basin (Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos, Greece) are described. The focus of the present work is related to the estimation of the water exchange with the open sea, using a numerical [...] Read more.
The first stages of the development of a pilot oceanographic observatory for an enclosed basin (Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos, Greece) are described. The focus of the present work is related to the estimation of the water exchange with the open sea, using a numerical model of the region, volume flux measurements based on current velocity, and sea-level measurements. Three different methods of assessment of the exchange are described and evaluated, in order to select a reference method to calibrate submarine telephone cable measurements. The high-resolution coastal circulation model for the enclosed sea, nested in a larger-domain model, is developed and evaluated against in situ data, focusing on the adequate representation of the exchange and the hydrographic structure in the basin. Monitoring the water level is selected as the best-suited method for estimating the water exchange in hourly-to-weekly time scales. The model reproduces adequately the tidal exchange and sea-level response, as well as the hydrographic characteristics of the basin. The cable voltage measurements exhibit tidal signals overwhelmed by low-frequency noise, possibly attributable to circuitry and ground failures; however, the most suitable method for estimating exchanges of the basin with the open sea appears to be sea-level monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Title: Simulating destructive and constructive morphodynamic processes in steep beaches

Authors: Katerina Kombiadou1,*, Susana Costas1, Dano Roelvink2

1Centre for Marine and Environmental Research (CIMA), University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, Edf. 7, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal

2IHE Delft institute for Water Education, Water Science and Engineering Dept., Westvest 7, 2611AX Delft, the Netherlands

Abstract: Beach morphodynamic modelling efforts mostly focus on reproducing storm erosion over event-timescales, disregarding post-storm recuperation. Yet, the full cycle of beach profile response is critical to simulating and understanding morphodynamics over longer temporal scales. The coupled XBeach-Duna model is calibrated using beach profiles from a reflective beach (Praia de Faro, in S. Portugal) during and after the Emma storm. Simulated profiles effectively capture storm erosion, but also berm growth and gradual recovery of the profiles. The experiments are repeated using schematised wave conditions and comparing model accuracy, to achieve optimised schemes that will provide the key to pass on to long-term

 

2. Title:  The impact of tides on the Bay of Biscay dynamics

Authors: John Karagiorgos, Vassilios Vervatis, and Sarantis Sofianos
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Physics, Athens, Greece

3. Title:  The role of mesoscale dynamics over Northwestern Cuba on the Loop Current evolution in 2010, during the Deepwater Horizon incident

Authors: Y. Androulidakis; V. Kourafalou; M. Le Henaff; H. Kang; N. Ntaganou

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