Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Chemical Analysis of Extracts from Newfoundland Berries and Potential Neuroprotective Effects
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Berry Fruit Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Antioxidants 2016, 5(4), 35;

Anthocyanin Accumulation in Muscadine Berry Skins Is Influenced by the Expression of the MYB Transcription Factors, MybA1, and MYBCS1

Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, College of Agriculture and Food Science, Florida A & M University, 6505 Mahan Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32317, USA
Food Science Program, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA
Faculties of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053, Nairobi 00625, Kenya
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Alabama A & M University, 4900 Meridian Street, Normal, AL 35762, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dorothy Klimis-Zacas
Received: 16 April 2016 / Revised: 13 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 September 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5627 KB, uploaded 12 October 2016]   |  


The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time. They are designated as VrMybA1 (GenBank Accession No. KJ513437), and VrMYBCS1 (VrMYB5a) (GenBank Accession No. KJ513438). The findings in this study indicate that, the deduced VrMybA1 and VrMYBCS1 protein structures share extensive sequence similarity with previously characterized plant MYBs, while phylogenetic analysis confirms that they are members of the plant MYB super-family. The expressions of MybA1, and MYBCS1 (VrMYB5a) gene sequences were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR using in vitro cell cultures, and berry skin samples at different developmental stages. Results showed that MybA1, and MYBCS1 genes were up-regulated in the veràison and physiologically mature red berry skins during fruit development, as well as in in vitro red cell cultures. This study also found that in ripening berries, the transcription of VrMybA1, and VrMYBCS1 in the berry skin was positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation. Therefore, the upregulation of VrMybA1, and VrMYBCS1 results in the accumulation and regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry development of muscadine grapes. This work greatly enhances the understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis in muscadine grapes and will facilitate future genetic modification of the antioxidants in V. rotundifolia. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanins; antioxidants; MYB gene; pigments; muscadine grapes; MybA1; MYBCS1 anthocyanins; antioxidants; MYB gene; pigments; muscadine grapes; MybA1; MYBCS1

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Oglesby, L.; Ananga, A.; Obuya, J.; Ochieng, J.; Cebert, E.; Tsolova, V. Anthocyanin Accumulation in Muscadine Berry Skins Is Influenced by the Expression of the MYB Transcription Factors, MybA1, and MYBCS1. Antioxidants 2016, 5, 35.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Antioxidants EISSN 2076-3921 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top