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J. Clin. Med., Volume 4, Issue 3 (March 2015) , Pages 369-503

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Open AccessReview
Effects of T-Cell Depletion on Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Outcomes in AML Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(3), 488-503; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4030488
Received: 7 September 2014 / Revised: 19 January 2015 / Accepted: 19 January 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2386 | PDF Full-text (131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Graft versus host disease (GVHD) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality associated with conventional allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The use of T-cell depletion significantly reduces this complication. Recent prospective and retrospective data suggest that, in patients with [...] Read more.
Graft versus host disease (GVHD) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality associated with conventional allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The use of T-cell depletion significantly reduces this complication. Recent prospective and retrospective data suggest that, in patients with AML in first complete remission, CD34+ selected grafts afford overall and relapse-free survival comparable to those observed in recipients of conventional grafts, while significantly decreasing GVHD. In addition, CD34+ selected grafts allow older patients, and those with medical comorbidities or with only HLA-mismatched donors to successfully undergo transplantation. Prospective data are needed to further define which groups of patients with AML are most likely to benefit from CD34+ selected grafts. Here we review the history of T-cell depletion in AML, and techniques used. We then summarize the contemporary literature using CD34+ selection in recipients of matched or partially mismatched donors (7/8 or 8/8 HLA-matched), and provide a summary of the risks and benefits of using T-cell depletion. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
New Developments in Biomarkers for Atopic Dermatitis
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(3), 479-487; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4030479
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 24 February 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2942 | PDF Full-text (50 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of biomarkers in medicine is evolving. Biomarkers do not only give us a better understanding of pathogenesis, but also increase treatment efficacy and safety, further enabling more precise clinical care. This paper focuses on the current use of biomarkers in atopic [...] Read more.
The application of biomarkers in medicine is evolving. Biomarkers do not only give us a better understanding of pathogenesis, but also increase treatment efficacy and safety, further enabling more precise clinical care. This paper focuses on the current use of biomarkers in atopic dermatitis, new developments and future perspectives. Biomarkers can be used for many different purposes, including the objective determination of disease severity, confirmation of clinical diagnosis, and to predict response to treatment. In atopic dermatitis, many biomarkers have been investigated as a marker for disease severity. Currently serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) is the superior biomarker for assessing disease severity. However, we have recently shown that the use of a panel of serum biomarkers is more suitable for assessing disease severity than an individual biomarker. In this overview, we will discuss alternative sources for biomarkers, such as saliva and capillary blood, which can increase the user friendliness of biomarkers in atopic dermatitis (AD). Both methods offer simple, non-invasive and cost effective alternatives to venous blood. This provides great translational and clinical potential. Biomarkers will play an increasingly important role in AD research and personalized medicine. The use of biomarkers will enhance the efficacy of AD treatment by facilitating the individualization of therapy targeting the patients’ specific biological signature and also by providing tools for predicting and monitoring of therapeutic response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Treatment of Atopic Eczema)
Open AccessReview
Molecular Genetic Markers in Acute Myeloid Leukemia
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(3), 460-478; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4030460
Received: 5 January 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3946 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Genetics play an increasingly important role in the risk stratification and management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Traditionally, AML classification and risk stratification relied on cytogenetic studies; however, molecular detection of gene mutations is playing an increasingly important role in classification, risk [...] Read more.
Genetics play an increasingly important role in the risk stratification and management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Traditionally, AML classification and risk stratification relied on cytogenetic studies; however, molecular detection of gene mutations is playing an increasingly important role in classification, risk stratification, and management of AML. Molecular testing does not take the place of cytogenetic testing results, but plays a complementary role to help refine prognosis, especially within specific AML subgroups. With the exception of acute promyelocytic leukemia, AML therapy is not targeted but the intensity of therapy is driven by the prognostic subgroup. Many prognostic scoring systems classify patients into favorable, poor, or intermediate prognostic subgroups based on clinical and genetic features. Current standard of care combines cytogenetic results with targeted testing for mutations in FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA, and KIT to determine the prognostic subgroup. Other gene mutations have also been demonstrated to predict prognosis and may play a role in future risk stratification, although some of these have not been confirmed in multiple studies or established as standard of care. This paper will review the contribution of cytogenetic results to prognosis in AML and then will focus on molecular mutations that have a prognostic or possible therapeutic impact. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(3), 441-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4030441
Received: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 3 February 2015 / Published: 11 March 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4127 | PDF Full-text (154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objectives of this review were to discuss standard and investigational treatment strategies for adolescent and young adult with acute myeloid leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adolescent and young adult patients (AYAs) may need a different type of [...] Read more.
The objectives of this review were to discuss standard and investigational treatment strategies for adolescent and young adult with acute myeloid leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adolescent and young adult patients (AYAs) may need a different type of therapy than those currently used in children and older patients. As soon as AML is diagnosed, AYA patient should be offered to participate in well-designed clinical trials. The standard treatment approach for AYAs with AML is remission induction chemotherapy with an anthracycline/cytarabine combination, followed by either consolidation chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation, depending on the ability of the patient to tolerate intensive treatment and cytogenetic features. Presently, continuing progress of novel drugs targeting specific pathways in acute leukemia may bring AML treatment into a new era. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Small Drusen and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(3), 425-440; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4030425
Received: 15 January 2015 / Accepted: 24 February 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3189 | PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We tested the hypothesis that large areas of small hard drusen (diameter <63 µm) and intermediate drusen (diameter 63–124 µm) are associated with the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Eyes of 3344 older adults with at least two consecutive visits spaced five [...] Read more.
We tested the hypothesis that large areas of small hard drusen (diameter <63 µm) and intermediate drusen (diameter 63–124 µm) are associated with the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Eyes of 3344 older adults with at least two consecutive visits spaced five years apart over a 20-year period were included. A 6-level severity scale, including no drusen, four levels of increasing area (from minimal (<2596 µm²) to large (>9086 µm²)) of only small hard drusen, and intermediate drusen, was used. The five-year incidence of AMD was 3% in eyes at the start of the interval with no, minimal, small, and moderate areas of only small drusen and 5% and 25% for eyes with large area of only small drusen and intermediate drusen, respectively. Compared to eyes with a moderate area of small drusen, the odds ratio (OR) of developing AMD in eyes with a large area of only small drusen was 1.8 (p < 0.001). Compared to eyes with large area of only small drusen, eyes with intermediate drusen had an OR of 5.5 (p < 0.001) of developing AMD. Our results are consistent with our hypothesis that large areas of only small drusen are associated with the incidence of AMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Related Macular Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Hypercalcemia Associated with Calcium Supplement Use: Prevalence and Characteristics in Hospitalized Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(3), 414-424; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4030414
Received: 20 December 2014 / Revised: 27 January 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2519 | PDF Full-text (117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The ingestion of large amounts of milk and antacids to treat peptic ulcer disease was a common cause of hypercalcemia in the past (the “milk-alkali syndrome”). The current popularity of calcium and supplements has given rise to a similar problem. Objectives: To [...] Read more.
Background: The ingestion of large amounts of milk and antacids to treat peptic ulcer disease was a common cause of hypercalcemia in the past (the “milk-alkali syndrome”). The current popularity of calcium and supplements has given rise to a similar problem. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of hypercalcemia induced by calcium intake (“calcium supplement syndrome”; or CSS) in hospitalized patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective; electronic health record (EHR)-based review of patients with hypercalcemia over a 3-year period. Diagnosis of CSS was based on the presence of hypercalcemia; a normal parathyroid hormone (PTH) level; renal insufficiency; metabolic alkalosis; a history of calcium intake; and documented improvement with treatment. Results: Of the 72 patients with non-PTH mediated hypercalcemia; 15 (20.8%) satisfied all the criteria for the diagnosis of CSS. Calcium; vitamin D; and multivitamin ingestion were significantly associated with the diagnosis (p values < 0.0001; 0.014; and 0.045 respectively); while the presence of hypertension; diabetes; and renal insufficiency showed a trend towards statistical significance. All patients received intravenous fluids; and six (40%) received calcium-lowering drugs. The calcium level at discharge was normal 12 (80%) of patients. The mean serum creatinine and bicarbonate levels decreased from 2.4 and 35 mg/dL on admission respectively; to 1.6 mg/dL and 25.6 mg/dL at discharge respectively. Conclusion: The widespread use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation can manifest as hypercalcemia and worsening of kidney function in susceptible individuals. Awareness among health care professionals can lead to proper patient education regarding these health risks. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Neuroendocrine Disorders in Pediatric Craniopharyngioma Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(3), 389-413; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4030389
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 14 January 2015 / Accepted: 29 January 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4242 | PDF Full-text (675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Childhood-onset craniopharyngiomas are partly cystic embryonic malformations of the sellar/parasellar region. The therapy of choice in patients with favorable tumor localization is complete resection with a specific focus on maintaining optical and hypothalamic neuroendocrine functions. In patients with unfavorable tumor localization (i.e. [...] Read more.
Childhood-onset craniopharyngiomas are partly cystic embryonic malformations of the sellar/parasellar region. The therapy of choice in patients with favorable tumor localization is complete resection with a specific focus on maintaining optical and hypothalamic neuroendocrine functions. In patients with unfavorable tumor localization (i.e., hypothalamic involvement), a limited hypothalamus-sparing surgical strategy followed by local irradiation is recommended. Involvement and/or surgical lesions of posterior hypothalamic areas cause major neuroendocrine sequelae. The overall survival rates are high (92%) but neuroendocrine disorders such as obesity and metabolic syndrome due to involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic lesions have major negative impact on survival and quality of life. Recurrences and progressions are frequent post-surgical events. Because irradiation is efficient in preventing tumor progression, appropriate timing of post-surgical irradiation is currently under investigation in a randomized multinational trial (KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2007). Childhood-onset craniopharyngioma should be recognized as a chronic disease requiring treatment and constant monitoring of the clinical and quality of life consequences, frequently impaired due to neuroendocrine disorders, by experienced multidisciplinary teams in order to provide optimal care of surviving patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroendocrine Disturbances after Brain Damage)
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Open AccessReview
Immune Dysregulation in Patients Persistently Infected with Human Papillomaviruses 6 and 11
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(3), 375-388; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4030375
Received: 4 December 2014 / Revised: 30 December 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2015 / Published: 3 March 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2744 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) 6 and 11 are part of a large family of small DNA viruses, some of which are commensal. Although much of the population can contain or clear infection with these viruses, there is a subset of individuals who develop persistent [...] Read more.
Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) 6 and 11 are part of a large family of small DNA viruses, some of which are commensal. Although much of the population can contain or clear infection with these viruses, there is a subset of individuals who develop persistent infection that can cause significant morbidity and on occasion mortality. Depending on the site of infection, patients chronically infected with these viruses develop either recurrent, and on occasion, severe genital warts or recurrent respiratory papillomas that can obstruct the upper airway. The HPV-induced diseases described are likely the result of a complex and localized immune suppressive milieu that is characteristic of patients with persistent HPV infection. We review data that documents impaired Langerhans cell responses and maturation, describes the polarized adaptive T-cell immune responses made to these viruses, and the expression of class select II MHC and KIR genes that associate with severe HPV6 and 11 induced disease. Finally, we review evidence that documents the polarization of functional TH2 and T-regulatory T-cells in tissues persistently infected with HPV6 and 11, and we review evidence that there is suppression of natural killer cell function. Together, these altered innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to the cellular and humoral microenvironment that supports HPV 6 and 11-induced disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Advances of Human Papillomaviruses)
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Open AccessCase Report
A Case of Midbrain and Thalamic Infarction Involving Artery of Percheron
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(3), 369-374; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4030369
Received: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 3 March 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2595 | PDF Full-text (99 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blood supply to the thalamus and brainstem have frequent anatomic variations. One of these is where all the perforators to the above areas arise from a single branch of the posterior cerebral artery commonly known as the artery of Percheron. Infarction involving this [...] Read more.
Blood supply to the thalamus and brainstem have frequent anatomic variations. One of these is where all the perforators to the above areas arise from a single branch of the posterior cerebral artery commonly known as the artery of Percheron. Infarction involving this artery leading to bilateral thalamic and midbrain lesions is not uncommon, but can cause diagnostic difficulties due to the varying clinical presentations possible and the wide differentials. Early brain imaging and diagnosis is important for initiating appropriate treatment. In this case report, we discuss a patient who presented with an artery of Percheron related stroke affecting the mid brain and paramedian thalamic areas. We also discuss the differentials of presentations with similar symptoms. Full article
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J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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