Special Issue "Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Dorothy Klimis-Zacas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, School of Food and Agriculture, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA
Interests: vascular function; lipid metabolism; obesity-induced inflammation; angiogenesis; wound healing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last decade, a high volume of work has been published on the health-promoting effects of berries (e.g., blueberries, cranberries, blackberries, etc.) that are high in antioxidant phytochemicals, polyphenols. Consuming diets high in polyphenols has also been documented to attenuate the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent evidence also reveals that the biological effects of polyphenols extend beyond their traditional antioxidant role. This Special Issue will publish both reviews and original research papers on the role of berry antioxidants not only in maintaining health but also in preventing and/or reversing disease both in animal models and in humans. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways engaged by berry antioxidants will be included.

Professor Dorothy Klimis-Zacas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • Berries
  • Polyphenols
  • Flavonoids
  • Anthocyanins
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Hypertension
  • Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Aging
  • Gut Health and the Microbiome

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Blueberry Consumption Affects Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Older Adults in a Sex-Specific Manner
Antioxidants 2016, 5(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5040043 - 29 Nov 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
Blueberries are rich in antioxidants and may protect against disease. Uric acid accounts for about 50% of the antioxidant properties in humans. Elevated levels of serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim was to [...] Read more.
Blueberries are rich in antioxidants and may protect against disease. Uric acid accounts for about 50% of the antioxidant properties in humans. Elevated levels of serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim was to determine the effect of blueberries on SUA in older adults. Participants (n = 133, 65–80 years) experiencing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were randomized in a double-blind 6-month clinical trial to either blueberry or placebo. A reference group with no MCI received no treatment. The mean (SD) SUA at baseline were 5.45 (0.9), 6.4 (1.3) and 5.8 (1.4) mg/dL in reference, placebo, and treatment groups, respectively. Baseline SUA was different in men and women (6.25 (1.1) vs. 5.35 (1.1), p = 0.001). During the first three months, SUA decreased in the blueberry group and was significantly different from the placebo group in both men and women (p < 0.0003). Sex-specific differences became apparent after 3 months, when only men showed an increase in SUA in the blueberry group and not in the placebo (p = 0.0006) between 3 and 6 months. At 6 months SUA had rebounded in both men and women and returned to baseline levels. Baseline SUA was correlated with CVD risk factors, waist circumference and triglycerides (p < 0.05), but differed by sex. Overall, 6 m SUA changes were negatively associated with triglycerides in men, but not in women. Group-wise association between 6 m SUA changes and CVD risk factors showed associations with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in women of the Blueberry group but not in men or any sex in the placebo group. In summary, blueberries may affect SUA and its relationship with CVD risk in a sex-specific manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Chemical Analysis of Extracts from Newfoundland Berries and Potential Neuroprotective Effects
Antioxidants 2016, 5(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5040036 - 19 Oct 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species [...] Read more.
Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V. angustifolium), lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea) and black currant (Ribes lacustre). Anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides in powdered extracts from Ribes lacustre and the Vaccinium species were identified using the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation method with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The identified compounds were extracted from dried berries by various solvents via ultrasonication followed by centrifugation. A reverse-phase analytical column was employed to identify the retention time of each chemical component before submission for LC–MS analysis. A total of 21 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the three species. Further, we tested the effects of the lingonberry extract for its ability to protect neurons and glia from trauma utilizing an in vitro model of cell injury. Surprisingly, these extracts provided complete protection from cell death in this model. These findings indicate the presence of a wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols in berries that grow natively in Newfoundland. These powdered extracts maintain these compounds intact despite being processed from berry fruit, indicating their potential use as dietary supplements. In addition, these recent findings and previous data from our lab demonstrate the ability of compounds in berries to protect the nervous system from traumatic insults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Anthocyanin Accumulation in Muscadine Berry Skins Is Influenced by the Expression of the MYB Transcription Factors, MybA1, and MYBCS1
Antioxidants 2016, 5(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5040035 - 12 Oct 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic [...] Read more.
The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time. They are designated as VrMybA1 (GenBank Accession No. KJ513437), and VrMYBCS1 (VrMYB5a) (GenBank Accession No. KJ513438). The findings in this study indicate that, the deduced VrMybA1 and VrMYBCS1 protein structures share extensive sequence similarity with previously characterized plant MYBs, while phylogenetic analysis confirms that they are members of the plant MYB super-family. The expressions of MybA1, and MYBCS1 (VrMYB5a) gene sequences were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR using in vitro cell cultures, and berry skin samples at different developmental stages. Results showed that MybA1, and MYBCS1 genes were up-regulated in the veràison and physiologically mature red berry skins during fruit development, as well as in in vitro red cell cultures. This study also found that in ripening berries, the transcription of VrMybA1, and VrMYBCS1 in the berry skin was positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation. Therefore, the upregulation of VrMybA1, and VrMYBCS1 results in the accumulation and regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry development of muscadine grapes. This work greatly enhances the understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis in muscadine grapes and will facilitate future genetic modification of the antioxidants in V. rotundifolia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Tart Cherry Extracts Reduce Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Signaling in Microglial Cells
Antioxidants 2016, 5(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5040033 - 22 Sep 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglial cells, leading [...] Read more.
Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglial cells, leading to decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Thus, the present study sought to determine if tart cherries—which improved cognitive behavior in aged rats—would be efficacious in reducing inflammatory and OS signaling in HAPI rat microglial cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations (0–1.0 mg/mL) of Montmorency tart cherry powder for 1–4 h, then treated with 0 or 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) overnight. LPS application increased extracellular levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and intracellular levels of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Pretreatment with tart cherry decreased levels of NO, TNF-α, and COX-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner versus those without pretreatment; the optimal combination was between 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL tart cherry for 2 h. Higher concentrations of tart cherry powder and longer exposure times negatively affected cell viability. Therefore, tart cherries (like other dark-colored fruits), may be effective in reducing inflammatory and OS-mediated signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Blueberries’ Impact on Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance
Antioxidants 2016, 5(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5040044 - 29 Nov 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
Blueberries are a rich source of polyphenols, which include anthocyanin bioactive compounds. Epidemiological evidence indicates that incorporating blueberries into the diet may lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These findings are supported by pre-clinical and clinical studies that have shown [...] Read more.
Blueberries are a rich source of polyphenols, which include anthocyanin bioactive compounds. Epidemiological evidence indicates that incorporating blueberries into the diet may lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These findings are supported by pre-clinical and clinical studies that have shown improvements in insulin resistance (i.e., increased insulin sensitivity) after obese and insulin-resistant rodents or humans consumed blueberries. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Additionally, the improvements in glucose tolerance after blueberry consumption were assessed by glucose tolerance tests. However, firm conclusions regarding the anti-diabetic effect of blueberries cannot be drawn due to the small number of existing clinical studies. Although the current evidence is promising, more long-term, randomized, and placebo-controlled trials are needed to establish the role of blueberries in preventing or delaying T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Protective Role of Dietary Berries in Cancer
Antioxidants 2016, 5(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5040037 - 19 Oct 2016
Cited by 20
Abstract
Dietary patterns, including regular consumption of particular foods such as berries as well as bioactive compounds, may confer specific molecular and cellular protection in addition to the overall epidemiologically observed benefits of plant food consumption (lower rates of obesity and chronic disease risk), [...] Read more.
Dietary patterns, including regular consumption of particular foods such as berries as well as bioactive compounds, may confer specific molecular and cellular protection in addition to the overall epidemiologically observed benefits of plant food consumption (lower rates of obesity and chronic disease risk), further enhancing health. Mounting evidence reports a variety of health benefits of berry fruits that are usually attributed to their non-nutritive bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic substances such as flavonoids or anthocyanins. Although it is still unclear which particular constituents are responsible for the extended health benefits, it appears that whole berry consumption generally confers some anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory protection to humans and animals. With regards to cancer, studies have reported beneficial effects of berries or their constituents including attenuation of inflammation, inhibition of angiogenesis, protection from DNA damage, as well as effects on apoptosis or proliferation rates of malignant cells. Berries extend effects on the proliferation rates of both premalignant and malignant cells. Their effect on premalignant cells is important for their ability to cause premalignant lesions to regress both in animals and in humans. The present review focuses primarily on in vivo and human dietary studies of various berry fruits and discusses whether regular dietary intake of berries can prevent cancer initiation and delay progression in humans or ameliorate patients’ cancer status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Berry Fruit Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome
Antioxidants 2016, 5(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5040034 - 30 Sep 2016
Cited by 38
Abstract
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors which often includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, as well as a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-thrombotic environment. This leads to a dramatically increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus [...] Read more.
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors which often includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, as well as a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-thrombotic environment. This leads to a dramatically increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death both in the United States and worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that berry fruit consumption has a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of most risk factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome and its cardiovascular complications in the human population. This is likely due to the presence of polyphenols with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, such as anthocyanins and/or phenolic acids. The present review summarizes the findings of recent dietary interventions with berry fruits on human subjects with or at risk of Metabolic Syndrome. It also discusses the potential role of berries as part of a dietary strategy which could greatly reduce the need for pharmacotherapy, associated with potentially deleterious side effects and constituting a considerable financial burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Cranberries and Cancer: An Update of Preclinical Studies Evaluating the Cancer Inhibitory Potential of Cranberry and Cranberry Derived Constituents
Antioxidants 2016, 5(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5030027 - 18 Aug 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents reported to influence a variety of health benefits, ranging from improved immune function and decreased infections to reduced cardiovascular disease and more recently cancer inhibition. A review of cranberry research targeting cancer revealed positive effects of cranberries [...] Read more.
Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents reported to influence a variety of health benefits, ranging from improved immune function and decreased infections to reduced cardiovascular disease and more recently cancer inhibition. A review of cranberry research targeting cancer revealed positive effects of cranberries or cranberry derived constituents against 17 different cancers utilizing a variety of in vitro techniques, whereas in vivo studies supported the inhibitory action of cranberries toward cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, bladder, prostate, glioblastoma and lymphoma. Mechanisms of cranberry-linked cancer inhibition include cellular death induction via apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy; reduction of cellular proliferation; alterations in reactive oxygen species; and modification of cytokine and signal transduction pathways. Given the emerging positive preclinical effects of cranberries, future clinical directions targeting cancer or premalignancy in high risk cohorts should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value
Antioxidants 2016, 5(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5020017 - 01 Jun 2016
Cited by 27
Abstract
Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, [...] Read more.
Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Recent Progress in Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetes Effect of Berries
Antioxidants 2016, 5(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5020013 - 06 Apr 2016
Cited by 36
Abstract
Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with “beyond antioxidant” functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health [...] Read more.
Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with “beyond antioxidant” functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop