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Antioxidants, Volume 13, Issue 7 (July 2024) – 122 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Aquafeed contamination caused by microplastics (MPs) poses a risk to fish health due to their gastrointestinal absorption and translocation to other organs, particularly the liver, triggering oxidative stress. The present study aimed to combine the use of natural astaxanthin contained in natural-based microcapsules to counteract the negative side effects of MPs in juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed diets containing MPs. Specifically, starch contained in the microcapsules enabled the coagulation of MPs in fish gut, limiting their absorption and accumulation in all the tissues analyzed. Conversely, natural astaxanthin led to the mitigation of oxidative stress. This technology represents a new and economically affordable approach to promote fish welfare and quality within the aquaculture sector. View this paper
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27 pages, 1651 KiB  
Article
Botanical Origin and Biological Properties of Honey and Propolis from Cuautitlan, State of Mexico, Mexico
by Jose Juan Alcivar-Saldaña, Marco Aurelio Rodriguez-Monroy, Liborio Carrillo-Miranda and Maria Margarita Canales-Martinez
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070874 (registering DOI) - 20 Jul 2024
Viewed by 126
Abstract
Beekeeping is an activity that generates various products, mainly honey and propolis, with different biological activities that are studied extensively using various methodologies. The influence of various phenolic compounds, such as phenols and flavonoids, which are synthesized and concentrated differently in each product [...] Read more.
Beekeeping is an activity that generates various products, mainly honey and propolis, with different biological activities that are studied extensively using various methodologies. The influence of various phenolic compounds, such as phenols and flavonoids, which are synthesized and concentrated differently in each product depending on the melliferous flora and sources of resources, on the manufacture of propolis or honey has been investigated. However, the analysis of these products has been performed separately and is outdated in time, and depending on the area and the flowering periods, different crops may be harvested. The analysis of the honey and propolis produced in Cuautitlan, State of Mexico, in the high plateau beekeeping zone, for a period of four years, both in the dry and rainy seasons, was proposed to determine the botanical origin of the honey and propolis. The primary pollen type in both honey and propolis was from Brassica rapa. Physicochemical tests were conducted, revealing higher concentrations of antimicrobial activity in the dry season than in the rainy season. Honey, propolis, and a vegetation extract showed activity against S. aureus, while only honey had an effect on E. coli in both seasons. For antifungal activity, only propolis collected in the rainy season had this activity. The biological properties of these products are closely related to the flora that varies both annually and between seasons, influencing the concentrations of phenolic compounds, as well as the biological activity of honey and propolis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bee Products as a Source of Natural Antioxidants: Second Edition)
14 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
Culture of Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells in Galactose Media Enhances Mitochondrial Plasticity and Changes Redox Sensing, Altering Nrf2 and FOXO3 Levels
by Leticia Selinger Galant, Laura Doblado, Rafael Radi, Andreza Fabro de Bem and Maria Monsalve
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070873 (registering DOI) - 20 Jul 2024
Viewed by 109
Abstract
Understanding the complex biological processes of cells in culture, particularly those related to metabolism, can be biased by culture conditions, since the choice of energy substrate impacts all of the main metabolic pathways. When glucose is replaced by galactose, cells decrease their glycolytic [...] Read more.
Understanding the complex biological processes of cells in culture, particularly those related to metabolism, can be biased by culture conditions, since the choice of energy substrate impacts all of the main metabolic pathways. When glucose is replaced by galactose, cells decrease their glycolytic flux, working as an in vitro model of limited nutrient availability. However, the effect of these changes on related physiological processes such as redox control is not well documented, particularly in endothelial cells, where mitochondrial oxidation is considered to be low. We evaluated the differences in mitochondrial dynamics and function in endothelial cells exposed to galactose or glucose culture medium. We observed that cells maintained in galactose-containing medium show a higher mitochondrial oxidative capacity, a more fused mitochondrial network, and higher intercellular coupling. These factors are documented to impact the cellular response to oxidative stress. Therefore, we analyzed the levels of two main redox regulators and found that bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in galactose media had higher levels of FOXO3 and lower levels of Nrf2 than those in glucose-containing media. Thus, cultures of endothelial cells in a galactose-containing medium may provide a more suitable target for the study of in vitro mitochondrial-related processes than those in glucose-containing media; the medium deeply influences redox signaling in these cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mitochondrial Redox Biology)
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28 pages, 21141 KiB  
Article
Integrated Metabolomics and Metagenomics Unveiled Biomarkers of Antioxidant Potential in Fermented Brewer’s Grains
by Hammad Qamar, Yuanfei Li, Rong He, Muhammad Waqas, Min Song, Dun Deng, Yiyan Cui, Pan Yang, Zhichang Liu, Bilal Qammar, Muhammad Asnan, Xiangxue Xie, Miao Yu and Xianyong Ma
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070872 (registering DOI) - 20 Jul 2024
Viewed by 122
Abstract
About one-third of the global food supply is wasted. Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), being produced in enormous amounts by the brewery industry, possesses an eminence nutritional profile, yet its recycling is often neglected for multiple reasons. We employed integrated metagenomics and metabolomics techniques [...] Read more.
About one-third of the global food supply is wasted. Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), being produced in enormous amounts by the brewery industry, possesses an eminence nutritional profile, yet its recycling is often neglected for multiple reasons. We employed integrated metagenomics and metabolomics techniques to assess the effects of enzyme treatments and Lactobacillus fermentation on the antioxidant capacity of BSG. The biotreated BSG revealed improved antioxidant capability, as evidenced by significantly increased (p < 0.05) radical scavenging activity and flavonoid and polyphenol content. Untargeted metabolomics revealed that Lactobacillus fermentation led to the prominent synthesis (p < 0.05) of 15 novel antioxidant peptides, as well as significantly higher (p < 0.05) enrichment of isoflavonoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathways. The correlation analysis demonstrated that Lactiplantibacillus plantarum exhibited strong correlation (p < 0.05) with aucubin and carbohydrate-active enzymes, namely, glycoside hydrolases 25, glycosyl transferases 5, and carbohydrate esterases 9. The fermented BSG has potential applications in the food industry as a culture medium, a functional food component for human consumption, and a bioactive feed ingredient for animals. Full article
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15 pages, 2167 KiB  
Article
Sub-Chronic Methomyl Exposure Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses in Zebrafish with Higher Female Susceptibility
by Mingxiao Li, Xi Chen, Chao Song, Jing Xu, Limin Fan, Liping Qiu, Dandan Li, Huimin Xu, Shunlong Meng, Xiyan Mu, Bin Xia and Jun Ling
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070871 (registering DOI) - 20 Jul 2024
Viewed by 146
Abstract
The widespread use of carbamate pesticides has raised significant environmental and health concerns, particularly regarding water contamination and the disruption of defense systems in organisms. Despite these concerns, research on the differential impacts of pesticides on male and female organisms remains limited. This [...] Read more.
The widespread use of carbamate pesticides has raised significant environmental and health concerns, particularly regarding water contamination and the disruption of defense systems in organisms. Despite these concerns, research on the differential impacts of pesticides on male and female organisms remains limited. This study focused on methomyl, investigating sex-specific differences in liver antioxidant defenses and inflammatory response indices in male and female zebrafish after 56 days of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 mg/L). Our findings indicate that methomyl exposure significantly increased ROS content in zebrafish livers, inducing oxidative stress and activating enzymatic antioxidant defenses such as SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities. Sub-chronic exposure altered the expression of apoptosis-related genes (Bax/Bcl2a and Caspases3a), resulting in liver cell apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, with the 0.20 mg/L concentration causing the most severe damage. Additionally, methomyl exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations triggered persistent inflammatory responses in liver tissues, evidenced by increased transcription levels of inflammatory factor genes and the activation of toll-like receptors, heightening susceptibility to exogenous allergens. It is noteworthy that oxidative damage indicators (AST, ROS, MDA) and inflammatory gene expressions (IL-1β, TNF-α) were significantly higher in female livers compared to male livers at 0.10–0.20 mg/L methomyl exposure. Consequently, our study underscores the potential adverse effects of environmental methomyl exposure on aquatic organisms and highlights the need for heightened consideration of the risks posed by environmental endocrine disruptors to female health and safety. Full article
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19 pages, 616 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Weight Loss on Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Function in Subjects with Obesity
by Neus Bosch-Sierra, Carmen Grau-del Valle, Jonathan Hermenejildo, Alberto Hermo-Argibay, Juan Diego Salazar, Marta Garrido, Beatriz Navajas-Porras, Guillermo Sáez, Carlos Morillas and Celia Bañuls
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070870 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 164
Abstract
Inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function are implicated in the development of obesity and its comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of weight loss through calorie restriction on the metabolic profile, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters, and mitochondrial [...] Read more.
Inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function are implicated in the development of obesity and its comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of weight loss through calorie restriction on the metabolic profile, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters, and mitochondrial respiration in an obese population. A total of 109 subjects underwent two cycles of a very low-calorie diet alternated with a low-calorie diet (24 weeks). We analyzed biochemical and inflammatory parameters in serum, as well as oxidative stress markers, mRNA antioxidant gene expression, and mitochondrial respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). After the intervention, there was an improvement in both insulin resistance and lipid profiles, including cholesterol subfractions. Weight loss produced a significant reduction in mitochondrial ROSs content and an increase in glutathione levels, coupled with an enhancement in the mRNA expression of antioxidant systems (SOD1, GSR, and CAT). In addition, a significant improvement in basal oxygen consumption, maximal respiration, and ATP production was observed. These findings demonstrate that moderate weight loss can improve insulin resistance, lipid profiles and subfractions, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters, and mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, we can affirm that dietary intervention can simultaneously achieve significant weight loss and improve metabolic profile and mitochondrial function in obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
26 pages, 5877 KiB  
Article
Citrus Pomace as a Source of Plant Complexes to Be Used in the Nutraceutical Field of Intestinal Inflammation
by Mariarosaria Ingegneri, Maria Rita Braghini, Michela Piccione, Cristiano De Stefanis, Manuela Mandrone, Ilaria Chiocchio, Ferruccio Poli, Martina Imbesi, Anna Alisi, Antonella Smeriglio and Domenico Trombetta
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070869 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 190
Abstract
This study aims to recover the main by-product of Citrus fruits processing, the raw pomace, known also as pastazzo, to produce plant complexes to be used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Food-grade extracts from orange (OE) and lemon (LE) [...] Read more.
This study aims to recover the main by-product of Citrus fruits processing, the raw pomace, known also as pastazzo, to produce plant complexes to be used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Food-grade extracts from orange (OE) and lemon (LE) pomace were obtained by ultrasound-assisted maceration. After a preliminary phytochemical and biological screening by in vitro assays, primary and secondary metabolites were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS) analyses. The intestinal bioaccessibility and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were investigated by in vitro simulated gastro-intestinal digestion followed by treatments on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The tight junctions-associated structural proteins (ZO-1, Claudin-1, and Occludin), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), reactive oxygen species (ROS)-levels, expression of some key antioxidant (CAT, NRF2 and SOD2) and inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8) genes, and pNFkB p65 nuclear translocation, were evaluated. The OE and LE digesta, which did not show any significant difference in terms of phytochemical profile, showed significant effects in protecting against the LPS-induced intestinal barrier damage, oxidative stress and inflammatory response. In conclusion, both OE and LE emerged as potential candidates for further preclinical studies on in vivo IBD models. Full article
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22 pages, 971 KiB  
Review
Traditional Chinese Medicine for Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: Focus on Selenium and Antioxidant Phytochemicals
by Sheng Huang, Panos G. Ziros, Dionysios V. Chartoumpekis, Georgios Psarias, Leonidas Duntas, Xinhe Zuo, Xinyi Li, Zhiguo Ding and Gerasimos P. Sykiotis
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070868 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 173
Abstract
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is not only the most frequent autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), but it also has a significant impact on patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and it has been variably associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Even though its pathogenesis is still [...] Read more.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is not only the most frequent autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), but it also has a significant impact on patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and it has been variably associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Even though its pathogenesis is still incompletely understood, oxidative stress is believed to play an important role. Hypothyroidism related to later stages of HT can be treated with levothyroxine substitution therapy; various approaches such as selenium supplementation and iodine-restricted diets have been proposed as disease-modifying treatments for earlier stages, and even thyroidectomy has been suggested for refractory cases of painful HT. Nevertheless, many patients still report suboptimal HRQoL, highlighting an unmet medical need in this area. The concepts and approaches of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating HT are not broadly known in the West. Here, we provide an overview of TCM for HT, including combinations of TCM with selenium. We encompass evidence from clinical trials and other studies related to complex TCM prescriptions, single herbs used in TCM, and phytochemicals; wherever possible, we delineate the probable underlying molecular mechanisms. The findings show that the main active components of TCM for HT have commonly known or presumed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which may account for their potential utility in HT. Further exploring the practices of TCM for HT and combining them with evidence- and mechanism-based approaches according to Western standards may help to identify new strategies to alter the clinical course of the disease and/or to treat patients’ symptoms better and improve their HRQoL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative-Stress in Human Diseases—3rd Edition)
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18 pages, 12347 KiB  
Article
In Vivo-Matured Oocyte Resists Post-Ovulatory Aging through the Hub Genes DDX18 and DNAJC7 in Pigs
by Cheng-Lin Zhan, Dongjie Zhou, Ming-Hong Sun, Wen-Jie Jiang, Song-Hee Lee, Xiao-Han Li, Qin-Yue Lu, Ji-Dam Kim, Gyu-Hyun Lee, Jae-Min Sim, Hak-Jae Chung, Eun-Seok Cho, Soo-Jin Sa and Xiang-Shun Cui
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070867 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 158
Abstract
Assisted reproduction technology (ART) procedures are often impacted by post-ovulatory aging (POA), which can lead to reduced fertilization rates and impaired embryo development. This study used RNA sequencing analysis and experimental validation to study the similarities and differences between in vivo- and vitro-matured [...] Read more.
Assisted reproduction technology (ART) procedures are often impacted by post-ovulatory aging (POA), which can lead to reduced fertilization rates and impaired embryo development. This study used RNA sequencing analysis and experimental validation to study the similarities and differences between in vivo- and vitro-matured porcine oocytes before and after POA. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between fresh in vivo-matured oocyte (F_vivo) and aged in vivo-matured oocyte (A_vivo) and DEGs between fresh in vitro-matured oocyte (F_vitro) and aged in vitro-matured oocyte (A_vitro) were intersected to explore the co-effects of POA. It was found that “organelles”, especially “mitochondria”, were significantly enriched Gene Ontology (GO) terms. The expression of genes related to the “electron transport chain” and “cell redox homeostasis” pathways related to mitochondrial function significantly showed low expression patterns in both A_vivo and A_vitro groups. Weighted correlation network analysis was carried out to explore gene expression modules specific to A_vivo. Trait–module association analysis showed that the red modules were most associated with in vivo aging. There are 959 genes in the red module, mainly enriched in “RNA binding”, “mRNA metabolic process”, etc., as well as in GO terms, and “spliceosome” and “nucleotide excision repair” pathways. DNAJC7, IK, and DDX18 were at the hub of the gene regulatory network. Subsequently, the functions of DDX18 and DNAJC7 were verified by knocking down their expression at the germinal vesicle (GV) and Metaphase II (MII) stages, respectively. Knockdown at the GV stage caused cell cycle disorders and increase the rate of abnormal spindle. Knockdown at the MII stage resulted in the inefficiency of the antioxidant melatonin, increasing the level of intracellular oxidative stress, and in mitochondrial dysfunction. In summary, POA affects the organelle function of oocytes. A_vivo oocytes have some unique gene expression patterns. These genes may be potential anti-aging targets. This study provides a better understanding of the detailed mechanism of POA and potential strategies for improving the success rates of assisted reproductive technologies in pigs and other mammalian species. Full article
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14 pages, 3846 KiB  
Article
Activation of p38 and JNK by ROS Contributes to Deoxybouvardin-Mediated Intrinsic Apoptosis in Oxaliplatin-Sensitive and -Resistant Colorectal Cancer Cells
by Si Yeong Seo, Sang Hoon Joo, Seung-On Lee, Goo Yoon, Seung-Sik Cho, Yung Hyun Choi, Jin Woo Park and Jung-Hyun Shim
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070866 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 157
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a global health burden, accounting for almost a million deaths annually. Deoxybouvardin (DB), a non-ribosomal peptide originally isolated from Bouvardia ternifolia, has been reported to possess antitumor activity; however, the detailed mechanisms underlying this anticancer activity have not [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a global health burden, accounting for almost a million deaths annually. Deoxybouvardin (DB), a non-ribosomal peptide originally isolated from Bouvardia ternifolia, has been reported to possess antitumor activity; however, the detailed mechanisms underlying this anticancer activity have not been elucidated. We investigated the anticancer activity of the cyclic hexapeptide, DB, in human CRC HCT116 cells. Cell viability, evaluated by MTT assay, revealed that DB suppressed the growth of both oxaliplatin (Ox)-resistant HCT116 cells (HCT116-OxR) and Ox-sensitive cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in DB-treated CRC cells, and it induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase by regulating p21, p27, cyclin B1, and cdc2 levels. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed that DB activated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK in CRC. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was dysregulated by DB, resulting in cytochrome c release and activation of caspases. Taken together, DB exhibited anticancer activity against both Ox-sensitive and Ox-resistant CRC cells by targeting JNK and p38 MAPK, increasing cellular ROS levels, and disrupting MMP. Thus, DB is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of Ox-resistant CRC. Full article
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26 pages, 5605 KiB  
Article
Ocimum basilicum and Lagenaria siceraria Loaded Lignin Nanoparticles as Versatile Antioxidant, Immune Modulatory, Anti-Efflux, and Antimicrobial Agents for Combating Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Fungi
by Lamiaa A. El-Samahy, Yasmine H. Tartor, Adel Abdelkhalek, Ioan Pet, Mirela Ahmadi and Sameh M. El-Nabtity
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070865 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Lignin nanoparticles emerged as a promising alternative for drug delivery systems owing to their biodegradability and bioactive properties. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum-loaded lignin nanoparticles (OB-LNPs) and Lagenaria siceraria seed oil-loaded lignin nanoparticles (LS-LNPs) [...] Read more.
Lignin nanoparticles emerged as a promising alternative for drug delivery systems owing to their biodegradability and bioactive properties. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum-loaded lignin nanoparticles (OB-LNPs) and Lagenaria siceraria seed oil-loaded lignin nanoparticles (LS-LNPs) to find a solution for antimicrobial resistance. OB-LNPs and LS-LNPs were tested for their antimicrobial potential against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis. OB-LNPs and LS-LNPs were further tested for their anti-efflux activity against ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica strains and for treating Salmonella infection in a rat model. We also investigated the antifungal efficacy of OB-LNPs and LS-LNPs for treating T. rubrum infection in a guinea pig model. Both OB-LNPs and LS-LNPs showed strong antimicrobial potential against S. Typhimurium and T. rubrum infections. LS-LNPs showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica species with a MIC range of 0.5–4 µg/mL and antifungal activity against T. rubrum with a MIC range of 0.125–1 µg/mL. OB-LNPs showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica species with a MIC range of 0.5–2 µg/mL and antifungal activity against T. rubrum with a MIC range of 0.25–2 µg/mL. OB-LNPs and LS-LNPs downregulated the expression of ramA and acrB efflux pump genes (fold change values ranged from 0.2989 to 0.5434; 0.4601 to 0.4730 for ramA and 0.3842–0.6199; 0.5035–0.8351 for acrB). Oral administration of OB-LNPs and LS-LNPs in combination with ciprofloxacin had a significant effect on all blood parameters, as well as on liver and kidney function parameters. Oxidative stress mediators, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde were abolished by oral administration of OB-LNPs and LS-LNPs (0.5 mL/rat once daily for 5 days). Interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α were also reduced in comparison with the positive control group and the ciprofloxacin-treated group. Histopathological examination of the liver and intestine of OB-LNPs and LS-LNPs-treated rats revealed an elevation in Salmonella clearance. Treatment of T. rubrum-infected guinea pigs with OB-LNPs and LS-LNPs topically in combination with itraconazole resulted in a reduction in lesion scores, microscopy, and culture results. In conclusion, OB-LNPs and LS-LNPs possess immunomodulatory and antioxidant potential and can be used as naturally derived nanoparticles for drug delivery and treatment of Salmonellosis and dermatophytosis infections. Full article
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25 pages, 3100 KiB  
Article
A Combination of Cardamonin and Doxorubicin Selectively Affect Cell Viability of Melanoma Cells: An In Vitro Study
by Lara Ebbert, Claudia von Montfort, Chantal-Kristin Wenzel, Andreas S. Reichert, Wilhelm Stahl and Peter Brenneisen
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070864 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Treatment of the most aggressive and deadliest form of skin cancer, the malignant melanoma, still has room for improvement. Its invasive nature and ability to rapidly metastasize and to develop resistance to standard treatment often result in a poor prognosis. While the highly [...] Read more.
Treatment of the most aggressive and deadliest form of skin cancer, the malignant melanoma, still has room for improvement. Its invasive nature and ability to rapidly metastasize and to develop resistance to standard treatment often result in a poor prognosis. While the highly effective standard chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used in a variety of cancers, systemic side effects still limit therapy. Especially, DOX-induced cardiotoxicity remains a big challenge. In contrast, the natural chalcone cardamonin (CD) has been shown to selectively kill tumor cells. Besides its anti-tumor activity, CD exhibits anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of the combinational treatment of DOX with CD on A375 melanoma cells compared to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) and rat cardiac myoblasts (H9C2 cells). DOX-induced cytotoxicity was unselective and affected all cell types, especially H9C2 cardiac myoblasts, demonstrating its cardiotoxic effect. In contrast, CD only decreased the cell viability of A375 melanoma cells, without harming normal (healthy) cells. The addition of CD selectively protected human dermal fibroblasts and rat cardiac myoblasts from DOX-induced cytotoxicity. While no apoptosis was induced by the combinational treatment in normal (healthy) cells, an apoptosis-mediated cytotoxicity was demonstrated in A375 melanoma cells. CD exhibited thiol reactivity as it was able to directly interact with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in a cell-free assay and to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in all cell types. And that took place in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent manner. DOX decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in all cell types, whereas CD selectively decreased mitochondrial respiration, affecting basal respiration, maximal respiration, spare respiratory capacity and ATP production in A375 melanoma cells, but not in healthy cardiac myoblasts. The DOX-induced cytotoxicity seen in melanoma cells was ROS-independent, whereas the cytotoxic effect of CD was associated with CD-induced ROS-formation and/or its thiol reactivity. This study highlights the beneficial properties of the addition of CD to DOX treatment, which might protect patients from DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Future experiments with other tumor cell lines or a mouse model should substantiate this hypothesis. Full article
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18 pages, 18799 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of Beta-3 Adrenoceptor Agonism on Mucosal Integrity in Hyperoxia-Induced Ileal Alterations
by Patrizia Nardini, Virginia Zizi, Marta Molino, Camilla Fazi, Maura Calvani, Francesco Carrozzo, Giorgia Giuseppetti, Laura Calosi, Daniele Guasti, Denise Biagini, Fabio Di Francesco, Luca Filippi and Alessandro Pini
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070863 - 18 Jul 2024
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Organogenesis occurs in the uterus under low oxygen levels (4%). Preterm birth exposes immature newborns to a hyperoxic environment, which can induce a massive production of reactive oxygen species and potentially affect organ development, leading to diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis. The β3-adrenoreceptor [...] Read more.
Organogenesis occurs in the uterus under low oxygen levels (4%). Preterm birth exposes immature newborns to a hyperoxic environment, which can induce a massive production of reactive oxygen species and potentially affect organ development, leading to diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis. The β3-adrenoreceptor (β3-AR) has an oxygen-dependent regulatory mechanism, and its activation exerts an antioxidant effect. To test the hypothesis that β3-AR could protect postnatal ileal development from the negative impact of high oxygen levels, Sprague–Dawley rat pups were raised under normoxia (21%) or hyperoxia (85%) for the first 2 weeks after birth and treated or not with BRL37344, a selective β3-AR agonist, at 1, 3, or 6 mg/kg. Hyperoxia alters ileal mucosal morphology, leading to increased cell lipid oxidation byproducts, reduced presence of β3-AR-positive resident cells, decreased junctional protein expression, disrupted brush border, mucin over-production, and impaired vascularization. Treatment with 3 mg/kg of BRL37344 prevented these alterations, although not completely, while the lower 1 mg/kg dose was ineffective, and the higher 6 mg/kg dose was toxic. Our findings indicate the potential of β3-AR agonism as a new therapeutic approach to counteract the hyperoxia-induced ileal alterations and, more generally, the disorders of prematurity related to supra-physiologic oxygen exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormones and Oxidative Stress)
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22 pages, 1057 KiB  
Review
The Interplay of Protein Aggregation, Genetics, and Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer’s Disease: Role for Natural Antioxidants and Immunotherapeutics
by Jawad Ali, Kyonghwan Choe, Jun Sung Park, Hyun Young Park, Heeyoung Kang, Tae Ju Park and Myeong Ok Kim
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070862 - 18 Jul 2024
Viewed by 218
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that comprises amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) as a main component of neuritic plaques. Its deposition is considered a trigger for AD pathogenesis, progression, and the clinical symptoms of cognitive impairment. Some distinct pathological features of AD [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that comprises amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) as a main component of neuritic plaques. Its deposition is considered a trigger for AD pathogenesis, progression, and the clinical symptoms of cognitive impairment. Some distinct pathological features of AD include phosphorylation of tau protein, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These pathological consequences tend to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in the dysregulation of various signaling pathways of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. The relationship between the Aβ cascade and oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis is like a “chicken and egg” story, with the etiology of the disease regarding these two factors remaining a question of “which comes first.” However, in this review, we have tried our best to clarify the interconnection between these two mechanisms and to show the precise cause-and-effect relationship. Based on the above hallmarks of AD, several therapeutic strategies using natural antioxidants, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines are employed as anti-Aβ therapy to decrease ROS, Aβ burden, chronic neuroinflammation, and synaptic failure. These natural antioxidants and immunotherapeutics have demonstrated significant neuroprotective effects and symptomatic relief in various in vitro and in vivo models, as well as in clinical trials for AD. However, none of them have received final approval to enter the drug market for mitigating AD. In this review, we extensively elaborate on the pitfalls, assurances, and important crosstalk between oxidative stress and Aβ concerning current anti-Aβ therapy. Additionally, we discuss future strategies for the development of more Aβ-targeted approaches and the optimization of AD treatment and mitigation. Full article
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15 pages, 3606 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects of Seed Oils from Trichosanthes kirilowii and T. laceribractea in Caenorhabditis elegans: A Comparative Analysis and Mechanism Study
by Wenqian Wang, Shan Li, Yunguo Zhu, Xianghuan Cui, Zhejin Sheng, Hongbing Wang and Zhou Cheng
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070861 - 18 Jul 2024
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) can accelerate amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation and tau protein hyperphosphorylation in neuron cells, which further leads to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, there is an urgent need to find natural and safe antioxidants for preventing [...] Read more.
Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) can accelerate amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation and tau protein hyperphosphorylation in neuron cells, which further leads to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, there is an urgent need to find natural and safe antioxidants for preventing or treating such neurodegenerative diseases. The seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim and T. laceribractea Hayata have long been used for medicinal and edible purposes in China. However, the antioxidant and neuroprotective activities and underlying mechanisms of their seed oils still remain unclear. Herein, we examine the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of seed oils extracted from different germplasms, T. kirilowii (YNHH and SDJN) and T. laceribractea (ZJQT and SXHZ), on ROS levels and neuroprotective activities in C. elegans. The results demonstrated that the seed oils significantly reduced the ROS levels in C. elegans by 17.03–42.74%, with T. kirilowii (YNHH and SDJN) exhibiting significantly stronger ROS scavenging abilities than T. laceribractea (ZJQT and SXHZ). The seed oils from T. kirilowii (YNHH and SDJN) alleviated the production and aggregation of Aβ and the phosphorylation and polymerization of tau, suggesting a potential neuroprotective role. Conversely, seed oils from T. laceribractea (ZJQT and SXHZ) show minimal neuroprotective effects in C. elegans. These differential outcomes might stem from distinct mechanisms underlying antioxidant and neuroprotective effects, with the ctl-2 gene implicated as pivotal in mediating the significant neuroprotective effects of seed oils from T. kirilowii (YNHH and SDJN). Our findings have provided valuable insights into the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of T. kirilowii seed oils, paving the way for further research aimed at elucidating the underlying mechanisms and exploring their potential therapeutic applications in combating neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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19 pages, 765 KiB  
Article
Poplar Bud (Populus) Extraction and Chinese Propolis Counteract Oxidative Stress in Caenorhabditis elegans via Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling Pathway
by Shuo Wang, Chengchao Yang, Yaling Luo, Qingyi Chen, Mengyang Xu, Yuntao Ji, Xiasen Jiang and Changqing Qu
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070860 - 18 Jul 2024
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Poplar buds are characterized by a high content of phenolic compounds, which exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities. However, the relationship between Chinese propolis and poplar buds based on their antioxidant capacities and underlying mechanisms remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Poplar buds are characterized by a high content of phenolic compounds, which exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities. However, the relationship between Chinese propolis and poplar buds based on their antioxidant capacities and underlying mechanisms remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties of poplar bud (Populus) extract (PBE) and Chinese propolis (CP) and to elucidate the mechanisms behind their activity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that both PBE and CP contain a significant amount of phenolic acids and flavonoids. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays demonstrated that PBE and CP possess excellent antioxidant activity. Furthermore, administration of PBE and CP improved the survival rate of C. elegans under oxidative stress. They also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT). PBE and CP intervention upregulated the expression of key genes daf-16, sod-3, hsp-16.2, and skn-1 in nematodes. This suggests that the antioxidant activity of PBE and CP is dependent on daf-16 and skn-1 signaling pathways. In conclusion, poplar bud extracts ha have the potential to become a substitute for propolis and a potential therapeutic agent for treating diseases associated with oxidative damage. Full article
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19 pages, 7549 KiB  
Article
Astragalin from Thesium chinense: A Novel Anti-Aging and Antioxidant Agent Targeting IGFR/CD38/Sirtuins
by Ruifeng Wang, Anping Ding, Jiaye Wang, Jiaxue Wang, Yujie Zhou, Miao Chen, Shuang Ju, Mingpu Tan and Zengxu Xiang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070859 - 18 Jul 2024
Viewed by 200
Abstract
Astragalin (AG), a typical flavonoid found in Thesium chinense Turcz (T. chinense), is abundant in various edible plants and possesses high nutritional value, as well as antioxidant and antibacterial effects. In this study, we initially predicted the mechanism of action of [...] Read more.
Astragalin (AG), a typical flavonoid found in Thesium chinense Turcz (T. chinense), is abundant in various edible plants and possesses high nutritional value, as well as antioxidant and antibacterial effects. In this study, we initially predicted the mechanism of action of AG with two anti-aging and antioxidant-related protein targets (CD38 and IGFR) by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation techniques. Subsequently, we examined the anti-aging effects of AG in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), the antioxidant effects in zebrafish, and verified the related molecular mechanisms. In C. elegans, AG synergistically extended the lifespan of C. elegans by up-regulating the expression of daf-16 through inhibiting the expression of daf-2/IGFR and also activating the AMPK and MAPK pathways to up-regulate the expression of sir-2.1, sir-2.4, and skn-1. In oxidatively damaged zebrafish embryos, AG demonstrated a synergistic effect in augmenting the resistance of zebrafish embryos to oxidative stress by up-regulating the expression levels of SIRT1 and SIRT6 within the zebrafish embryos system via the suppression of CD38 enzymatic activity and then inhibiting the expression of IGFR through high levels of SIRT6. These findings highlight the antioxidant and anti-aging properties of AG and indicate its potential application as a supplementary ingredient in aquaculture for enhancing fish health and growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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18 pages, 2490 KiB  
Article
Placental Bioenergetics and Antioxidant Homeostasis in Maternal Obesity and Gestational Diabetes
by Chiara Mandò, Sara Castiglioni, Chiara Novielli, Gaia Maria Anelli, Anaïs Serati, Francesca Parisi, Chiara Lubrano, Monica Zocchi, Roberta Ottria and Matteo Giovarelli
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070858 - 18 Jul 2024
Viewed by 195
Abstract
Maternal obesity has been associated with short- and long-term risks of pregnancy-perinatal adverse events, possibly due to alterations of placental mitochondrial bioenergetics. However, several detrimental mechanisms occurring in the placentas of women with obesity still need to be clarified. Here, we analyzed placental [...] Read more.
Maternal obesity has been associated with short- and long-term risks of pregnancy-perinatal adverse events, possibly due to alterations of placental mitochondrial bioenergetics. However, several detrimental mechanisms occurring in the placentas of women with obesity still need to be clarified. Here, we analyzed placental mitochondrial features and oxidative environment of 46 pregnancies in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI. Seventeen Caucasian normal-weight (NW) and twenty-nine women who were obese (OB) were enrolled. The protein expression of mitochondrial CypD and electron transfer chain complexes (C) I–V were measured, as well as ATP production and oxygen consumption rates (OCRs). The protein levels of the pro/anti-oxidant enzymes TXNIP, SOD2, and PON2 were also analyzed. Despite no differences in CypD expression, OCRs were significantly lower in OB vs. NW women. Accordingly, ATP synthase (CV) levels and ATP content were decreased in OB women, positively correlating with placental efficiency, suggesting a link between ATP deficiency and placental dysfunction. SOD2 expression negatively correlated with maternal BMI, indicating a possible impairment of antioxidant defenses with increasing BMI. These changes were worsened in 10 OB women presenting with gestational diabetes mellitus. Overall, these results suggest alterations of placental bioenergetics in pregnancies of women with obesity, possibly leading to placental dysfunction and altered fetal development and programming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Pregnancy and Childhood)
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16 pages, 5730 KiB  
Article
Thermal-Responsive Antibacterial Hydrogel with Photothermal Therapy and Improving Wound Microenvironment for Promote Healing
by Linjie Huang, Jingwen Deng, Yina Su, Xueqi Hu, Yichao Zhang, Shanni Hong and Xiahui Lin
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070857 - 17 Jul 2024
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Skin damage is one of the most prevalent human injuries, which affects the health of human beings. However, skin damage is often accompanied by bacterial infection and wound microenvironment changes, causing damage to normal cells and inhibiting wound healing. Herein, we designed a [...] Read more.
Skin damage is one of the most prevalent human injuries, which affects the health of human beings. However, skin damage is often accompanied by bacterial infection and wound microenvironment changes, causing damage to normal cells and inhibiting wound healing. Herein, we designed a thermal-responsive antibacterial hydrogel (GAG hydrogel) loaded with catalase (CAT)-like Au@Pt@MgSiO3 nanoparticles (APM NPs) and gentamicin (GM) to promote wound healing. The GAG hydrogel was used in a photothermal therapy (PTT)/antibiotic combination to kill bacteria, reduce the use of antibiotics, improve the wound microenvironment, promote cell proliferation, and accelerate wound healing. Under near-infrared laser irradiation, APM NPs in the hydrogel generated local hyperthermia to kill bacteria. Meanwhile, the generated heat led to a change in the hydrogel’s morphology, enabling it to release GM and APM NPs to prevent the overuse of antibiotics. Subsequently, the CAT-like ability of the APM NPs decreased the oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thus remodeling the wound microenvironment. Then, the weakly acidic microenvironment of the wound caused the decomposition of the APM NPs and the release of magnesium ions (Mg2+), promoting the growth and migration of cells for wound healing. Therefore, the studied thermal-responsive antibacterial (GAG) hydrogel has potential in the field of wound healing. Full article
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19 pages, 7891 KiB  
Article
The Combination of Molecular Hydrogen and Heme Oxygenase 1 Effectively Inhibits Neuropathy Caused by Paclitaxel in Mice
by Ignacio Martínez-Martel, Xue Bai, Rebecca Kordikowski, Christie R. A. Leite-Panissi and Olga Pol
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070856 - 17 Jul 2024
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Chemotherapy-provoked peripheral neuropathy and its associated affective disorders are important adverse effects in cancer patients, and its treatment is not completely resolved. A recent study reveals a positive interaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and a heme oxygenase (HO-1) enzyme inducer, cobalt [...] Read more.
Chemotherapy-provoked peripheral neuropathy and its associated affective disorders are important adverse effects in cancer patients, and its treatment is not completely resolved. A recent study reveals a positive interaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and a heme oxygenase (HO-1) enzyme inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP), in the inhibition of neuropathic pain provoked by nerve injury. Nevertheless, the efficacy of CoPP co-administered with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on the allodynia and emotional disorders related to paclitaxel (PTX) administration has not yet been assessed. Using male C57BL/6 mice injected with PTX, we examined the effects of the co-administration of low doses of CoPP and HRW on mechanical and thermal allodynia and anxiodepressive-like behaviors triggered by PTX. Moreover, the impact of this combined treatment on the oxidative stress and inflammation caused by PTX in the amygdala (AMG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were studied. Our results indicated that the antiallodynic actions of the co-administration of CoPP plus HRW are more rapid and higher than those given by each of them when independently administered. This combination inhibited anxiodepressive-like behaviors, the up-regulation of the inflammasome NLRP3 and 4-hydroxynonenal, as well as the high mRNA levels of some inflammatory mediators. This combination also increased the expression of NRF2, HO-1, superoxide dismutase 1, glutathione S-transferase mu 1, and/or the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit and decreased the protein levels of BACH1 in the DRG and/or AMG. Thus, it shows a positive interaction among HO-1 and H2 systems in controlling PTX-induced neuropathy by modulating inflammation and activating the antioxidant system. This study recommends the co-administration of CoPP plus HRW as an effective treatment for PTX-provoked neuropathy and its linked emotive deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Therapeutic Targeting of Heme Oxygenase)
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30 pages, 5219 KiB  
Article
Apocynin Prevents Cigarette Smoke-Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior and Preserves Microglial Profiles in Male Mice
by Rana Alateeq, Alina Akhtar, Simone N. De Luca, Stanley M. H. Chan and Ross Vlahos
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070855 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death globally and is primarily caused by cigarette smoking (CS). Neurocognitive comorbidities such as anxiety and cognitive impairments are common among people with COPD. CS-induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress may “spill-over” [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death globally and is primarily caused by cigarette smoking (CS). Neurocognitive comorbidities such as anxiety and cognitive impairments are common among people with COPD. CS-induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress may “spill-over” into the systemic circulation, driving the onset of these comorbidities. We investigated whether a prophylactic treatment with the NADPH Oxidase 2 (NOX2) inhibitor, apocynin, could prevent CS-induced neurocognitive impairments. Adult male BALB/c mice were exposed to CS (9 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week) or room air (sham) for 8 weeks with co-administration of apocynin (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection once daily) or vehicle (0.01% DMSO in saline). Following 7 weeks of CS exposure, mice underwent behavioral testing to assess recognition and spatial memory (novel object recognition and Y maze, respectively) and anxiety-like behaviors (open field and elevated plus maze). Mice were then euthanized, and blood, lungs, and brains were collected. Apocynin partially improved CS-induced lung neutrophilia and reversed systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde). Apocynin exerted an anxiolytic effect in CS-exposed mice, which was associated with restored microglial profiles within the amygdala and hippocampus. Thus, targeting oxidative stress using apocynin can alleviate anxiety-like behaviors and could represent a novel strategy for managing COPD-related anxiety disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Antioxidant Mechanisms for Health and Diseases)
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16 pages, 4742 KiB  
Article
Isolation, Characterization, and Functional Properties of Antioxidant Peptides from Mulberry Leaf Enzymatic Hydrolysates
by Yichen Zhou, Rijun Zhang, Junyong Wang, Yucui Tong, Jing Zhang, Zhenzhen Li, Haosen Zhang, Zaheer Abbas, Dayong Si and Xubiao Wei
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070854 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that mulberry leaves have good antioxidant activity. However, what the antioxidant ingredient is and how the ingredient works are still not well understood. In this study, we enzymatically hydrolyze mulberry leaf proteins (MLPs) using neutral protease and find that the [...] Read more.
Recent evidence suggests that mulberry leaves have good antioxidant activity. However, what the antioxidant ingredient is and how the ingredient works are still not well understood. In this study, we enzymatically hydrolyze mulberry leaf proteins (MLPs) using neutral protease and find that the mulberry leaf protein hydrolysates (MLPHs) have stronger antioxidant activity compared to MLPs. We separate the core antioxidant components in MLPHs by ion-exchange columns and molecular sieves and identify 798 antioxidant peptides by LC-MS/MS. Through bioinformatics analysis and biochemical assays, we screen two previously unreported peptides, P6 and P7, with excellent antioxidant activities. P6 and P7 not only significantly reduce ROS in cells but also improve the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT. In addition, both peptides are found to exert protective effects against H2O2-induced chromatin damage and cell apoptosis. Collectively, these results provide support for the application of mulberry leaf peptides as antioxidants in the medical, food and livestock industries. Full article
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17 pages, 2741 KiB  
Review
The Antioxidant Properties, Metabolism, Application and Mechanism of Ferulic Acid in Medicine, Food, Cosmetics, Livestock and Poultry
by Mengli Zheng, Yating Liu, Guanfeng Zhang, Zhikang Yang, Weiwei Xu and Qinghua Chen
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070853 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Ferulic acid is a ubiquitous ingredient in cereals, vegetables, fruits and Chinese herbal medicines. Due to the ferulic phenolic nucleus coupled to an extended side chain, it readily forms a resonant-stable phenoxy radical, which explains its potent antioxidant potential. In addition, it also [...] Read more.
Ferulic acid is a ubiquitous ingredient in cereals, vegetables, fruits and Chinese herbal medicines. Due to the ferulic phenolic nucleus coupled to an extended side chain, it readily forms a resonant-stable phenoxy radical, which explains its potent antioxidant potential. In addition, it also plays an important role in anti-cancer, pro-angiogenesis, anti-thrombosis, neuroprotection, food preservation, anti-aging, and improving the antioxidant performance of livestock and poultry. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the structure, mechanism of antioxidation, application status, molecular mechanism of pharmacological activity, existing problems, and application prospects of ferulic acid and its derivatives. The aim is to establish a theoretical foundation for the utilization of ferulic acid in medicine, food, cosmetics, livestock, and poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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20 pages, 5758 KiB  
Article
Spotlight on Secondary Metabolites Produced by an Early-Flowering Apulian Artichoke Ecotype Sanitized from Virus Infection by Meristem-Tip-Culture and Thermotherapy
by Roberta Spanò, Patrizia Gena, Vito Linsalata, Valeria Sini, Isabella D’Antuono, Angela Cardinali, Pietro Cotugno, Giuseppe Calamita and Tiziana Mascia
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070852 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus) is an important crop of the Mediterranean basin characterized by many properties, like hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and beneficial to human health. The high bioactive compounds (BACs) content, as polyphenols, has attracted the research [...] Read more.
Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus) is an important crop of the Mediterranean basin characterized by many properties, like hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and beneficial to human health. The high bioactive compounds (BACs) content, as polyphenols, has attracted the research interest in artichoke extracts. We analysed the changes in polyphenol transcriptome profile between sanitized (S) virus-free and non-sanitized (NS) artichoke plants, focusing on genes involved in phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway and flavonoid biosynthesis. A total of 2458 upregulated and 2154 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were functionally characterized. Among them, 31 and 35 KEGG orthology entries characterized by upregulated and downregulated DEGs, respectively, were involved in the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites. A downregulation of PAL, C4H, 4CL, HST/HQT, C3′H, CCoAMT, CCR1, and F5H, was observed in S artichoke compared to NS one, whereas the CSE, CHS, and CHI genes were upregulated in S samples. Transcriptome results were compared to the polyphenols accumulation in S and NS artichoke leaves. A higher content of total polyphenols was observed in older leaves of NS samples, compared to extracts obtained from young leaves or from S plants, and this result was associated with the presence of viral infections in NS plants. In all the conditions tested, the most represented compound was chlorogenic acid, followed by luteolin-7-O-glucoside. The different composition of each extract was evaluated by a polyphenol dose–response treatment on the rodent hepatoma FaO cell line to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A significant reduction in ROS content ranging between −40% and −48% was observed when 10–20 mg/L of polyphenols from NS or S plants were used, characterized by a specific profile of compounds. To reduce MetOH residues in polyphenol extracts, a supercritical fluid CO2 extraction was evaluated to propose a sustainable green extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Biological Properties of Plant Extracts—3rd Edition)
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23 pages, 6396 KiB  
Article
Multi-Omics Reveals the Effects of Spirulina platensis Powder Replacement of Fish Meal on Intestinal Metabolism and Stress in Zig-Zag Eel (Mastacembelus armatus)
by Di Sun, Dongqiang Hou, Yushun Zheng, Wenzhou Xiang, Yingshi Huang, Hualian Wu and Jixing Zou
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070851 - 15 Jul 2024
Viewed by 386
Abstract
The booming aquaculture industry has created a strong demand for fishmeal and increased environmental pressures. Spirulina, as a potential alternative to fishmeal, has been shown to have growth-promoting and animal health-enhancing properties. In this study, 600 large spiny loaches, divided into five experimental [...] Read more.
The booming aquaculture industry has created a strong demand for fishmeal and increased environmental pressures. Spirulina, as a potential alternative to fishmeal, has been shown to have growth-promoting and animal health-enhancing properties. In this study, 600 large spiny loaches, divided into five experimental groups, F0, F1, F2, F3, and F4, were reared for 10 weeks using Spirulina platensis powder (SPP) as a substitute for 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of fishmeal, respectively. The results of intestinal physiological indexes showed that superoxide dismutase was lower than F0 in all treatment groups, and the activity of F3 was significantly lower than F0 (p < 0.05). The activity of malondialdehyde was significantly higher than that of F0 in all groups except F3 (p < 0.05). The addition of SPP also led to a decrease in the activity of acid phosphatase in the intestine, which was significantly lower in all treatment groups compared to the F0 group (p < 0.05). The results of serum physiology showed that the activity of superoxide dismutase in serum gradually increased with the increase in the percentage of SPP addition, and the F3 group produced a significant difference from the F0 group (p < 0.05). The transcriptomics results showed that DEGs in the low percentage substitution group (<15%) were mostly enriched in metabolism-related pathways, such as bile secretion; DEGs in the high percentage substitution group (>15%) were mostly enriched in inflammation-related pathways, such as complement p and coagulation cascades. Metabolomics confirmed that nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism were the two pathways that were significantly enriched in the treatment groups of fishmeal replacement by SPP. The present study demonstrated that a low percentage (<15%) of fishmeal replacement by SPP in feed mobilized MA digestive metabolism, whereas a high percentage (>15%) of replacement induced intestinal stress. Considering the health and farm efficiency aspects, the proportion of SPP in feed formulation for MA should be less than 15%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on Companion Animal Nutrition)
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18 pages, 3353 KiB  
Article
Novel Inhibitor of Keap1-Nrf2 Protein–Protein Interaction Attenuates Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro and Prevents OVX-Induced Bone Loss In Vivo
by Zhihao Chen, Hongyuan Yao, Alessandra Marie Encarnacion, Jujin Jeong, Yunju Choi, Sangwook Park, Sunwoo Lee and Taehoon Lee
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070850 - 15 Jul 2024
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Keap1 interacts with Nrf2 by assisting in its ubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis. By preventing ROS accumulation during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, Nrf2 activation can prevent the differentiation of osteoclasts. Additionally, inhibiting the Keap1-Nrf2 PPI can be an effective strategy for triggering Nrf2 to regulate oxidative [...] Read more.
Keap1 interacts with Nrf2 by assisting in its ubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis. By preventing ROS accumulation during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, Nrf2 activation can prevent the differentiation of osteoclasts. Additionally, inhibiting the Keap1-Nrf2 PPI can be an effective strategy for triggering Nrf2 to regulate oxidative stress. Structure-based virtual screening was performed to discover a potentially novel Keap1-Nrf2 PPI inhibitor wherein KCB-F06 was identified. The inhibitory effects of KCB-F06 on osteoclastogenesis were investigated in vitro through TRAP staining and bone resorption assays. An ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis mouse model was applied to evaluate KCB-F06’s therapeutic effects in vivo. Lastly, the underlying mechanisms were explored using real-time PCR, Western blotting, and co-IP assays. KCB-F06 was discovered as a novel Keap1-Nrf2 PPI inhibitor. As a result, the expression of antioxidants (HO-1 and NQO1) was suppressed, hence reducing ROS accumulation during osteoclastogenesis. Subsequently, this caused the inactivation of RANKL-induced IKB/NF-kB signaling. This eventually led to the downregulation of osteoclast-specific proteins including NFATc1, which is an essential transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. These results demonstrated that Nrf2 activation in osteoclasts is a valuable tool for osteoclastic bone loss management. In addition, KCB-F06 presents as an alternative candidate for treating osteoclast-related bone diseases and as a novel small molecule that can serve as a model for further Keap1-NRF2 PPI inhibitor development. Full article
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19 pages, 2614 KiB  
Article
Influences of Stocking Density on Antioxidant Status, Nutrients Composition, and Lipid Metabolism in the Muscles of Cyprinus carpio under Rice–Fish Co-Culture
by Yongrong Rong, Bing Li, Yiran Hou, Liqiang Zhang, Rui Jia and Jian Zhu
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070849 - 15 Jul 2024
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Cyprinus carpio is a significant freshwater species with substantial nutritional and economic value. Rice–carp co-culture represents one of its principal cultivation methods. However, in the system, the optimal farming density for carp and the impact of high stocking density on their muscle nutritional [...] Read more.
Cyprinus carpio is a significant freshwater species with substantial nutritional and economic value. Rice–carp co-culture represents one of its principal cultivation methods. However, in the system, the optimal farming density for carp and the impact of high stocking density on their muscle nutritional composition have yet to be explored. Thus, the objective of the current study was to investigate the influences of stocking density on the muscle nutrient profiles and metabolism of C. carpio in rice–fish co-culture systems. Common carp were cultured at three stocking densities, low density (LD), medium density (MD), and high density (HD), over a period of 60 days. Following this, comprehensive analyses incorporating physiological, biochemical, and multi-omics sequencing were conducted on the muscle tissue of C. carpio. The results demonstrated that HD treatment led to a reduction in the antioxidant capacity of C. carpio, while resulting in elevated levels of various fatty acids in muscle tissue, including saturated fatty acids (SFAs), omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs). The metabolome analysis showed that HD treatment caused a marked reduction in 43 metabolites and a significant elevation in 30 metabolites, primarily linked to lipid and amino acid metabolism. Additionally, transcriptomic analysis revealed that the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high-stocking-density treatment may be associated with significant alterations in the PPAR signaling pathway and adipokine signaling pathway. Overall, our findings indicate that in rice–fish co-culture systems, high stocking density disrupted the balance of antioxidant status and lipid metabolism in the muscles of C. carpio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Nutrition in Aquatic Animals)
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23 pages, 2332 KiB  
Review
The Role of Oxidative Stress in Hypertension: The Insight into Antihypertensive Properties of Vitamins A, C and E
by Ewelina Młynarska, Laura Biskup, Maria Możdżan, Olivia Grygorcewicz, Zofia Możdżan, Jan Semeradt, Michał Uramowski, Jacek Rysz and Beata Franczyk
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070848 - 15 Jul 2024
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Hypertension stands as a pervasive global health challenge, contributing significantly to mortality rates worldwide. Various factors, including lifestyle choices and dietary habits, contribute to the development of hypertension. In recent years, oxidative stress has garnered significant attention as a factor influencing hypertension risk, [...] Read more.
Hypertension stands as a pervasive global health challenge, contributing significantly to mortality rates worldwide. Various factors, including lifestyle choices and dietary habits, contribute to the development of hypertension. In recent years, oxidative stress has garnered significant attention as a factor influencing hypertension risk, prompting a shift in research focus towards exploring it as a potential target for prevention and treatment. Antioxidants found in our diet, such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids exhibit the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species, thereby mitigating oxidative stress. In addition, Vitamin A has an antioxidant effect despite not being an antioxidant itself. Consequently, supplementation or increased intake of these antioxidants has been hypothesized to potentially lower blood pressure levels and aid in the management of hypertension, thereby potentially prolonging life expectancy. Research findings regarding this effect have been diverse. This paper examines the existing literature demonstrating favorable outcomes associated with antioxidant supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health, 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 1573 KiB  
Article
Vitamin E Regulates the Collagen Contents in the Body Wall of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) via Its Antioxidant Effects and the TGF-β/Smads Pathway
by Zitong Wang, Rujian Xu, Hongbing Yang, Ruixue Li, Jun Ding, Yaqing Chang and Rantao Zuo
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070847 - 15 Jul 2024
Viewed by 351
Abstract
A 70-day feeding experiment was performed to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E at different addition levels (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on the growth, collagen content, antioxidant capacity, and expressions of genes related to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/Sma- [...] Read more.
A 70-day feeding experiment was performed to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E at different addition levels (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on the growth, collagen content, antioxidant capacity, and expressions of genes related to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD) signaling pathway in sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus). The results showed that the A. japonicus in the group with 200 mg/kg vitamin E exhibited significantly higher growth rates, hydroxyproline (Hyp) and type III collagen contents, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as well as the upregulation of genes related to Tenascin, SMAD1, and TGF-β. Additionally, the A. japonicus in the group with 100 mg/kg vitamin E exhibited significantly higher body-wall indexes, denser collagen arrangements, improved texture quality, higher activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxidase (POD), as well as the upregulation of genes related to collagen type I alpha 2 chain (COL1A2), collagen type III alpha 1 chain (COL3A1), and Sp-Smad2/3 (SMAD2/3). In contrast, the A. japonicus in the group with 400 mg/kg vitamin E showed a decrease in the growth rates, reduced Hyp contents, increased type I collagen contents, collagen fiber aggregation and a harder texture, along with the downregulation of genes related to the TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway. Furthermore, the A. japonicus in the group with 400 mg/kg exhibited oxidative stress, reflected by the lower activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and POD. These results indicated that A. japonicus fed diets with the addition of 100–200 mg/kg vitamin E had improved collagen retention and texture quality by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expressions of genes in the TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway. However, the excessive addition of vitamin E (400 mg/kg) induced oxidative stress, which could increase the collagen degradation and fibrosis and pose a threat to the growth and texture quality of A. japonicus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Nutrition in Aquatic Animals)
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23 pages, 4336 KiB  
Article
Anthocyanin-Rich Berry Extracts Affect SN-38-Induced Response: A Comparison of Non-Tumorigenic HCEC-1CT and HCT116 Colon Carcinoma Cells
by Cornelia Schmutz, Crepelle Plaza, Franziska Steiger, Natascha Stoirer, Judith Gufler, Gudrun Pahlke, Frank Will, Walter Berger and Doris Marko
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070846 - 15 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Chemotherapy with irinotecan (CPT-11), the pro-drug of the highly cytotoxic SN-38, is among the standard-of-care treatments for colorectal cancer. To counteract undesired toxic side effects on healthy tissue such as the intestinal epithelium, the use of preparations rich in polyphenols with anti-oxidative and [...] Read more.
Chemotherapy with irinotecan (CPT-11), the pro-drug of the highly cytotoxic SN-38, is among the standard-of-care treatments for colorectal cancer. To counteract undesired toxic side effects on healthy tissue such as the intestinal epithelium, the use of preparations rich in polyphenols with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties such as anthocyanins has been proposed. In the present study, the question of whether non-tumorigenic human epithelium cells (HCEC-1CT) can be protected against the cytotoxic impact of SN-38 by anthocyanin-rich polyphenol extracts without compromising the desired therapeutic effect against tumor cells (HCT-116) was addressed. Hence, single and combinatory effects of anthocyanin-rich polyphenol extracts of elderberry (EB), bilberry (Bil), blackberry (BB) and black currant (BC) with the chemotherapeutic drug SN-38 were investigated. Out of the extracts, BB showed the most potent concentration-dependent cytotoxicity alone and in combination with SN-38, with even stronger effects in non-tumorigenic HCEC-1CT cells. In cytotoxic concentrations, BB decreased the level of DNA/topoisomerase I covalent complexes in HCEC-1CT cells below base level but without concomitant reduction in SN-38-induced DNA strand breaks. The herein reported data argue towards an interference of anthocyanins with successful treatment of cancer cells and a lack of protective properties in healthy cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidants in Fruits and Vegetables)
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17 pages, 3121 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Oil and Tocopherol Extraction from Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) by Supercritical CO2 Procedure
by Camila Sánchez, Alicia Rodríguez, Francisca Reinoso, Gretel Dovale-Rosabal, Nalda Romero, Alejandra Espinosa, María Elsa Pando, Benjamín Claria, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Cielo Char and Santiago P. Aubourg
Antioxidants 2024, 13(7), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13070845 - 15 Jul 2024
Viewed by 368
Abstract
This study focused on the oil extraction from freeze-dried maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) by supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2). The basic objective was to optimize the oil yield and the tocopherol concentration. A Box/Behnken experimental design was developed [...] Read more.
This study focused on the oil extraction from freeze-dried maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) by supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2). The basic objective was to optimize the oil yield and the tocopherol concentration. A Box/Behnken experimental design was developed with three processing variables: supercritical pressure (74, 187, and 300 bar), temperature (35, 48, and 60 °C), and extracting time (30, 135, and 240 min). Multiple optimizations, based on the combination of factor levels at 274 bar, 240 min, and 60 °C, led to the highest oil yield and tocopherol values. The validation of the optimized conditions of maqui oil extraction led to an oil yield of 8% and values of 735, 53, and 97 (mg·kg−1 oil) for α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, and γ-tocopherol, respectively. A higher concentration of tocopherol compounds was observed when compared to the employment of the conventional extracting method. The optimized SFE-CO2 method led to an oil extract exhibiting higher Hydrophilic-Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (H-ORAC) assay and total phenol content (22 μmol Trolox equivalents·g−1 oil and 28 mg gallic acid equivalents·g−1 oil) than the oil obtained by the conventional procedure. A practical and accurate oil extraction is proposed for obtaining tocopherol-enriched oil including high concentrations of valuable lipophilic antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants for the Oxidative Stabilisation of Food Lipids)
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