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Antioxidants, Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2022) – 194 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Unspecific peroxygenases (UPOs), the extracellular enzymes capable of oxygenating a potpourri of substrates with a peroxide as co-substrate, come out with a new reaction with the UPOs from Coprinopsis cinerea and Cyclocybe (Agrocybe) aegerita: carbon-chain shortening of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, through the subterminal (ω-1 and ω-2) carbons of the chain via several oxygenations, yielding 2C-shorter dicarboxylic fatty acids. View this paper
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11 pages, 1514 KiB  
Article
Two Novel Lipophilic Antioxidants Derivatized from Curcumin
by Tao Liu, Xiaohan Liu, Tosin M. Olajide, Jia Xu and Xinchu Weng
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040796 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
Tert-butyl curcumin (TBC), demethylated tert-butylated curcumin (1E,6E-1,7-bis(3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione, DMTC), demethylated curcumin (DMC), and Cur were synthesized from the starting compound, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol. TBC and DMTC are two novel lipophilic compounds, and Cur and DMC are polar and hydrophilic. The antioxidant activities [...] Read more.
Tert-butyl curcumin (TBC), demethylated tert-butylated curcumin (1E,6E-1,7-bis(3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione, DMTC), demethylated curcumin (DMC), and Cur were synthesized from the starting compound, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol. TBC and DMTC are two novel lipophilic compounds, and Cur and DMC are polar and hydrophilic. The antioxidant activities of Cur, TBC, DMC, and DMTC were evaluated by using the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitro-phenyl)-hydrazinyl (DPPH), deep-frying, and Rancimat. Tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used as comparison compounds. Both Rancimat and deep-frying tests demonstrated that DMTC was the strongest antioxidant, and TBC also had stronger antioxidant activity than Cur. In the DPPH assay, DMC showed the highest scavenging activity, followed by DMTC, TBHQ, Cur, and TBC. DMTC and TBC can be potentially used as strong antioxidants in food industry, especially for frying, baking, and other high temperature food processing. DMTC is the strongest antioxidant in oil to our knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods II)
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34 pages, 5743 KiB  
Review
Carotenoids: Dietary Sources, Extraction, Encapsulation, Bioavailability, and Health Benefits—A Review of Recent Advancements
by Ramesh Kumar Saini, Parchuri Prasad, Veeresh Lokesh, Xiaomin Shang, Juhyun Shin, Young-Soo Keum and Ji-Ho Lee
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040795 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 88 | Viewed by 9837
Abstract
Natural carotenoids (CARs), viz. β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, bixin, norbixin, capsanthin, lycopene, canthaxanthin, β-Apo-8-carotenal, zeaxanthin, and β-apo-8-carotenal-ester, are being studied as potential candidates in fields such as food, feed, nutraceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. CAR research is advancing in the following three major fields: (1) CAR [...] Read more.
Natural carotenoids (CARs), viz. β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, bixin, norbixin, capsanthin, lycopene, canthaxanthin, β-Apo-8-carotenal, zeaxanthin, and β-apo-8-carotenal-ester, are being studied as potential candidates in fields such as food, feed, nutraceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. CAR research is advancing in the following three major fields: (1) CAR production from natural sources and optimization of its downstream processing; (2) encapsulation for enhanced physical and chemical properties; and (3) preclinical, clinical, and epidemiological studies of CARs’ health benefits. This review critically discusses the recent developments in studies of the chemistry and antioxidant activity, marketing trends, dietary sources, extraction, bioaccessibility and bioavailability, encapsulation methods, dietary intake, and health benefits of CARs. Preclinical, clinical, and epidemiological studies on cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disease, mental health, eye, and skin health are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Carotenoids in Human Health (2021))
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32 pages, 1900 KiB  
Review
Does Plant Breeding for Antioxidant-Rich Foods Have an Impact on Human Health?
by Laura Bassolino, Katia Petroni, Angela Polito, Alessandra Marinelli, Elena Azzini, Marika Ferrari, Donatella B. M. Ficco, Elisabetta Mazzucotelli, Alessandro Tondelli, Agostino Fricano, Roberta Paris, Inmaculada García-Robles, Carolina Rausell, María Dolores Real, Carlo Massimo Pozzi, Giuseppe Mandolino, Ephrem Habyarimana and Luigi Cattivelli
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040794 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3758
Abstract
Given the general beneficial effects of antioxidants-rich foods on human health and disease prevention, there is a continuous interest in plant secondary metabolites conferring attractive colors to fruits and grains and responsible, together with others, for nutraceutical properties. Cereals and Solanaceae are important [...] Read more.
Given the general beneficial effects of antioxidants-rich foods on human health and disease prevention, there is a continuous interest in plant secondary metabolites conferring attractive colors to fruits and grains and responsible, together with others, for nutraceutical properties. Cereals and Solanaceae are important components of the human diet, thus, they are the main targets for functional food development by exploitation of genetic resources and metabolic engineering. In this review, we focus on the impact of antioxidants-rich cereal and Solanaceae derived foods on human health by analyzing natural biodiversity and biotechnological strategies aiming at increasing the antioxidant level of grains and fruits, the impact of agronomic practices and food processing on antioxidant properties combined with a focus on the current state of pre-clinical and clinical studies. Despite the strong evidence in in vitro and animal studies supporting the beneficial effects of antioxidants-rich diets in preventing diseases, clinical studies are still not sufficient to prove the impact of antioxidant rich cereal and Solanaceae derived foods on human Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Foods and Nutraceuticals in Ageing)
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21 pages, 1389 KiB  
Article
The Butterfly Effect: Mild Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals Elicits Major Biological Consequences in Cobalt-Sensitized Broad Bean Model Plants
by Raimondas Šiukšta, Vėjūnė Pukenytė, Violeta Kleizaitė, Skaistė Bondzinskaitė and Tatjana Čėsnienė
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040793 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
Among the heavy metals (HMs), only cobalt induces a polymorphic response in Vicia faba plants, manifesting as chlorophyll morphoses and a ‘break-through’ effect resulting in the elevated accumulation of other HMs, which makes Co-pretreated broad bean plants an attractive model for investigating soil [...] Read more.
Among the heavy metals (HMs), only cobalt induces a polymorphic response in Vicia faba plants, manifesting as chlorophyll morphoses and a ‘break-through’ effect resulting in the elevated accumulation of other HMs, which makes Co-pretreated broad bean plants an attractive model for investigating soil pollution by HMs. In this study, Co-sensitized V. faba plants were used to evaluate the long-term effect of residual industrial pollution by examining biochemical (H2O2, ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde, free proline, flavonoid, polyphenols, chlorophylls, carotenoids, superoxide dismutase) and molecular (conserved DNA-derived polymorphism and transcript-derived polymorphic fragments) markers after long-term exposure. HM-polluted soil induced a significantly higher frequency of chlorophyll morphoses and lower levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants in Co-pretreated V. faba plants. Both molecular markers effectively differentiated plants from polluted and control soils into distinct clusters, showing that HMs in mildly polluted soil are capable of inducing changes in DNA coding regions. These findings illustrate that strong background abiotic stressors (pretreatment with Co) can aid investigations of mild stressors (slight levels of soil pollution) by complementing each other in antioxidant content reduction and induction of DNA changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Stress and Antioxidant Defences)
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16 pages, 897 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Nutritional and Immune Potentiating Characteristics of Unfermented and Fermented Turmeric Camel Milk in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression in Rats
by Thamer Aljutaily
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040792 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
Antioxidative, nutritional, and immune-boosting characteristics of turmeric-camel milk (TCM) and fermented turmeric-camel milk (FTCM) were investigated. A cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression rat model consisting of six experimental groups was carried out to study the effects of TCM and FTCM on weight gain, antioxidant status, immunoglobulin [...] Read more.
Antioxidative, nutritional, and immune-boosting characteristics of turmeric-camel milk (TCM) and fermented turmeric-camel milk (FTCM) were investigated. A cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression rat model consisting of six experimental groups was carried out to study the effects of TCM and FTCM on weight gain, antioxidant status, immunoglobulin (Igs), pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress biomarkers. TCM or FTCM were orally administrated at 10 or 20 mL Kg−1 rat weight to CYP-immunosuppressed rats for 2 weeks in the presence of negative (NR) and positive (CYP) control groups. The phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity results indicated that TCM and FTCM contained considerable phenolic content with super antioxidant activities. CYP injection affected the rats’ weight directly during the first week and then, a low weight gain percentage was recorded in treated groups at the end of the experiment. The most efficient treatment for recovering rats’ weight was administering TCM and FTCM at 20 mL kg−1. Feed efficiency significantly increased with feeding TCM and FTCM in a dose-dependent manner. A significant improvement was found in WBCs, lymphocytes, and neutrophils count, suggesting that both TCM and FTCM alleviated the CYP-induced immunity suppression in a dose-dependent manner. IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations in the CYP + TCM at 10 or 20 mL kg−1 and CYP + FTCM at 10 or 20 mL kg−1 groups were increased significantly. Concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-TNF-α in the CYP group were significantly lower than in the NR group. Interestingly, both TCM and FTCM, especially with high doses, significantly enhanced cytokines production. Administrating FTCM was more potent than TCM, indicating that TCM with probiotics fermentation potentiated the immunological activity in immunosuppressed rats. Treated rats with TCM and FTCM can reverse CYP inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities, significantly increase GSH, CAT, and SOD, and decrease MDA levels in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these observations indicated that FTCM exhibits better improvements in weight gain, increased immune biomarkers in terms of WBCs, enhanced pro-inflammation and anti-inflammation responses, and accelerated antioxidant activity in immunosuppressed rats compared with TCM. It could be beneficial and profitable for boosting immunity and protecting against oxidative stress. Full article
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17 pages, 2144 KiB  
Review
The Antioxidant Effect of the Metal and Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles
by Xuemei Ge, Zhaoxin Cao and Lanling Chu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040791 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3834
Abstract
Inorganic nanoparticles, such as CeO3, TiO2 and Fe3O4 could be served as a platform for their excellent performance in antioxidant effect. They may offer the feasibility to be further developed for their smaller and controllable sizes, flexibility [...] Read more.
Inorganic nanoparticles, such as CeO3, TiO2 and Fe3O4 could be served as a platform for their excellent performance in antioxidant effect. They may offer the feasibility to be further developed for their smaller and controllable sizes, flexibility to be modified, relative low toxicity as well as ease of preparation. In this work, the recent progress of these nanoparticles were illustrated, and the antioxidant mechanism of the inorganic nanoparticles were introduced, which mainly included antioxidant enzyme-mimetic activity and antioxidant ROS/RNS scavenging activity. The antioxidant effects and the applications of several nanoparticles, such as CeO3, Fe3O4, TiO2 and Se, are summarized in this paper. The potential toxicity of these nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo was well studied for the further applications. Future directions of how to utilize these inorganic nanoparticles to be further applied in some fields, such as medicine, cosmetic and functional food additives were also investigated in this paper. Full article
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20 pages, 4301 KiB  
Review
Overview of Research on Vanadium-Quercetin Complexes with a Historical Outline
by Agnieszka Ścibior
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040790 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2406
Abstract
The present review was conducted to gather the available literature on some issues related to vanadium-quercetin (V-QUE) complexes. It was aimed at collecting data from in vitro and in vivo studies on the biological activity, behavior, antioxidant properties, and radical scavenging power of [...] Read more.
The present review was conducted to gather the available literature on some issues related to vanadium-quercetin (V-QUE) complexes. It was aimed at collecting data from in vitro and in vivo studies on the biological activity, behavior, antioxidant properties, and radical scavenging power of V-QUE complexes. The analysis of relevant findings allowed summarizing the evidence for the antidiabetic and anticarcinogenic potential of V-QUE complexes and suggested that they could serve as pharmacological agents for diabetes and cancer. These data together with other well-documented biological properties of V and QUE (common for both), which are briefly summarized in this review as well, may lay the groundwork for new therapeutic treatments and further research on a novel class of pharmaceutical molecules with better therapeutic performance. Simultaneously, the results compiled in this report point to the need for further studies on complexation of V with flavonoids to gain further insight into their behavior, identify species responsible for their physiological activity, and fully understand their mechanism of action. Full article
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14 pages, 594 KiB  
Article
Rosemary Extracts Improved the Antioxidant Status of Low-Fat Yoghurt Sauces Enriched with Inulin
by Magdalena Martínez-Tomé, Cristina Cedeño-Pinos, Sancho Bañón and Antonia M. Jiménez-Monreal
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040789 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
Yoghurt sauces are considered fatty products which are quite susceptible to oxidation and must be stabilised using antioxidants. Novel formulations for yoghurt sauces often involve replacement of fat with dietary fibres and use of natural preservatives. The aim of the present research was [...] Read more.
Yoghurt sauces are considered fatty products which are quite susceptible to oxidation and must be stabilised using antioxidants. Novel formulations for yoghurt sauces often involve replacement of fat with dietary fibres and use of natural preservatives. The aim of the present research was to design healthier formulations for yoghurt sauces based on the replacement of sunflower oil (SO) with chicory inulin (IN) and the use of rosemary extracts (RE) as natural antioxidants. Different sauces were developed by adding IN at 2 and 5% w: w and/or 300 mg/kg lipo- and/or water-soluble rosemary extracts (RLE and/or RWE) containing 120 and 146 mg polyphenols per g extract, respectively. Nutritional value (proximate composition and caloric contribution), some physical properties (pH and CIELab colour) and antioxidant status (deoxyribose, DPPH radical scavenging, Rancimat, lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid assays) were assessed in the sauces. Replacement of SO with IN (5%) reduced fat content by 30%, roughly 15% low calories, thereby obtaining healthier sauces. As expected, the RLE was more effective than the RWE in improving antioxidant activity in lipidic environment. Using RLE enhanced the antioxidant capacity of lipid peroxidation by 44%. In the Rancimat test, this increased the oxidative protection of the sauce made with and without IN (5%) by around 20% or 45%, respectively. Similarly, using RLE doubled protection against linoleic acid oxidation. Application of IN in yoghurt sauce has nutritional (replacement of lipids with dietary fibre) and technological interest (foaming agent) and can be combined with RE of high polyphenol content as a potential functional ingredient capable of stabilising the sauces against oxidation. Full article
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22 pages, 544 KiB  
Review
Neonatal Anesthesia and Oxidative Stress
by David A. Gascoigne, Mohammed M. Minhaj and Daniil P. Aksenov
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040787 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3094
Abstract
Neonatal anesthesia, while often essential for surgeries or imaging procedures, is accompanied by significant risks to redox balance in the brain due to the relatively weak antioxidant system in children. Oxidative stress is characterized by concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are [...] Read more.
Neonatal anesthesia, while often essential for surgeries or imaging procedures, is accompanied by significant risks to redox balance in the brain due to the relatively weak antioxidant system in children. Oxidative stress is characterized by concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are elevated beyond what can be accommodated by the antioxidant defense system. In neonatal anesthesia, this has been proposed to be a contributing factor to some of the negative consequences (e.g., learning deficits and behavioral abnormalities) that are associated with early anesthetic exposure. In order to assess the relationship between neonatal anesthesia and oxidative stress, we first review the mechanisms of action of common anesthetic agents, the key pathways that produce the majority of ROS, and the main antioxidants. We then explore the possible immediate, short-term, and long-term pathways of neonatal-anesthesia-induced oxidative stress. We review a large body of literature describing oxidative stress to be evident during and immediately following neonatal anesthesia. Moreover, our review suggests that the short-term pathway has a temporally limited effect on oxidative stress, while the long-term pathway can manifest years later due to the altered development of neurons and neurovascular interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders II)
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19 pages, 3343 KiB  
Article
Loss and Recovery of Glutaredoxin 5 Is Inducible by Diet in a Murine Model of Diabesity and Mediated by Free Fatty Acids In Vitro
by Sebastian Friedrich Petry, Axel Römer, Divya Rawat, Lara Brunner, Nina Lerch, Mengmeng Zhou, Rekha Grewal, Fatemeh Sharifpanah, Heinrich Sauer, Gunter Peter Eckert and Thomas Linn
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040788 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2952
Abstract
Free fatty acids (FFA), hyperglycemia, and inflammatory cytokines are major mediators of β-cell toxicity in type 2 diabetes mellitus, impairing mitochondrial metabolism. Glutaredoxin 5 (Glrx5) is a mitochondrial protein involved in the assembly of iron–sulfur clusters required for complexes of the respiratory chain. [...] Read more.
Free fatty acids (FFA), hyperglycemia, and inflammatory cytokines are major mediators of β-cell toxicity in type 2 diabetes mellitus, impairing mitochondrial metabolism. Glutaredoxin 5 (Glrx5) is a mitochondrial protein involved in the assembly of iron–sulfur clusters required for complexes of the respiratory chain. We have provided evidence that islet cells are deprived of Glrx5, correlating with impaired insulin secretion during diabetes in genetically obese mice. In this study, we induced diabesity in C57BL/6J mice in vivo by feeding the mice a high-fat diet (HFD) and modelled the diabetic metabolism in MIN6 cells through exposure to FFA, glucose, or inflammatory cytokines in vitro. qRT-PCR, ELISA, immunohisto-/cytochemistry, bioluminescence, and respirometry were employed to study Glrx5, insulin secretion, and mitochondrial biomarkers. The HFD induced a depletion of islet Glrx5 concomitant with an obese phenotype, elevated FFA in serum and reactive oxygen species in islets, and impaired glucose tolerance. Exposure of MIN6 cells to FFA led to a loss of Glrx5 in vitro. The FFA-induced depletion of Glrx5 coincided with significantly altered mitochondrial biomarkers. In summary, we provide evidence that Glrx5 is regulated by FFA in type 2 diabetes mellitus and is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and blunted insulin secretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems II)
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18 pages, 7691 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Synthesized Methylated and Acetylated Derivatives of Natural Bromophenols
by Hui Dong, Li Wang, Meng Guo, Dimitrios Stagos, Antonis Giakountis, Varvara Trachana, Xiukun Lin, Yankai Liu and Ming Liu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040786 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2054
Abstract
Natural bromophenols are important secondary metabolites in marine algae. Derivatives of these bromophenol are potential candidates for the drug development due to their biological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activity. In our present study, we have designed and synthesized a [...] Read more.
Natural bromophenols are important secondary metabolites in marine algae. Derivatives of these bromophenol are potential candidates for the drug development due to their biological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activity. In our present study, we have designed and synthesized a series of new methylated and acetylated bromophenol derivatives from easily available materials using simple operation procedures and evaluated their antioxidant and anticancer activities on the cellular level. The results showed that 2.,3-dibromo-1-(((2-bromo-4,5-dimethoxybenzyl)oxy)methyl)-4,5-dimethoxybenzene (3b-9) and (oxybis(methylene))bis(4-bromo-6-methoxy-3,1-phenylene) diacetate (4b-3) compounds ameliorated H2O2-induced oxidative damage and ROS generation in HaCaT keratinocytes. Compounds 2.,3-dibromo-1-(((2-bromo-4,5-dimethoxybenzyl)oxy)methyl)-4,5-dimethoxybenzene (3b-9) and (oxybis(methylene) )bis(4-bromo-6-methoxy-3,1-phenylene) diacetate (4b-3) also increased the TrxR1 and HO-1 expression while not affecting Nrf2 expression in HaCaT. In addition, compounds (oxybis(methylene)bis(2-bromo-6-methoxy-4,1-phenylene) diacetate (4b-4) inhibited the viability and induced apoptosis of leukemia K562 cells while not affecting the cell cycle distribution. The present work indicated that some of these bromophenol derivatives possess significant antioxidant and anticancer potential, which merits further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Chemopreventive Activity of Natural Compounds)
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19 pages, 4100 KiB  
Article
In Silico Identification of Novel Inhibitors Targeting the Homodimeric Interface of Superoxide Dismutase from the Dental Pathogen Streptococcus mutans
by Carmen Cerchia, Emanuela Roscetto, Rosarita Nasso, Maria Rosaria Catania, Emmanuele De Vendittis, Antonio Lavecchia, Mariorosario Masullo and Rosario Rullo
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040785 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2094
Abstract
The microaerophile Streptococcus mutans, the main microaerophile responsible for the development of dental plaque, has a single cambialistic superoxide dismutase (SmSOD) for its protection against reactive oxygen species. In order to discover novel inhibitors of SmSOD, possibly interfering with [...] Read more.
The microaerophile Streptococcus mutans, the main microaerophile responsible for the development of dental plaque, has a single cambialistic superoxide dismutase (SmSOD) for its protection against reactive oxygen species. In order to discover novel inhibitors of SmSOD, possibly interfering with the biofilm formation by this pathogen, a virtual screening study was realised using the available 3D-structure of SmSOD. Among the selected molecules, compound ALS-31 was capable of inhibiting SmSOD with an IC50 value of 159 µM. Its inhibition power was affected by the Fe/Mn ratio in the active site of SmSOD. Furthermore, ALS-31 also inhibited the activity of other SODs. Gel-filtration of SmSOD in the presence of ALS-31 showed that the compound provoked the dissociation of the SmSOD homodimer in two monomers, thus compromising the catalytic activity of the enzyme. A docking model, showing the binding mode of ALS-31 at the dimer interface of SmSOD, is presented. Cell viability of the fibroblast cell line BJ5-ta was not affected up to 100 µM ALS-31. A preliminary lead optimization program allowed the identification of one derivative, ALS-31-9, endowed with a 2.5-fold improved inhibition power. Interestingly, below this concentration, planktonic growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans cultures were inhibited by ALS-31, and even more by its derivative, thus opening the perspective of future drug design studies to fight against dental caries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antioxidant Enzyme Systems)
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19 pages, 1214 KiB  
Review
Role of Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
by Bart De Geest and Mudit Mishra
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040784 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 5534
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes is a redox disease. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation induce a switch of metabolic homeostatic set points, leading to glucose intolerance. Several diabetes-specific mechanisms contribute to prominent oxidative distress in the heart, resulting in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mitochondrial [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes is a redox disease. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation induce a switch of metabolic homeostatic set points, leading to glucose intolerance. Several diabetes-specific mechanisms contribute to prominent oxidative distress in the heart, resulting in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mitochondrial overproduction of reactive oxygen species in diabetic subjects is not only caused by intracellular hyperglycemia in the microvasculature but is also the result of increased fatty oxidation and lipotoxicity in cardiomyocytes. Mitochondrial overproduction of superoxide anion radicals induces, via inhibition of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an increased polyol pathway flux, increased formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and activation of the receptor for AGE (RAGE), activation of protein kinase C isoforms, and an increased hexosamine pathway flux. These pathways not only directly contribute to diabetic cardiomyopathy but are themselves a source of additional reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative distress lead to cell dysfunction and cellular injury not only via protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and oxidative changes in microRNAs but also via activation of stress-sensitive pathways and redox regulation. Investigations in animal models of diabetic cardiomyopathy have consistently demonstrated that increased expression of the primary antioxidant enzymes attenuates myocardial pathology and improves cardiac function. Full article
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16 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Phenolic Compounds on Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the SUN Project; 10 Years of Follow-Up
by Zenaida Vázquez-Ruiz, Estefanía Toledo, Facundo Vitelli-Storelli, Leticia Goni, Víctor de la O, Maira Bes-Rastrollo and Miguel Ángel Martínez-González
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040783 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2790
Abstract
The health benefits of plant-based diets have been reported. Plant-based diets found in Spain and other Mediterranean countries differ from typical diets in other countries. In the Mediterranean diet, a high intake of phenolic compounds through olives, olive oil, and red wine may [...] Read more.
The health benefits of plant-based diets have been reported. Plant-based diets found in Spain and other Mediterranean countries differ from typical diets in other countries. In the Mediterranean diet, a high intake of phenolic compounds through olives, olive oil, and red wine may play an important role in cardiovascular prevention. Prospective studies carried out in Mediterranean countries may provide interesting insights. A relatively young Mediterranean cohort of 16,147 Spanish participants free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was followed (61% women, mean (SD) age 37(12) years at baseline) for a median of 12.2 years. Dietary intake was repeatedly assessed using a 136-item validated food frequency questionnaire, and (poly)phenol intake was obtained using the Phenol-Explorer database. Participants were classified as incident cases of CVD if a medical diagnosis of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death was medically confirmed. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between (poly)phenol intake and the incidence of major CVD. A suboptimal intake of phenolic compounds was independently associated with a higher risk of CVD, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for the lowest versus top 4 quintiles: 1.85 (95% CI: 1.09–3.16). A moderate-to-high dietary intake of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, is likely to reduce CVD incidence in the context of a Mediterranean dietary pattern. Full article
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26 pages, 6123 KiB  
Article
HO-1 Upregulation by Kaempferol via ROS-Dependent Nrf2-ARE Cascade Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression in Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cells
by Chien-Chung Yang, Li-Der Hsiao, Chen-Yu Wang, Wei-Ning Lin, Ya-Fang Shih, Yi-Wen Chen, Rou-Ling Cho, Hui-Ching Tseng and Chuen-Mao Yang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040782 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2669
Abstract
Lung inflammation is a pivotal event in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a key antioxidant enzyme that could be induced by kaempferol (KPR) and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, the molecular mechanisms of KPR-mediated HO-1 expression and its effects [...] Read more.
Lung inflammation is a pivotal event in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a key antioxidant enzyme that could be induced by kaempferol (KPR) and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, the molecular mechanisms of KPR-mediated HO-1 expression and its effects on inflammatory responses remain unknown in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs). This study aimed to verify the relationship between HO-1 expression and KPR treatment in both in vitro and in vivo models. HO-1 expression was determined by real time-PCR, Western blotting, and promoter reporter analyses. The signaling components were investigated by using pharmacological inhibitors or specific siRNAs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was performed to investigate the interaction between nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) and antioxidant response elements (ARE) binding site of HO-1 promoter. The effect of KPR on monocytes (THP-1) binding to HPAEpiCs challenged with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was determined by adhesion assay. We found that KPR-induced HO-1 level attenuated the LPS-induced intercellular cell adhesion protein 1 (ICAM-1) expression in HPAEpiCs. KPR-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression also attenuated ICAM-1 expression in mice. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)IX reversed the inhibitory effects of KPR in HPAEpiCs. In addition, in HPAEpiCs, KPR-induced HO-1 expression was abolished by both pretreating with the inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX, apocynin (APO)), reactive oxygen species (ROS) (N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)), Src (Src kinase inhibitor II (Srci II)), Pyk2 (PF431396), protein kinase C (PKC)α (Gö6976), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor (p38i) VIII, or c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)1/2 (SP600125) and transfection with their respective siRNAs. The transcription of the homx1 gene was enhanced by Nrf2 activated by JNK1/2 and p38α MAPK. The binding activity between Nrf2 and HO-1 promoter was attenuated by APO, NAC, Srci II, PF431396, or Gö6983. KPR-mediated NOX/ROS/c-Src/Pyk2/PKCα/p38α MAPK and JNK1/2 activate Nrf2 to bind with ARE on the HO-1 promoter and induce HO-1 expression, which further suppresses the LPS-mediated inflammation in HPAEpiCs. Thus, KPR exerts a potential strategy to protect against pulmonary inflammation via upregulation of the HO-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological and Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase-1 2022)
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18 pages, 3454 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Effects of Korean Propolis in HaCaT Keratinocytes Exposed to Particulate Matter 10
by In Ah Bae, Jae Won Ha, Joon Yong Choi and Yong Chool Boo
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040781 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2652
Abstract
Air pollution causes oxidative stress that leads to inflammatory diseases and premature aging of the skin. The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant effect of Korean propolis on oxidative stress in human epidermal HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to particulate matter with [...] Read more.
Air pollution causes oxidative stress that leads to inflammatory diseases and premature aging of the skin. The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant effect of Korean propolis on oxidative stress in human epidermal HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10). The total ethanol extract of propolis was solvent-fractionated with water and methylene chloride to divide into a hydrophilic fraction and a lipophilic fraction. The lipophilic fraction of propolis was slightly more cytotoxic, and the hydrophilic fraction was much less cytotoxic than the total extract. The hydrophilic fraction did not affect the viability of cells exposed to PM10, but the total propolis extract and the lipophilic fraction aggravated the toxicity of PM10. The total extract and hydrophilic fraction inhibited PM10-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the lipophilic fraction did not show such effects. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis showed that the hydrophilic fraction contained phenylpropanoids, such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, whereas the lipophilic faction contained caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). The former three compounds inhibited PM10-induced ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and/or glutathione oxidation, and ferulic acid was the most effective among them, but CAPE exhibited cytotoxicity and aggravated the toxicity of PM10. This study suggests that Korean propolis, when properly purified, has the potential to be used as a cosmetic material that helps to alleviate the skin toxicity of air pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Honey Bee Products)
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17 pages, 1499 KiB  
Article
Creeping Wood Sorrel and Chromium Picolinate Effect on the Nutritional Composition and Lipid Oxidative Stability of Broiler Meat
by Mihaela Saracila, Arabela Elena Untea, Tatiana Dumitra Panaite, Iulia Varzaru, Alexandra Oancea, Raluca Paula Turcu and Petru Alexandru Vlaicu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040780 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
The study investigates the efficacy of Cr in broilers, aiming to evaluate the effects of Chromium picolinate (CrPic) in association with creeping wood sorrel powder (CWS) on the proximate composition, fatty acids profile, bioactive nutrients and lipid oxidative stability of broiler meat. A [...] Read more.
The study investigates the efficacy of Cr in broilers, aiming to evaluate the effects of Chromium picolinate (CrPic) in association with creeping wood sorrel powder (CWS) on the proximate composition, fatty acids profile, bioactive nutrients and lipid oxidative stability of broiler meat. A total of 120 Cobb 500 chickens were assigned into three treatments: a control diet (C) and two test diets, including 200 µg/kg diet CrPic (E1), and 200 µg/kg diet CrPic +10 g CWS/kg diet (E2). Dietary supplementation with Cr + CWS significantly improved the concentration of n − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while its n − 6/n − 3 ratio decreased in comparison to the group receiving Cr and the conventional diet. The concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) significantly increased in the breast meat collected from the E2 group than that from the C group. Dietary administration of Cr and CWS improved lutein and zeaxanthin content, decreased Fe and Zn levels of the breast, and increased Zn deposition in the thigh samples. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased more in the thigh meat of the supplemental groups (E1, E2) than in that from the C group. In conclusion, the current study suggests that Cr together with CWS can be a viable option as antioxidant sources for broiler diets, promoting the nutritional quality of meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods II)
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13 pages, 2588 KiB  
Article
Natural Polyphenols May Normalize Hypochlorous Acid-Evoked Hemostatic Abnormalities in Human Blood
by Tomasz Misztal, Agata Golaszewska, Natalia Marcińczyk, Maria Tomasiak-Łozowska, Małgorzata Szymanowska, Ewa Chabielska and Tomasz Rusak
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040779 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
During pathogen invasion, activated neutrophils secrete myeloperoxidase (MPO), which generates high local concentrations of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a strong antimicrobial agent. Prolonged or uncontrolled HOCl production may, however, affect hemostasis, manifesting in inhibition of platelet aggregation and thrombus formation and in elevated fibrin [...] Read more.
During pathogen invasion, activated neutrophils secrete myeloperoxidase (MPO), which generates high local concentrations of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a strong antimicrobial agent. Prolonged or uncontrolled HOCl production may, however, affect hemostasis, manifesting in inhibition of platelet aggregation and thrombus formation and in elevated fibrin density and attenuated fibrinolysis. In this report, we investigated whether three plant-derived polyphenols with well-known antioxidant properties, i.e., quercetin (Que), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and resveratrol (Resv), at concentrations not affecting platelet responses per se, may normalize particular aspects of hemostasis disturbed by HOCl. Specifically, Que (5–25 μM) and EGCG (10–25 μM) abolished HOCl-evoked inhibition of platelet aggregation (assessed by an optical method), while the simultaneous incubation of platelet-rich plasma with Resv (10–25 μM) enhanced the inhibitory effect of HOCl. A similar effect was observed in the case of thrombus formation under flow conditions, evaluated in whole blood by confocal microscope. When plasma samples were incubated with HOCl, a notably higher density of fibrin (recorded by confocal microscope) was detected, an effect that was efficiently normalized by Que (5–25 μM), EGCG (10–25 μM), and Resv (5–25 μM) and which corresponded with the normalization of the HOCl-evoked prolongation of fibrinolysis, measured in plasma by a turbidimetric method. In conclusion, this report indicates that supplementation with Que and EGCG may be helpful in the normalization of hemostatic abnormalities during inflammatory states associated with elevated HOCl production, while the presence of Resv enhances the inhibitory action of HOCl towards platelets. Full article
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20 pages, 5367 KiB  
Article
P2X7 Receptor Augments LPS-Induced Nitrosative Stress by Regulating Nrf2 and GSH Levels in the Mouse Hippocampus
by Duk-Shin Lee and Ji-Eun Kim
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040778 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression/activity in response to various harmful insults. Since P2X7R deletion paradoxically decreases the basal glutathione (GSH) level in the mouse hippocampus, it is likely that P2X7R may increase the demand for GSH for the [...] Read more.
P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression/activity in response to various harmful insults. Since P2X7R deletion paradoxically decreases the basal glutathione (GSH) level in the mouse hippocampus, it is likely that P2X7R may increase the demand for GSH for the maintenance of the intracellular redox state or affect other antioxidant defense systems. Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate whether P2X7R affects nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity/expression and GSH synthesis under nitrosative stress in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. In the present study, P2X7R deletion attenuated iNOS upregulation and Nrf2 degradation induced by LPS. Compatible with iNOS induction, P2X7R deletion decreased S-nitrosylated (SNO)-cysteine production under physiological and post-LPS treated conditions. P2X7R deletion also ameliorated the decreases in GSH, glutathione synthetase, GS and ASCT2 levels concomitant with the reduced S-nitrosylations of GS and ASCT2 following LPS treatment. Furthermore, LPS upregulated cystine:glutamate transporter (xCT) and glutaminase in P2X7R+/+ mice, which were abrogated by P2X7R deletion. LPS did not affect GCLC level in both P2X7R+/+ and P2X7R−/− mice. Therefore, our findings indicate that P2X7R may augment LPS-induced neuroinflammation by leading to Nrf2 degradation, aberrant glutamate-glutamine cycle and impaired cystine/cysteine uptake, which would inhibit GSH biosynthesis. Therefore, we suggest that the targeting of P2X7R, which would exert nitrosative stress with iNOS in a positive feedback manner, may be one of the important therapeutic strategies of nitrosative stress under pathophysiological conditions. Full article
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18 pages, 1766 KiB  
Article
Nutraceutical Profile of “Carosello” (Cucumis melo L.) Grown in an Out-of-Season Cycle under LEDs
by Onofrio Davide Palmitessa, Miriana Durante, Annalisa Somma, Giovanni Mita, Massimiliano D’Imperio, Francesco Serio and Pietro Santamaria
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040777 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
The world population is projected to increase to 9.9 billion by 2050 and, to ensure food security and quality, agriculture must sustainably multiply production, increase the nutritional value of fruit and vegetables, and preserve genetic variability. In this work, an Apulian landrace of [...] Read more.
The world population is projected to increase to 9.9 billion by 2050 and, to ensure food security and quality, agriculture must sustainably multiply production, increase the nutritional value of fruit and vegetables, and preserve genetic variability. In this work, an Apulian landrace of Cucumis melo L. called “Carosello leccese” was grown in a greenhouse with a soilless technique under light-emitting diodes (LEDs) used as supplementary light system. The obtained results showed that “Carosello leccese” contains up to 71.0 mg·g−1 dried weight (DW) of potassium and several bioactive compounds important for human health such as methyl gallate (35.58 µg·g−1 DW), α-tocopherol (10.12 µg·g−1 DW), and β-carotene (up to 9.29 µg·g−1 DW under LEDs). In fact, methyl gallate has antioxidative and antiviral effects in vitro and in vivo, tocopherols are well recognized for their effective inhibition of lipid oxidation in foods and biological systems and carotenoids are known to be very efficient physical and chemical quenchers of singlet oxygen. Finally, it was demonstrated that the LEDs’ supplementary light did not negatively influence the biochemical profile of the peponids, confirming that it can be considered a valid technique to enhance horticultural production without reducing the content of the bioactive compounds of the fruits. Full article
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20 pages, 2626 KiB  
Article
Effect of Exogenous Melatonin Application on the Grain Yield and Antioxidant Capacity in Aromatic Rice under Combined Lead–Cadmium Stress
by Ye Jiang, Suihua Huang, Lin Ma, Leilei Kong, Shenggang Pan, Xiangru Tang, Hua Tian, Meiyang Duan and Zhaowen Mo
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040776 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3853
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the mechanism of exogenous melatonin application in alleviating the combined Pb and Cd (Pb-Cd) toxicity on aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, a pot experiment was conducted; two aromatic rice varieties, Yuxiangyouzhan and Xiangyaxiangzhan, were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the mechanism of exogenous melatonin application in alleviating the combined Pb and Cd (Pb-Cd) toxicity on aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, a pot experiment was conducted; two aromatic rice varieties, Yuxiangyouzhan and Xiangyaxiangzhan, were selected, and sprays using 50, 100, 200, and 400 μmol L−1 melatonin (denoted as S50, S100, S200, and S400) and irrigation using 100, 300, and 500 μmol L−1 melatonin (denoted as R100, R300, and R500) were also selected. The results showed that, under the S50, S100, and S200 treatments, the Pb content of aromatic rice grain decreased, and the grain yield increased significantly. Moreover, the application of exogenous melatonin significantly reduced the accumulation of H2O2 in rice leaves at maturity under Cd–Pb stress and reduced the MDA content in Xiangyaxiangzhan leaves. In addition, the microbial community structure changed significantly under S50 and R300 treatments. Some pathways, such as the synthesis of various amino acids and alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, were regulated by S50 treatment. Overall, melatonin application improved aromatic rice grain yield while reducing heavy metal accumulation by regulating the antioxidant capacity and metabolites in aromatic rice plants and altering the physicochemical properties and microbial community structures of the soil. Full article
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17 pages, 2734 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects against the Development of Alzheimer’s Disease in an Animal Model through Active Immunization with Methionine-Sulfoxide Rich Protein Antigen
by Adam S. Smith, Kyle R. Gossman, Benjamin Dykstra, Fei Philip Gao and Jackob Moskovitz
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040775 - 13 Apr 2022
Viewed by 5630
Abstract
The brain during Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is under severe oxidative attack by reactive oxygen species that may lead to methionine oxidation. Oxidation of the sole methionine (Met35) of beta-amyloid (Aβ), and possibly methionine residues of other extracellular proteins, may be one [...] Read more.
The brain during Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is under severe oxidative attack by reactive oxygen species that may lead to methionine oxidation. Oxidation of the sole methionine (Met35) of beta-amyloid (Aβ), and possibly methionine residues of other extracellular proteins, may be one of the earliest events contributing to the toxicity of Aβ and other proteins in vivo. In the current study, we immunized transgenic AD (APP/PS1) mice at 4 months of age with a recombinant methionine sulfoxide (MetO)-rich protein from Zea mays (antigen). This treatment induced the production of anti-MetO antibody in blood-plasma that exhibits a significant titer up to at least 10 months of age. Compared to the control mice, the antigen-injected mice exhibited the following significant phenotypes at 10 months of age: better short and long memory capabilities; reduced Aβ levels in both blood-plasma and brain; reduced Aβ burden and MetO accumulations in astrocytes in hippocampal and cortical regions; reduced levels of activated microglia; and elevated antioxidant capabilities (through enhanced nuclear localization of the transcription factor Nrf2) in the same brain regions. These data collected in a preclinical AD model are likely translational, showing that active immunization could give a possibility of delaying or preventing AD onset. This study represents a first step toward the complex way of starting clinical trials in humans and conducting the further confirmations that are needed to go in this direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Redox Metabolism)
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13 pages, 300 KiB  
Article
Pre-Operative Assessment of Micronutrients, Amino Acids, Phospholipids and Oxidative Stress in Bariatric Surgery Candidates
by Thorsten Henning, Bastian Kochlik, Paula Kusch, Matthias Strauss, Viktorija Jurić, Marc Pignitter, Frank Marusch, Tilman Grune and Daniela Weber
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040774 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Obesity has been linked to lower concentrations of fat-soluble micronutrients and higher concentrations of oxidative stress markers as well as an altered metabolism of branched chain amino acids and phospholipids. In the context of morbid obesity, the aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Obesity has been linked to lower concentrations of fat-soluble micronutrients and higher concentrations of oxidative stress markers as well as an altered metabolism of branched chain amino acids and phospholipids. In the context of morbid obesity, the aim of this study was to investigate whether and to which extent plasma status of micronutrients, amino acids, phospholipids and oxidative stress differs between morbidly obese (n = 23) and non-obese patients (n = 13). In addition to plasma, malondialdehyde, retinol, cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in both groups. Plasma γ-tocopherol was significantly lower (p < 0.011) in the obese group while other fat-soluble micronutrients showed no statistically significant differences between both groups. Branched-chain amino acids (all p < 0.008) and lysine (p < 0.006) were significantly higher in morbidly obese patients compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde concentrations in both visceral (p < 0.016) and subcutaneous (p < 0.002) adipose tissue were significantly higher in the morbidly obese group while plasma markers of oxidative stress showed no significant differences between both groups. Significantly lower plasma concentrations of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine (all p < 0.05) and their corresponding ether-linked analogs were observed, which were all reduced in obese participants compared to the control group. Pre-operative assessment of micronutrients in patients undergoing bariatric surgery is recommended for early identification of patients who might be at higher risk to develop a severe micronutrient deficiency post-surgery. Assessment of plasma BCAAs and phospholipids in obese patients might help to differentiate between metabolic healthy patients and those with metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 10th Anniversary of Antioxidants: Past, Present and Future)
8 pages, 1349 KiB  
Communication
Verification of the Relationship between Redox Regulation of Thioredoxin Target Proteins and Their Proximity to Thylakoid Membranes
by Yuka Fukushi, Yuichi Yokochi, Ken-ichi Wakabayashi, Keisuke Yoshida and Toru Hisabori
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040773 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Thioredoxin (Trx) is a key protein of the redox regulation system in chloroplasts, where it modulates various enzyme activities. Upon light irradiation, Trx reduces the disulfide bonds of Trx target proteins (thereby turning on their activities) using reducing equivalents obtained from the photosynthetic [...] Read more.
Thioredoxin (Trx) is a key protein of the redox regulation system in chloroplasts, where it modulates various enzyme activities. Upon light irradiation, Trx reduces the disulfide bonds of Trx target proteins (thereby turning on their activities) using reducing equivalents obtained from the photosynthetic electron transport chain. This reduction process involves a differential response, i.e., some Trx target proteins in the stroma respond slowly to the change in redox condition caused by light/dark changes, while the ATP synthase γ subunit (CF1-γ) located on the surface of thylakoid membrane responds with high sensitivity. The factors that determine this difference in redox kinetics are not yet known, although here, we hypothesize that it is due to each protein’s localization in the chloroplast, i.e., the reducing equivalents generated under light conditions can be transferred more efficiently to the proteins on thylakoid membrane than to stromal proteins. To explore this possibility, we anchored SBPase, one of the stromal Trx target proteins, to the thylakoid membrane in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analyses of the redox behaviors of the anchored and unanchored proteins showed no significant difference in their reduction kinetics, implying that protein sensitivity to redox regulation is determined by other factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems II)
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15 pages, 2382 KiB  
Article
Hop Tannins as Multifunctional Tyrosinase Inhibitor: Structure Characterization, Inhibition Activity, and Mechanism
by Jiaman Liu, Yanbiao Chen, Xinxin Zhang, Jie Zheng, Weiying Hu and Bo Teng
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040772 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
The application of hops could be extended to obtain higher commercial values. Tannins from hops were assessed for their tyrosinase inhibition ability, and the associated mechanisms were explored. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI–MS/MS) revealed that the [...] Read more.
The application of hops could be extended to obtain higher commercial values. Tannins from hops were assessed for their tyrosinase inhibition ability, and the associated mechanisms were explored. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI–MS/MS) revealed that the hop tannins were characterized as condensed tannins with (epi)catechin and (epi)gallocatechin as subunits and an average polymerization degree of 10.32. Tyrosinase inhibition assay indicated that hop tannins had an IC50 = 76.52 ± 6.56 μM. Kinetic studies of the inhibition processes indicated the tannins provided inhibition through competitive–uncompetitive mixed reactions. In silico molecule docking showed that tannins were bound to the active site of tyrosinase via hydrogen and electrovalent bonds. Circular dichroism (CD) observed the structural variation in the tyrosinase after reacting with the tannins. Fluorescence quenching analysis and free radical scavenging assays indicated that the tannins had copper ion chelating and antioxidant activities, which may also contribute to inhibition. The intracellular inhibition assay revealed that the melanin was reduced by 34.50% in B16F10 cells. These results indicate that these tannins can be applied as whitening agents in the cosmetics industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Food and Cosmetics)
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10 pages, 15584 KiB  
Article
Apoptotic p53 Gene Expression in the Regulation of Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP)-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Intertidal Crab Macrophthalmusjaponicus
by Kiyun Park and Ihn-Sil Kwak
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040771 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), some of the most dangerous chemicals released into the aquatic environment, are distributed worldwide due to their environmental persistence and bioaccumulation. In the study, we investigated p53-related apoptotic responses to POPs such as hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) or 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether [...] Read more.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), some of the most dangerous chemicals released into the aquatic environment, are distributed worldwide due to their environmental persistence and bioaccumulation. In the study, we investigated p53-related apoptotic responses to POPs such as hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) or 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in the mud crab Macrophthalmus japonicus. To do so, we characterized M. japonicus p53 and evaluated basal levels of p53 expression in different tissues. M. japonicus p53 has conserved amino acid residues involving sites for protein dimerization and DNA and zinc binding. In phylogenetic analysis, the homology of the deduced p53 amino acid sequence was not high (67–70%) among crabs, although M. japonicus p53 formed a cluster with one clade with p53 homologs from other crabs. Tissue distribution patterns revealed that the highest expression of p53 mRNA transcripts was in the hepatopancreas of M. japonicus crabs. Exposure to POPs induced antioxidant defenses to modulate oxidative stress through the upregulation of catalase expression. Furthermore, p53 expression was generally upregulated in the hepatopancreas and gills of M. japonicus after exposure to most concentrations of HBCD or BDE-47 for all exposure periods. In hepatopancreas tissue, significant increases in p53 transcript levels were observed as long-lasting apoptotic responses involving cellular defenses until day 7 of relative long-term exposure. The findings in this study suggest that exposure to POPs such as HBCD or BDE-47 may trigger the induction of cellular defense processes against oxidative stress, including DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis through the transcriptional upregulation of p53 expression in M. japonicus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Stress and Antioxidant Defences)
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12 pages, 18548 KiB  
Article
Marker-Free Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR 64) Overexpressing PDH45 Gene Confers Salinity Tolerance by Maintaining Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Machinery
by Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Renu Tuteja, Ritu Gill, Juan Francisco Jiménez Bremont, Sarvajeet Singh Gill and Narendra Tuteja
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040770 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
Helicases function as key enzymes in salinity stress tolerance, and the role and function of PDH45 (pea DNA helicase 45) in stress tolerance have been reported in different crops with selectable markers, raising public and regulatory concerns. In the present study, we developed [...] Read more.
Helicases function as key enzymes in salinity stress tolerance, and the role and function of PDH45 (pea DNA helicase 45) in stress tolerance have been reported in different crops with selectable markers, raising public and regulatory concerns. In the present study, we developed five lines of marker-free PDH45-overexpressing transgenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64). The overexpression of PDH45 driven by CaMV35S promoter in transgenic rice conferred high salinity (200 mM NaCl) tolerance in the T1 generation. Molecular attributes such as PCR, RT-PCR, and Southern and Western blot analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of the PDH45 gene in the PDH45-overexpressing lines. We observed higher endogenous levels of sugars (glucose and fructose) and hormones (GA, zeatin, and IAA) in the transgenic lines in comparison to control plants (empty vector (VC) and wild type (WT)) under salt treatments. Furthermore, photosynthetic characteristics such as net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci), and chlorophyll (Chl) content were significantly higher in transgenic lines under salinity stress as compared to control plants. However, the maximum primary photochemical efficiency of PSII, as an estimated from variable to maximum chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm), was identical in the transgenics to that in the control plants. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), were significantly higher in transgenic lines in comparison to control plants, which helped in keeping the oxidative stress burden (MDA and H2O2) lesser on transgenic lines, thus protecting the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of the plants. Overall, the present research reports the development of marker-free PDH45-overexpressing transgenic lines for salt tolerance that can potentially avoid public and biosafety concerns and facilitate the commercialization of genetically engineered crop plants. Full article
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17 pages, 1383 KiB  
Review
Oxidative Stress and Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Kidney Transplantation: Focus on Ferroptosis, Mitophagy and New Antioxidants
by Simona Granata, Valentina Votrico, Federica Spadaccino, Valeria Catalano, Giuseppe Stefano Netti, Elena Ranieri, Giovanni Stallone and Gianluigi Zaza
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040769 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 5869
Abstract
Although there has been technical and pharmacological progress in kidney transplant medicine, some patients may experience acute post-transplant complications. Among the mechanisms involved in these conditions, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury may have a primary pathophysiological role since it is one of the leading causes [...] Read more.
Although there has been technical and pharmacological progress in kidney transplant medicine, some patients may experience acute post-transplant complications. Among the mechanisms involved in these conditions, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury may have a primary pathophysiological role since it is one of the leading causes of delayed graft function (DGF), a slow recovery of the renal function with the need for dialysis (generally during the first week after transplantation). DGF has a significant social and economic impact as it is associated with prolonged hospitalization and the development of severe complications (including acute rejection). During I/R injury, oxidative stress plays a major role activating several pathways including ferroptosis, an iron-driven cell death characterized by iron accumulation and excessive lipid peroxidation, and mitophagy, a selective degradation of damaged mitochondria by autophagy. Ferroptosis may contribute to the renal damage, while mitophagy can have a protective role by reducing the release of reactive oxygen species from dysfunctional mitochondria. Deep comprehension of both pathways may offer the possibility of identifying new early diagnostic noninvasive biomarkers of DGF and introducing new clinically employable pharmacological strategies. In this review we summarize all relevant knowledge in this field and discuss current antioxidant pharmacological strategies that could represent, in the next future, potential treatments for I/R injury. Full article
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18 pages, 1209 KiB  
Article
Chemical, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Properties of the Peel and Male Flower By-Products of Four Varieties of Punica granatum L. Cultivated in the Marche Region for Their Use in Cosmetic Products
by Maria Rosa Gigliobianco, Manuela Cortese, Samanta Nannini, Lucrezia Di Nicolantonio, Dolores Vargas Peregrina, Giulio Lupidi, Luca Agostino Vitali, Elena Bocchietto, Piera Di Martino and Roberta Censi
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040768 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2881
Abstract
We are now seeing an increase in the production of agri-food waste, which is an essential resource for the recovery of bioactive compounds that may be employed as innovative natural ingredients in cosmetics. To date, the approach to cosmetics preservation has seen a [...] Read more.
We are now seeing an increase in the production of agri-food waste, which is an essential resource for the recovery of bioactive compounds that may be employed as innovative natural ingredients in cosmetics. To date, the approach to cosmetics preservation has seen a significant shift in the search for biological components that give healthier alternatives for customers and help businesses operate in an environmentally friendly manner. To achieve this goal, we studied pomegranate extracts using the peel and, for the first time, extracts from the male flowers of a wide pomegranate variety cultivated in the Marche region, specifically, the Wonderful, Mollar de Elche, Parfianka, and less-studied G1 varieties. We studied the phenol compounds profile, antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity, and cell viability of the obtained pomegranate extracts. The identification and quantification of phenol compounds belonging to different classes, such as hydrolysable tannins, hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, dihydroflavonol, gallocatechin, and anthocyanins, were performed using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Punicalagin isomers and punicalin resulted in the most abundant polyphenols found in the peel and male flower extracts. Mollar de Elche 2020 peel extract revealed a high concentration of punicalagin A and B (7206.4 mg/kg and 5812.9), while the content of gallic acid revealed high results in the G1 and Parfianka varieties. All extracts were spectrophotometrically analysed to determine their total phenol content (TPC) using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and their antioxidant capacity (AC). In terms of the total phenol obtained by the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method, Mollar de Elche 2020 extracts reported the highest TPC content of 12.341 µmol GAE/g. Results revealed that the Mollar de Elche and Wonderful 2020 peel extracts demonstrated the highest TPC and AC. Furthermore, AC results indicated that the peel extracts displayed higher AC than the male flower extract due to the high punicalagin content detected by UPLC analysis. The antimicrobial activity testing revealed that the Wonderful and G1 2020 peel extracts resulted active against Escherichia coli, while all extracts exhibited promising anticandidal activity. Additionally, the cytocompatibility was evaluated in keratinocytes HaCaT cells by testing concentrations of pomegranate extracts ranging from 0.15 to 5.00 mg/mL. Extracts were non-toxic for the cells in the tested concentration range. The acquired results may help exploit pomegranate agri-food waste products provided by the Marche region’s short supply chain for their use as an antimicrobial and antioxidant booster in the formulation of cosmetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cosmetics)
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17 pages, 4976 KiB  
Article
TLR4 Signaling and Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide Pathway Crosstalk Induces Resiliency of Myeloma Plasma Cells to Bortezomib Treatment
by Grazia Scandura, Cesarina Giallongo, Fabrizio Puglisi, Alessandra Romano, Nunziatina Laura Parrinello, Tatiana Zuppelli, Lucia Longhitano, Sebastiano Giallongo, Michelino Di Rosa, Giuseppe Musumeci, Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti, Giuseppe Alberto Palumbo, Giovanni Li Volti, Francesco Di Raimondo and Daniele Tibullo
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040767 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
Relapse in multiple myeloma (MM) decreases therapy efficiency through unclear mechanisms of chemoresistance. Since our group previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are two signaling pathways protecting MM cells from the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ), we here evaluated [...] Read more.
Relapse in multiple myeloma (MM) decreases therapy efficiency through unclear mechanisms of chemoresistance. Since our group previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are two signaling pathways protecting MM cells from the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ), we here evaluated their cross-regulation by a pharmacological approach. We found that cell toxicity and mitochondrial depolarization by BTZ were increased upon inhibition of HO-1 and TLR4 by using tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP) and TAK-242, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of TAK-242 and BTZ activated mitophagy and decreased the unfolded protein response (UPR) survival pathway in association with a downregulation in HO-1 expression. Notably, BTZ in combination with SnPP induced effects mirroring the treatment with TAK-242/BTZ, resulting in a blockade of TLR4 upregulation. Interestingly, treatment of cells with either hemin, an HO-1 inducer, or supplementation with carbon monoxide (CO), a by-product of HO-1 enzymatic activity, increased TLR4 expression. In conclusion, we showed that treatment of MM cells with BTZ triggers the TLR4/HO-1/CO axis, serving as a stress-responsive signal that leads to increased cell survival while protecting mitochondria against BTZ and ultimately promoting drug resistance. Full article
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