Special Issue "Offshore Renewables for a Transition to a Low Carbon Society"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2022) | Viewed by 5094

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Liliana Rusu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, ‘Dunarea de Jos’ University of Galati, 47 Domneasca Street, 800008 Galati, Romania
Interests: wave modeling; wave energy; wave climate; waves in ocean and coastal areas; wave–current interactions; ocean wave analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Vicky Stratigaki
E-Mail Website1 Website2 Website3 Website4
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 60, 9052 Zwijnaarder (Ghent), Belgium
Interests: marine renewable energy; wave energy converter arrays; experimental modelling; numerical coupling methodologies; WEC–WEC interactions; wave-structure interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are inviting submissions to a Special Issue of  Journal of Marine Science and Engineering in the subject area "Offshore renewables for a transition to a low carbon society" and related topics. Offshore renewable sources are abundant, while the amount of energy that can be harvested using the existent technologies varies from day-to-day and site-to-site depending on the weather conditions and on the location considered. The changes induced in recent decades in the climate by human activities are significant, and from this perspective, the reduction of CO2 emissions represents a problem of increasing importance. In this context, the technologies associated with the extraction of ocean energy represent a crucial issue in achieving the expected targets in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. In recent years, significant advances have been made when it comes to ocean energy extraction. However, there are still important steps to be performed for the implementation of the most effective technologies that could operate successfully and survive in the harsh marine environment for a long period of time. From this perspective, the main target of this Special Issue is improve the renewable energy agenda through enhanced scientific and multi-disciplinary works, aiming to enhance knowledge and performance in extracting ocean energy. From this perspective, we strongly encourage scientific works targeting innovative technical developments, reviews, case studies, and analytics, as well as assessments and manuscripts related to different disciplines, which are relevant to the extraction of offshore renewables and related topics.

Prof. Dr. Liliana Rusu
Dr. Vicky Stratigaki 
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ocean energy
  • climate change
  • evaluation of the resources
  • environmental modeling
  • floating wind
  • fix offshore wind turbines
  • wave energy
  • tide energy
  • floating solar panels
  • thermal and salinity gradients energy
  • collocations and hybrid approaches
  • economic assessments
  • expected LCOE dynamics
  • challenges in ocean energy extraction

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Harnessing of Different WECs to Harvest Wave Energy along the Galician Coast (NW Spain)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(6), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10060719 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 403
Abstract
The wave power resource (WP) was calculated along the Galician coast (NW Spain) over the period 2014–2021 using high spatial resolution hourly data from the SWAN model. In addition, the electrical energy (PE) that can be extracted for a particular wave [...] Read more.
The wave power resource (WP) was calculated along the Galician coast (NW Spain) over the period 2014–2021 using high spatial resolution hourly data from the SWAN model. In addition, the electrical energy (PE) that can be extracted for a particular wave energy converter (WEC) was analyzed for four different WECs (Oyster, Atargis, Aqua Buoy, and Pelamis). The performance of every WEC was also calculated attending to two parameters: the power load factor (ε) and the normalized capture width with respect to the WEC’s geometry (efficiency). Results show that the WP resource is lower than 10 kWm−1 onshore, but it increases to about 50 kWm−1 offshore. Atargis obtained the highest PE, and it is the most efficient device (ε ~40% and efficiency ~45%). Pelamis showed the lowest performance in offshore areas (ε ~15%, efficiency < 10%). A different type of WEC should be considered for every location along the coast depending on its size, performance parameters, and coexistence with other socio-economic activities and protected environmental areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewables for a Transition to a Low Carbon Society)
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Article
Site Selection of Offshore Solar Farm Deployment in the Aegean Sea, Greece
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10020224 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Offshore solar energy presents a new opportunity for low-carbon energy transition. In this research, we identify and rank suitable Offshore Solar Farm (OSF) sites in the Aegean Sea, Greece, considering various constraints and assessment criteria. The methodology includes two distinct phases. In the [...] Read more.
Offshore solar energy presents a new opportunity for low-carbon energy transition. In this research, we identify and rank suitable Offshore Solar Farm (OSF) sites in the Aegean Sea, Greece, considering various constraints and assessment criteria. The methodology includes two distinct phases. In the first phase, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used to spatially depict both incompatible and compatible marine areas for OSF deployment, while in the second phase, two models based on different combinations of multi-criteria decision-making methods are deployed to hierarchically rank the eligible areas for OSF deployment. The first model (Objective Model—OM) attributes weights to assessment criteria using an entropy-based weight method, while the second model (Subjective Model—SM) utilizes the pairwise comparison of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Both models use TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) to prioritize the suitable OSF sites. The results indicate the existence of nine suitable OSF marine areas in the Greek marine environment (total surface area of 17.25 km2) and a different ranking of these sites depending upon the deployed model (OM or SM). The present approach provides useful guidelines for OSF site selection in Greece as well as in other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewables for a Transition to a Low Carbon Society)
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Article
Characteristics of the Wind and Wave Climate along the European Seas Focusing on the Main Maritime Routes
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10010075 - 07 Jan 2022
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Abstract
European seas have a strong economic role both in terms of transport and tourism. Providing more knowledge, regarding the mean and extreme values of the wind and sea state conditions in the areas characterized by high maritime traffic, helps to improve navigational safety. [...] Read more.
European seas have a strong economic role both in terms of transport and tourism. Providing more knowledge, regarding the mean and extreme values of the wind and sea state conditions in the areas characterized by high maritime traffic, helps to improve navigational safety. From this perspective, six zones with high maritime traffic are studied. ERA5 database, a state-of-the-art global reanalysis dataset provided by ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts), is used to assess the average values and the percentiles for the wind speed and the main wave parameters in the target areas considering the period 2001–2020. The main European routes and the extreme conditions along them as well as the areas characterized by high values of wind speed and high waves were also identified. A more comprehensive picture of the expected dynamics of the environmental matrix along the most significant shipping routes is useful because in this way the most dangerous areas could be avoided by ships for the safety of passengers and transported goods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewables for a Transition to a Low Carbon Society)
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Article
Techno-Economic Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy in the Philippines
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070758 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
The technical and economic assessments for emerging renewable energy technologies, specifically offshore wind energy, is critical for their improvement and deployment. These assessments serve as one of the main bases for the construction of offshore wind farms, which would be beneficial to the [...] Read more.
The technical and economic assessments for emerging renewable energy technologies, specifically offshore wind energy, is critical for their improvement and deployment. These assessments serve as one of the main bases for the construction of offshore wind farms, which would be beneficial to the countries gearing toward a sustainable future such as the Philippines. This study presents the technical and economic viability of offshore wind farms in the Philippines. The analysis was divided into four phases, namely, application of exclusion criteria, technical analysis, economic assessment, and sensitivity analysis. Arc GIS 10.5 was used to spatially visualize the results of the study. Exclusion criteria were applied to narrow down the potential siting for offshore wind farms, namely, active submerged cables, local ferry routes, marine protected areas, reefs, oil and gas extraction areas, bathymetry, distance to grid, typhoons, and earthquakes. In the technical analysis, the turbines SWT-3.6-120 and 6.2 M126 Senvion were considered. The offshore wind speed data were extrapolated from 80 m to 90 m and 95 m using power law. The wind power density, wind power, and annual energy production were calculated from the extrapolated wind speed. Areas in the Philippines with a capacity factor greater than 30% and performance greater than 10% were considered technically viable. The economic assessment considered the historical data of constructed offshore wind farms from 2008 to 2018. Multiple linear regression was done to model the cost associated with the construction of offshore wind farms, namely, turbine, foundation, electrical, and operation and maintenance costs (i.e., investment cost). Finally, the levelized cost of electricity and break-even selling price were calculated to check the economic viability of the offshore wind farms. Sensitivity analysis was done to investigate how LCOE and price of electricity are sensitive to the discount rate, capacity factor, investment cost, useful life, mean wind speed, and shape parameter. Upon application of exclusion criteria, several sites were determined to be viable with the North of Cagayan having the highest capacity factor. The calculated capacity factor ranges from ~42% to ~50% for SWT-3.6-120 and ~38.56% to ~48% for 6.2M126 turbines. The final regression model with investment cost as the dependent variable included the minimum sea depth and the plant capacity as the predictor variables. The regression model had an adjusted R2 of 90.43%. The regression model was validated with existing offshore wind farms with a mean absolute percentage error of 11.33%. The LCOE calculated for a 25.0372 km2 offshore area ranges from USD 157.66/MWh and USD 154.1/MWh. The breakeven electricity price for an offshore wind farm in the Philippines ranges from PHP 8.028/kWh to PHP 8.306/kWh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewables for a Transition to a Low Carbon Society)
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Article
Assessment of the Offshore Wind Energy Potential in the Romanian Exclusive Economic Zone
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050531 - 15 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
The European offshore wind market is continuously expanding. This means that, together with significant technological developments, new coastal environments should be considered for the implementation of the wind farms, as is the case of the Black Sea, which is targeted in the present [...] Read more.
The European offshore wind market is continuously expanding. This means that, together with significant technological developments, new coastal environments should be considered for the implementation of the wind farms, as is the case of the Black Sea, which is targeted in the present work. From this perspective, an overview of the wind energy potential in the Romanian exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the Black Sea is presented in this work. This is made by analyzing a total of 20 years of wind data (corresponding to the time interval 2000–2019) coming from different sources, which include ERA5 reanalysis data and satellite measurements. Furthermore, a direct comparison between these datasets was also carried out. Finally, the results of the present work indicate that the Romanian offshore areas can replicate the success reported by the onshore wind projects, of which we can mention the Fantanele-Cogealac wind farm with an operating capacity of 600 MW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewables for a Transition to a Low Carbon Society)
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