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Behav. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 82 articles

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25 pages, 682 KiB  
Article
The Dynamic Relationships between Educational Expectations and Science Learning Performance among Students in Secondary School and Their Later Completion of a STEM Degree
by Jerf W. K. Yeung
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060506 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
Abstract
The educational expectations of students for themselves have been commonly corroborated to directly predict their higher academic performance. Nevertheless, some recent research has reported that the academic performance of students may also contribute to their better development of educational expectations. Moreover, more advanced [...] Read more.
The educational expectations of students for themselves have been commonly corroborated to directly predict their higher academic performance. Nevertheless, some recent research has reported that the academic performance of students may also contribute to their better development of educational expectations. Moreover, more advanced but limited research has argued that both the educational expectations and academic performance of students are developmental and changeable over time rather than fixed and stable. Due to the importance of students’ science learning performance during the years of secondary school in relation to their later STEM development in adulthood, the current study is intended to investigate how the developmental and growth trajectories of students’ educational expectations and science learning performance reciprocally affect each other directly and inversely in secondary school and then later contribute to their successful completion of a STEM degree in adulthood. Based on the six-wave panel data containing a nationally representative sample of adolescent students from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), the current study was conducted by parallel-process latent growth curve modeling (PP-LGCM) and found that both the developmental and growth trajectories of students’ educational expectations and science learning performance were mutually predictive of each other across the years of secondary school, which then contributed to their later higher likelihood of successful completion of a STEM degree in adulthood. In addition, the conditional direct PP-LGCM model, which is to model the effects of students’ educational expectations on their science learning performance, and the conditional inverse PP-LGCM model, which is to model the effects of students’ science learning performance on their educational expectations, showed significant within- and cross-domain effects differently. The implications of the study findings related to educational reforms and policy designs are discussed. Full article
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10 pages, 1137 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Reward Object on Object-Based Attention
by Feiyu Diao, Xiaoqian Hu, Tingkang Zhang, Yunfei Gao, Jing Zhou, Feng Kong and Jingjing Zhao
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060505 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 50
Abstract
Reward has been shown to influence selective attention, yet previous research has primarily focused on rewards associated with specific locations or features, with limited investigation into the impact of a reward object on object-based attention (OBA). Therefore, it remains unclear whether objects previously [...] Read more.
Reward has been shown to influence selective attention, yet previous research has primarily focused on rewards associated with specific locations or features, with limited investigation into the impact of a reward object on object-based attention (OBA). Therefore, it remains unclear whether objects previously associated with rewards affect OBA. To address this issue, we conducted two experiments using a paradigm that combined a reward training phase with a modified two-rectangle paradigm. The results indicate that a reward object modulates both space-based attention (SBA) and OBA. When cues appear on a reward object, the effects of both SBA and OBA are amplified compared to when cues appear on a no-reward object. This finding supports the value-driven attentional capture (VDAC) theory, which suggests that a reward object gain enhanced saliency to capture attention, thereby providing a theoretical support for the treatment of conditions such as drug addiction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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20 pages, 2228 KiB  
Article
Estimating the Heterogeneous Causal Effects of Parent–Child Relationships among Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Symptoms: A Machine Learning Approach
by Haiyan Zhou, Fengkai Han, Ruoxi Chen, Jiajin Huang, Jianhui Chen and Xiuyun Lin
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060504 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Oppositional defiant symptoms are some of the most common developmental symptoms in children and adolescents with and without oppositional defiant disorder. Research has addressed the close association of the parent–child relationship (PCR) with oppositional defiant symptoms. However, it is necessary to further investigate [...] Read more.
Oppositional defiant symptoms are some of the most common developmental symptoms in children and adolescents with and without oppositional defiant disorder. Research has addressed the close association of the parent–child relationship (PCR) with oppositional defiant symptoms. However, it is necessary to further investigate the underlying mechanism for forming targeted intervention strategies. By using a machine learning-based causal forest (CF) model, we investigated the heterogeneous causal effects of the PCR on oppositional defiant symptoms in children in Chinese elementary schools. Based on the PCR improvement in two consecutive years, 423 children were divided into improved and control groups. The assessment of oppositional defiant symptoms (AODS) in the second year was set as the dependent variable. Additionally, several factors based on the multilevel family model and the baseline AODS in the first year were included as covariates. Consistent with expectations, the CF model showed a significant causal effect between the PCR and oppositional defiant symptoms in the samples. Moreover, the causality exhibited heterogeneity. The causal effect was greater in those children with higher baseline AODS, a worse family atmosphere, and lower emotion regulation abilities in themselves or their parents. Conversely, the parenting style played a positive role in causality. These findings enhance our understanding of how the PCR contributes to the development of oppositional defiant symptoms conditioned by factors from a multilevel family system. The heterogeneous causality in the observation data, established using the machine learning approach, could be helpful in forming personalized family-oriented intervention strategies for children with oppositional defiant symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Behaviors in Childhood: Causes and Consequences)
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20 pages, 552 KiB  
Article
Effects of Age Stereotypes of Older Workers on Job Performance and Intergenerational Knowledge Transfer Intention and Mediating Mechanisms
by Ying Wang and Weiwei Shi
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060503 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 225
Abstract
The workforce is aging with the population aging. How to effectively manage and motivate older workers is significant for elderly human resources development and the sustainable development of enterprises in organizations. Age stereotypes of older workers refer to people’s beliefs and expectations about [...] Read more.
The workforce is aging with the population aging. How to effectively manage and motivate older workers is significant for elderly human resources development and the sustainable development of enterprises in organizations. Age stereotypes of older workers refer to people’s beliefs and expectations about a specific group of 45–65-year-olds in the workplace. This paper examines the effect of age stereotypes of older workers on job performance and intergenerational knowledge transfer intention. This study carried out two research designs, a questionnaire survey and an experimental study, to explore the effects of positive and negative age stereotypes of older workers on job performance and intergenerational knowledge transfer intention within an organizational context and underlying mediating mechanisms. The results showed that positive stereotypes of older workers significantly positively affected job performance and intergenerational knowledge transfer intention. In comparison, negative stereotypes of older workers significantly negatively affected job performance and intergenerational knowledge transfer intention, and self-perception of aging substantially mediates the effects. This study broadens the research field on the impact of positive and negative age stereotypes on older workers in organizational contexts. This study guides organizations in reducing age discrimination, creating an inclusive workplace environment, and achieving the successful aging of older workers. Full article
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22 pages, 1449 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing Users’ Perceptions of Digital Platform Indispensability: A Comparative Study of Korea and Finland
by Moonkyoung Jang, Shahrokh Nikou and Seongcheol Kim
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060502 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 233
Abstract
The pervasive integration of digital platforms into daily life has amplified their perceived indispensability. This study investigates the factors influencing this perception across countries with contrasting platform landscapes, focusing on platform quality and usage patterns. We conducted surveys in Finland and Korea, countries [...] Read more.
The pervasive integration of digital platforms into daily life has amplified their perceived indispensability. This study investigates the factors influencing this perception across countries with contrasting platform landscapes, focusing on platform quality and usage patterns. We conducted surveys in Finland and Korea, countries representing distinct platform ecosystems. The results revealed higher perceived indispensability in Korea than in Finland, with usefulness and habitual platform use emerging as significant predictors of indispensability in both countries. However, the specific aspects of platform quality influencing this perception diverged. In Finland, the platform’s comprehensiveness and security risk significantly impacted indispensability, while social interaction features played a negligible role. Conversely, in Korea, social interaction features significantly influenced indispensability, while platform comprehensiveness and security risk were non-significant. These findings underscore the multifaceted nature of digital platform indispensability, shaped by the interaction of platform quality and usage patterns. The contextual variations highlighted by our cross-country comparison suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to platform regulation or user education may be ineffective. Future research should explore these cultural and platform-specific nuances to devise tailored policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Perspectives of Social and Cultural Differences)
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17 pages, 618 KiB  
Article
Concept Mapping STI/HIV Prevention and Condom Use among Young African American Adults
by Chakema Carmack, Sarah Nganga, Eisha Ahmed and Taylor Coleman
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060501 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Theory-based HIV prevention programs have resulted in increased condom use, which remains the best method for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among sexually active heterosexual individuals. Particularly, the integrative model of behavior prediction theorizes that attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, and socioenvironmental factors [...] Read more.
Theory-based HIV prevention programs have resulted in increased condom use, which remains the best method for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among sexually active heterosexual individuals. Particularly, the integrative model of behavior prediction theorizes that attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, and socioenvironmental factors influence intention and behavior and has been useful in understanding STI risk among adolescents. However, more research is needed regarding young African American adults. Given the increased freedom and decision-making independence afforded to young adults compared to adolescents, it is important to consider the STI/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention messages that would resonate with them, particularly regarding condom use. The present study sought to explore how attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacies, and socioenvironmental factors may influence condom use and STI/HIV prevention, as conceptualized by the participants. We conducted a group-based concept map, a systems-thinking mixed methodology that resulted in a geospatial map reflecting the conceptualizations of the participants. Self-identified young heterosexual African American adults (N = 43) aged 20–26 engaged in an interactive concept mapping procedure in order to “map out” their overarching concepts about STI/HIV risk and condom use. Seven overall conceptual domains emerged: self-efficacy for partner communication, condom use self-efficacy, social media/sociocultural influences, condom use/STI knowledge, condom use cons, condom use pros, and subjective and social norms about condom use. We presented the concept map and discussed the conceptual interpretations and the relationships among the overarching concepts. We also discussed how the social environment, including the social media environment, was conceptualized regarding STI/HIV risk and prevention among young African American adults. Concept mapping can be viewed as a way to determine worthwhile messages for intervention development. The findings may provide information for prevention programs aimed at reducing the incidence of STIs among young adult heterosexual persons within African American communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Factors and Risk Behavior among Minority Populations)
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17 pages, 1918 KiB  
Article
Emotional Regulation of Displaced Aggression in Provocative Situations among Junior High School Students
by Shuang Lin, Gonglu Cheng, Shinan Sun, Mengmeng Feng and Xuejun Bai
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060500 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 189
Abstract
This study investigated the emotion regulation effect of displaced aggression among junior high school students after provocation through two experiments. Experiment 1 examined the effect of displaced aggression on the negative and positive emotions of junior high school students after low- and high-level [...] Read more.
This study investigated the emotion regulation effect of displaced aggression among junior high school students after provocation through two experiments. Experiment 1 examined the effect of displaced aggression on the negative and positive emotions of junior high school students after low- and high-level provocation. The results showed that only after high-level provocation did individuals experience a significant decrease in negative emotions and a significant increase in positive emotions after engaging in displaced aggression. Experiment 2 explored the effect of aggressive intensity on negative and positive emotions after provocation. The results indicated that, in terms of changes in positive emotions, low-intensity aggression showed a significant increase in positive emotions after aggression. Regarding changes in negative emotions, both low-intensity aggression and high-intensity aggression resulted in significant decreases in negative emotions after aggression. In conclusion, this research showed that, in highly provocative situations, displaced aggression among junior school students, especially low-intensity displaced aggression, could increase positive emotions and decrease negative emotions. These results support the emotional regulation theory of aggression. However, considering that displaced aggression violates social norms, efforts should be made to avoid individuals regulating their emotions through displaced aggression, instead guiding them toward using more appropriate methods for emotional regulation in future research and practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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18 pages, 2961 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Practicing Closed- vs. Open-Skill Exercises on Executive Functions in Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)—A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
by Chunyue Qiu, Qun Zhai and Shuangru Chen
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060499 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 252
Abstract
(1) Background: Previous studies have identified discrepancies in improvements in executive functioning in typically developing children when comparing closed- and open-skill exercise interventions. However, there is limited research on executive functioning in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aims to conduct a [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Previous studies have identified discrepancies in improvements in executive functioning in typically developing children when comparing closed- and open-skill exercise interventions. However, there is limited research on executive functioning in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the impact of closed- and open-skill exercises on ADHD populations. (2) Methods: The PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed to search seven databases to evaluate and analyze studies published from 2013 to 2023. Prospero: CRD42023460452. (3) Results: A meta-analysis of 578 subjects with ADHD in 11 RCTs (Randomized control trial) and 3 NRS (Non-randomized studies) revealed that closed-skill exercise significantly improved executive function subdomains, including inhibitory control (standardized mean differences (SMD) = −1.00), cognitive flexibility (SMD = −1.33), and working memory (SMD = −0.85). Furthermore, open-skill exercise was found to have a positive effect on inhibitory control (SMD = −1.98) and cognitive flexibility (SMD = −0.97) in ADHD patients. Both types of exercise interventions demonstrated an improvement in executive function compared to controls, with open-skill exercises exhibiting superior effects (Qb = 6.26). (4) Conclusions: The review recommends a 12-week intervention cycle with exercise at least twice a week of moderate or higher intensity as suitable for ADHD individuals. This review also encourages individuals with ADHD to engage in exercises involving multiple motor skill types. Full article
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15 pages, 834 KiB  
Article
How Social Influence Promotes the Adoption of Mobile Health among Young Adults in China: A Systematic Analysis of Trust, Health Consciousness, and User Experience
by Jianfei Cao, Hanlin Feng, Yeongjoo Lim, Kota Kodama and Shuo Zhang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060498 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
As mobile health (mHealth) offers several advantages in healthcare, researchers are exploring the motivational factors for its adoption. However, few studies have elucidated the complex relationship between social influence and behavioral intentions to adopt mHealth among young adults in China. This study explored [...] Read more.
As mobile health (mHealth) offers several advantages in healthcare, researchers are exploring the motivational factors for its adoption. However, few studies have elucidated the complex relationship between social influence and behavioral intentions to adopt mHealth among young adults in China. This study explored the impact of social influence on young adults’ behavioral intentions to adopt mHealth, the mediating roles of trust and health consciousness, and the moderating effect of mHealth user experience on the relationship between the predictors. In total, 300 valid responses were collected from a university in China, and a research model was developed. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to verify the relationship between the main research variables. mHealth adoption behavioral intentions among young adults were significantly positively impacted by social influence; it indirectly increased mHealth adoption behavioral intentions by positively affecting trust and health consciousness. mHealth use weakened the positive impact of social influence on trust and health consciousness, while user experience positively moderated the relationship between health consciousness and behavioral intentions. Trust and health consciousness play important roles in the complex multivariate relationships between social influence and behavioral intentions to adopt mHealth. Future research should consider the moderating role of the mHealth user experience. These findings enrich the mHealth technology acceptance theory framework and provide specific guidance strategies for marketing mHealth applications. Full article
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18 pages, 456 KiB  
Article
Challenge or Hindrance? The Dual Impact of Algorithmic Control on Gig Workers’ Prosocial Service Behaviors
by Xuedong Liang, Wanting Fu, Peng Luo and Yanda Huo
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060497 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Algorithmic technological progress presents both opportunities and challenges for organizational management. The success of online labor platforms hinges on algorithmic control, making it imperative to explore how this control affects gig workers’ prosocial service behaviors. Drawing from affective event theory, our study delves [...] Read more.
Algorithmic technological progress presents both opportunities and challenges for organizational management. The success of online labor platforms hinges on algorithmic control, making it imperative to explore how this control affects gig workers’ prosocial service behaviors. Drawing from affective event theory, our study delves into the factors influencing gig workers’ prosocial service behaviors in the online labor platform setting. We utilize the challenge–hindrance appraisal framework to highlight the pivotal role of algorithmic control. To rigorously test our hypotheses, we gathered empirical data from an online questionnaire survey of 660 gig workers. Our results indicate that challenge appraisals and hindrance appraisals in regard to platform algorithm control have a nuanced dual impact on gig workers’ prosocial service behaviors. This relationship is clarified by the mediating function of work engagement. A challenge appraisal of platform algorithmic control can positively influence gig workers’ prosocial service behaviors. However, hindrance appraisal of platform algorithmic control can negatively influence gig workers’ prosocial service behaviors. Interestingly, workplace interpersonal capitalization boosts the effect of challenge appraisal on employees’ prosocial service behaviors. However, it does not mitigate the adverse effects of hindrance appraisal on such behaviors. This study has multiple theoretical implications, and it also provides valuable practical insights into organizational management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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14 pages, 1525 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Bystander Features on Displaced Aggression in Provocative Situations among Male Juvenile Delinquents
by Shuang Lin, Gonglu Cheng, Shinan Sun, Mengmeng Feng and Xuejun Bai
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060496 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Two studies were conducted to explore the influence of bystander features of displaced aggression in provocative situations among male juvenile delinquents. Study 1 examined the differences in displaced aggression between provoked male juvenile delinquents in the presence or absence of bystanders. The results [...] Read more.
Two studies were conducted to explore the influence of bystander features of displaced aggression in provocative situations among male juvenile delinquents. Study 1 examined the differences in displaced aggression between provoked male juvenile delinquents in the presence or absence of bystanders. The results revealed that provoked male juvenile delinquents exhibited significantly higher levels of displaced aggression when bystanders were present compared to when they were not. Study 2 further manipulated the bystanders’ trigger level and investigated the differences in displaced aggression exhibited by provoked male juvenile delinquents towards highly versus lowly triggered bystanders. The results indicated that after low provocation, male juvenile delinquents exhibited significantly higher levels of displaced aggression towards highly triggered bystanders compared to lowly triggered bystanders. These findings demonstrated that male juvenile delinquents exhibited a high level of displaced aggression towards bystanders in provocative situations, particularly with highly triggered bystanders. This study supported the personality and social model of displaced aggression, emphasizing that bystanders, especially those with high triggers, were more likely to become targets of displaced aggression. The current study provides references for subsequent criminal rehabilitation and crime prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Externalizing and Antisocial Behavior across the Lifespan)
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20 pages, 459 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Cognitive and Emotional Factors on Social Media Users’ Information-Sharing Behaviours during Crises: The Moderating Role of the Construal Level and the Mediating Role of the Emotional Response
by Yanxia Lu
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060495 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Understanding the intricate dynamics of social media users’ information-sharing behaviours during crises is essential for effective public opinion management. While various scholarly efforts have attempted to uncover the factors influencing information sharing through different lenses, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Building upon the [...] Read more.
Understanding the intricate dynamics of social media users’ information-sharing behaviours during crises is essential for effective public opinion management. While various scholarly efforts have attempted to uncover the factors influencing information sharing through different lenses, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Building upon the heuristic–systematic model (HSM) and construal level theory (CLT), this study explores the complex mechanisms that govern social media users’ information-sharing behaviours. The results indicate that both cognition and emotion play crucial roles in shaping users’ information-sharing behaviours, with systematic cues having the most significant impact on information-sharing behaviours. In terms of heuristic cues, positive emotions are more influential on information-sharing behaviours than primary cognition and negative emotions. Furthermore, spatial distance emerges as a key moderator, influencing individuals’ levels of engagement in information sharing. Emotion also acts as a mediator, connecting cognition to information sharing. This study provides insights into the sophisticated mechanisms of information sharing during crises, offering valuable implications for emergency management agencies to utilise social media for targeted public opinion guidance. Full article
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11 pages, 248 KiB  
Article
Physical Exercise and Life Satisfaction of Urban Residents in China
by Buerzhasala Ha and Jie Zhang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060494 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 277
Abstract
Currently, an increasing number of Chinese urban citizens are participating in daily physical exercise. Existing research has shown that physical exercise can increase life satisfaction. However, some studies also suggest that the relationship between the two is unstable. The purposes of this study [...] Read more.
Currently, an increasing number of Chinese urban citizens are participating in daily physical exercise. Existing research has shown that physical exercise can increase life satisfaction. However, some studies also suggest that the relationship between the two is unstable. The purposes of this study are to examine physical exercise and to test its correlation with life satisfaction of urban residents in China. Data are obtained from the 2018 China Family Panel Studies, and we focus on urban residents. Our overall sample size is 7423 people, including 3641 females (49.05%) and 3782 males (50.95%), with an average age of 49.55 years old. Because the dependent variables are continuous variables, the multiple linear regression model is used for data analysis. We find that the life satisfaction of Chinese urban residents is on the high side. Our core discovery is that there is a significant positive relationship between the frequency and duration of physical exercise and life satisfaction. Our further discovery is that the frequency of physical exercise affects life satisfaction by influencing popularity and positive emotions. Similarly, the duration of physical exercise affects life satisfaction by influencing popularity and positive emotions. Whether it is the frequency or the duration of physical exercise, it can reflect the residents’ attention to physical exercise. Physical exercise habits not only promote physical health by strengthening physical fitness but also promote mental health by alleviating depression and promote social communication by increasing social activities in the Chinese context. All of these can improve people’s life satisfaction. Our research suggests that the improvement in life satisfaction not only needs the abundance of external material conditions but also needs the individual to improve their physical and mental health through physical exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Psychological and Cognitive Development)
15 pages, 456 KiB  
Article
Do Dark Humour Users Have Dark Tendencies? Relationships between Dark Humour, the Dark Tetrad, and Online Trolling
by Sophie Voisey and Sonja Heintz
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060493 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 276
Abstract
Humour and antisocial behaviour on the internet are under-researched. Online spaces have opened a gateway for new ways to express unrestrained humour (e.g., dark humour) and ways to behave antisocially (e.g., online trolling). The tendencies and motivations of those engaging with such humour [...] Read more.
Humour and antisocial behaviour on the internet are under-researched. Online spaces have opened a gateway for new ways to express unrestrained humour (e.g., dark humour) and ways to behave antisocially (e.g., online trolling). The tendencies and motivations of those engaging with such humour and behaviour are yet to be clearly established and understood. The present study aimed to fill this gap by exploring the interplay between dark humour, online trolling, and dark personality traits. Participants (N = 160) completed an online survey consisting of trait scales to assess the Dark Tetrad, dark humour, and online trolling, as well as two online trolling tasks (enjoyment and ability) and two dark humour meme tasks (enjoyment and ability). The results confirmed relationships between the Dark Tetrad and the dark humour trait, and several Dark Tetrad traits were related to the enjoyment of and ability to produce dark humour. Furthermore, dark humour and online trolling were closely related. The findings also revealed that online trolls did not enjoy being trolled but did enjoy trolling, and this ability to troll is underpinned by sadism. These findings illustrate the potential dark psychological motivations for using dark humour, demonstrate that online trolling is infused with darker forms of humour, and provide deeper insights into online trolls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humor Use in Interpersonal Relationships)
26 pages, 1408 KiB  
Article
Exploring Loneliness among Korean Adults: A Concept Mapping Approach
by Soo-Jung An and Young-Seok Seo
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060492 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 316
Abstract
In South Korea, the proportion of adults experiencing severe loneliness has been increasing rapidly. Accordingly, this study examines the elements of loneliness experienced by Korean adults and investigates their structural relevance using concept mapping. Korean adults (47) were recruited for individual in-depth interviews [...] Read more.
In South Korea, the proportion of adults experiencing severe loneliness has been increasing rapidly. Accordingly, this study examines the elements of loneliness experienced by Korean adults and investigates their structural relevance using concept mapping. Korean adults (47) were recruited for individual in-depth interviews based on their scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale. The interviews yielded 80 unique statements, which were then evaluated using multidimensional scaling and a hierarchical cluster analysis. A cluster map of loneliness was derived, with three clusters: (1) emotional distress due to the actual or anticipated absence of connection in relationships, (2) emotional distance from oneself or from others in a relationship, and (3) powerlessness and emptiness due to being directionless. Two dimensions distinguished these clusters: the lack of a sense of connection or self-assurance, and an inward or outward focus. These findings reveal that loneliness encompasses more than unmet relational needs; it also involves self-attentional focus, indicating a need to reconceptualize the notion of loneliness. The study’s implications extend to counseling theory and practices by highlighting the importance of addressing both relational connections and self-perceptions in interventions for loneliness. By expanding the understanding of loneliness through empirical data, this research provides a more comprehensive framework for addressing loneliness. Full article
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16 pages, 499 KiB  
Article
Effects of Inclusive Leadership on the Diversity Climate and Change-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior
by JongHyun Lee and HyoungChul Shin
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060491 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 305
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of inclusive leadership on diversity, climate, and change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior in hotel work. It also examines whether the diversity climate mediates the relationship between inclusive leadership and change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. An online survey was conducted among [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of inclusive leadership on diversity, climate, and change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior in hotel work. It also examines whether the diversity climate mediates the relationship between inclusive leadership and change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. An online survey was conducted among hotel employees. It was found that inclusive leadership had a significant positive effect on the diversity climate. The diversity climate was found to have a significant positive effect on change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior, and inclusive leadership had a significant positive effect on change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, inclusive leadership had a significant positive effect on change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior through a diversity climate. The results of this study have academic and practical implications for human resource management with respect to inclusive leadership in hotel workers’ work environment according to changes in hotels’ environmental factors for a new generation of employees flowing into the organizational mainstream. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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24 pages, 1202 KiB  
Article
Mitigating Job Burnout in Jordanian Public Healthcare: The Interplay between Ethical Leadership, Organizational Climate, and Role Overload
by Kayed Al’Ararah, Dilber Çağlar and Hasan Yousef Aljuhmani
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060490 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 384
Abstract
In today’s dynamic organizational landscape, characterized by rapid technological advancements and evolving workplace dynamics, understanding the factors influencing employee well-being is paramount. This study investigates the interplay between ethical leadership, organizational climate, role overload, and job burnout in public healthcare organizations across northern [...] Read more.
In today’s dynamic organizational landscape, characterized by rapid technological advancements and evolving workplace dynamics, understanding the factors influencing employee well-being is paramount. This study investigates the interplay between ethical leadership, organizational climate, role overload, and job burnout in public healthcare organizations across northern Jordan. By focusing on ethical leadership, organizational climate, and role overload as determinants of job burnout, this research provides insights into strategies for enhancing employee well-being. Drawing on ethical leadership theory, social exchange theory, and the job demands–resources model, this study employs PLS-SEM to analyze data collected from 260 employees working in Jordanian government hospitals. The findings reveal negative associations between ethical leadership and job burnout, highlighting the importance of ethical leadership behaviors in mitigating employee burnout. Additionally, a positive organizational climate is associated with lower levels of burnout, underscoring the impact of the broader organizational context on employee well-being. The study also explores the mediating role of organizational climate and the moderating effect of role overload in the relationship between ethical leadership and job burnout, providing insights into the complex dynamics at play in healthcare organizations. These findings enrich our understanding of the factors influencing employee well-being in healthcare contexts and underscore the importance of fostering ethical leadership and supportive organizational climates to mitigate job burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Healthcare Workers)
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36 pages, 2186 KiB  
Article
Patients’ UX Impact on Medication Adherence in Czech Pilot Study for Chronically Ill
by Ondrej Gergely, Romana Mazalová, Michal Štýbnar, Antonín Hlavinka, Nicola Goodfellow, Michael Scott, Glenda Fleming, Leona Jochmannová and Ladislav Stanke
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060489 - 9 Jun 2024
Viewed by 427
Abstract
This article presents a comprehensive and multistage approach to the development of the user experience (UX) for an mHealth application targeting older adult patients with chronic diseases, specifically chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study adopts a mixed methods approach, [...] Read more.
This article presents a comprehensive and multistage approach to the development of the user experience (UX) for an mHealth application targeting older adult patients with chronic diseases, specifically chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study adopts a mixed methods approach, incorporating both quantitative and qualitative components. The underlying hypothesis posits that baseline medicine adherence knowledge (measured by the MARS questionnaire), beliefs about medicines (measured by the BMQ questionnaire), and level of user experience (measured by the SUS and UEQ questionnaires) act as predictors of adherence change after a period of usage of the mHealth application. However, contrary to our expectations, the results did not demonstrate the anticipated relationship between the variables examined. Nevertheless, the qualitative component of the research revealed that patients, in general, expressed satisfaction with the application. It is important to note that the pilot testing phase revealed a notable prevalence of technical issues, which may have influenced participants’ perception of the overall UX. These findings contribute to the understanding of UX development in the context of mHealth applications for older adults with chronic diseases and emphasise the importance of addressing technical challenges to enhance user satisfaction and engagement. Full article
20 pages, 2138 KiB  
Article
A Digital Math Game and Multiple-Try Use with Primary Students: A Sex Analysis on Motivation and Learning
by Claudio Cubillos, Silvana Roncagliolo, Daniel Cabrera-Paniagua and Rosa Maria Vicari
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060488 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Sex differences have been a rarely addressed aspect in digital game-based learning (DGBL). Likewise, mixed results have been presented regarding the effects according to sex and the conditions that generate these effects. The present work studied the effects of a drill-and-practice mathematical game [...] Read more.
Sex differences have been a rarely addressed aspect in digital game-based learning (DGBL). Likewise, mixed results have been presented regarding the effects according to sex and the conditions that generate these effects. The present work studied the effects of a drill-and-practice mathematical game on primary students. The study focused on an analysis by sex, measuring motivation and learning in the practice activity. Also, two instructional mechanics were considered regarding the question answering to search for possible differences: a multiple-try feedback (MTF) condition and a single-try feedback (STF) condition. A total of 81 students from four courses and two schools participated in the intervention. The study’s main findings were as follows: (a) the girls outperformed the boys in terms of the students’ learning gains; (b) the girls presented lower levels of competence and autonomy than the boys; (c) under MTF, the girls presented lower levels of autonomy but no differences in competence contrasted with the boys; (d) under STF, the girls presented lower levels of competence but no differences in autonomy contrasted with the boys; (e) no sex differences existed in interest, effort, and value, in general, as per the instructional condition. This study enhances the knowledge of sex differences under diverse instructional settings, in particular providing insights into the possible differences by sex when varying the number of attempts provided to students. Full article
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15 pages, 3020 KiB  
Article
Childhood Environmental Instabilities and Their Behavioral Implications: A Machine Learning Approach to Studying Adverse Childhood Experiences
by Priscilla Mansah Codjoe, Nii Adjetey Tawiah and Daniel Alhassan
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060487 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) include a range of abusive, neglectful, and dysfunctional household behaviors that are strongly associated with long-term health problems, mental health conditions, and societal difficulties. The study aims to uncover significant factors influencing ACEs in children aged 0–17 years and [...] Read more.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) include a range of abusive, neglectful, and dysfunctional household behaviors that are strongly associated with long-term health problems, mental health conditions, and societal difficulties. The study aims to uncover significant factors influencing ACEs in children aged 0–17 years and to propose a predictive model that can be used to forecast the likelihood of ACEs in children. Machine learning models are applied to identify and analyze the relationships between several predictors and the occurrence of ACEs. Key performance metrics such as AUC, F1 score, recall, and precision are used to evaluate the predictive strength of different factors on ACEs. Family structures, especially non-traditional forms such as single parenting, and the frequency of relocating to a new address are determined as key predictors of ACEs. The final model, a neural network, achieved an AUC of 0.788, a precision score of 0.683, and a recall of 0.707, indicating its effectiveness in accurately identifying ACE cases. The model’s ROC and PR curves showed a high true positive rate for detecting children with two or more ACEs while also pointing to difficulties in classifying single ACE instances accurately. Furthermore, our analysis revealed the intricate relationship between the frequency of relocation and other predictive factors. The findings highlight the importance of familial and residential stability in children’s lives, with substantial implications for child welfare policies and interventions. The study emphasizes the need for targeted educational and healthcare support to promote the well-being and resilience of at-risk children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
19 pages, 501 KiB  
Article
Clear Yet Crossed: Athletes’ Retrospective Reports of Coach Violence
by Sima Zach, Shlomit Guy, Rinat Ben-Yechezkel and Liza Grosman-Rimon
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060486 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Aims: This study aimed at examining coach-athlete violence based on the retrospective reports of adults who had been athletes as children and adolescents; predict variables that contribute to the existence of such violence; describe difficulties that the participants encountered as young athletes following [...] Read more.
Aims: This study aimed at examining coach-athlete violence based on the retrospective reports of adults who had been athletes as children and adolescents; predict variables that contribute to the existence of such violence; describe difficulties that the participants encountered as young athletes following such violence; and reveal the outcomes of such violence on their emotions and behaviors, in the past and present. Methodology: The applied mixed methods comprised quantitative self-reporting questionnaires and qualitative interviews. The former included 440 participants (mean age 27.6) who had trained for at least one year in a sports union youth department; the latter included 14 participants (aged 23–37). These competitive athletes came from eight branches of sports. The interviews were analyzed based on the Narrative Approach. Results: According to the quantitative study, all participants had experienced coach violence at least once during their career, mainly psychological violence and neglect, followed by physical violence. Sexual violence was least reported. The age of their retirement from sports and the number of coaches that they had had were significant predictors of violence. Thematic analysis of the qualitative interviews resulted in six types of coach-athlete violence: (1) psychological violence; (2) verbal violence; (3) starvation and food fattening; (4) non-proportional punishing; (5) physical violence; and (6) sexual violence. Conclusions: It is vital that coach-athlete violence is addressed in public discourse, that the topic of young athletes’ safety is introduced into coaching education, and that a position holder is nominated to be in charge of such safety in all sports organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Psychological and Cognitive Development)
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10 pages, 242 KiB  
Perspective
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans: A Concept Analysis
by Tormechi Chambliss, Jung-Lung Hsu and Mei-Lan Chen
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060485 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs when an individual experiences a traumatic event that exceeds the limits of psychological endurance. Many veterans experience PTSD. PTSD can negatively impact veterans’ quality of life, functioning, life satisfaction, and overall well-being. It is important to analyze the [...] Read more.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs when an individual experiences a traumatic event that exceeds the limits of psychological endurance. Many veterans experience PTSD. PTSD can negatively impact veterans’ quality of life, functioning, life satisfaction, and overall well-being. It is important to analyze the concept of PTSD in the veteran population. This concept analysis aimed to investigate the defining attributes, a model case, antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents related to the concept of PTSD among veterans. Walker and Avant’s method was used to guide this concept analysis of PTSD. The results showed that three attributes were determined from the analysis: intrusive memories of traumatic events, feelings of isolation and estrangement, and negative cognitions. PTSD is conceptualized as a collection of symptoms that arise from highly traumatic experiences. The military environment predisposes veterans to traumatic events that should be identified or acknowledged. A better understanding of the concept of PTSD can facilitate the development of effective interventions for the veteran population and enhance their mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
32 pages, 739 KiB  
Systematic Review
Navigating the Grey Zone: The Impact of Legislative Frameworks in North America and Europe on Adolescent Cannabis Use—A Systematic Review
by Barbara Jablonska and Lilian Negura
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060484 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Objectives: This paper aims to systematically review the impact of legislative framework changes in North America and Europe on adolescent cannabis use. It not only seeks to examine the prevalence of adolescent marijuana use following legislative changes but also to identify the driving [...] Read more.
Objectives: This paper aims to systematically review the impact of legislative framework changes in North America and Europe on adolescent cannabis use. It not only seeks to examine the prevalence of adolescent marijuana use following legislative changes but also to identify the driving forces behind fluctuations in use and to address the gaps left by previous studies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted in selected databases. After screening English-language publications dating from 2013 to 2023 (n = 453 studies), 24 met the inclusion criteria. Articles were considered if they analyzed the impact of legislative changes on adolescent cannabis use in countries across North America and Europe. Synthesis: The overall findings suggest an inconsistency regarding the prevalence of cannabis use among youth and adolescents following policy changes. The effects of modifications in cannabis policies on marijuana consumption are complex and influenced by various factors. These include the details of legislation, societal perspectives, enforcement methods, socioeconomic status, and cultural background. Conclusions: The results of this analysis reveal a nuanced reality. Although research suggests a rise in cannabis use after legalization, there are variations in the outcomes observed. This highlights the significance of considering context and demographics. Moreover, studies shed light on how specific policy changes, such as depenalization, can affect cannabis use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Adversity and Addiction Behaviors among Adolescents)
14 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Metacognitive Awareness of Older Adult Drivers with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Relationships with Demographics, Subjective Evaluation of Cognition, and Driving Self-Efficacy
by Anastasia Tsouvala, Ioanna-Giannoula Katsouri, Despina Moraitou, Georgia Papantoniou, Maria Sofologi, Alexandrina Nikova, Pinelopi Vlotinou, Anna Tsiakiri and Magdalini Tsolaki
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060483 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 392
Abstract
(1) Self-regulation of driving is a means of maintaining one’s driving identity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which older drivers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are metacognitively aware of the requirements of specific demanding driving conditions and [...] Read more.
(1) Self-regulation of driving is a means of maintaining one’s driving identity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which older drivers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are metacognitively aware of the requirements of specific demanding driving conditions and whether this awareness is linked to subjective assessments of cognition. (2) One hundred seventeen (117) older MCI drivers participated in a telephone survey in which they reported their metacognitive experiences in nine driving conditions, listed as an aim of self-regulation. The analyses included the participants’ subjective cognitive assessments, both in terms of their cognitive state and their perceived driving self-efficacy. (3) The analyses pointed out a direct and negative effect of age on the formation of the metacognitive feeling of certainty. Furthermore, an indirect effect of sex through driving self-efficacy was established. This effect was negative in the case of the metacognitive feeling of difficulty and the estimation of effort and positive in the case of the metacognitive feeling of certainty. (4) This position points out the need to establish appropriate levels of the perceived self-efficacy of older drivers with MCI, and it raises issues when it moves to fictitious levels. Full article
10 pages, 252 KiB  
Article
Understanding COVID-19-Related Behaviors, Worries, and Attitudes among Chinese: Roles of Personality and Severity
by Jie Liu, Chun Cao and Yanyan Zhang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060482 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 323
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, people exhibited various forms of adjustments. This study examines how situational factors (i.e., the severity of COVID-19) and individual differences (i.e., the HEXACO traits) affect one’s COVID-19-related responses regarding behaviors (i.e., mask-wearing and hoarding), worries (i.e., worrying about infecting [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, people exhibited various forms of adjustments. This study examines how situational factors (i.e., the severity of COVID-19) and individual differences (i.e., the HEXACO traits) affect one’s COVID-19-related responses regarding behaviors (i.e., mask-wearing and hoarding), worries (i.e., worrying about infecting and spreading COVID-19), and attitudes (i.e., discrimination and empathy toward people infecting COVID-19) in China. With a sample of 927 participants, our results show that the severity of COVID-19 was predictive of all the responses, and its predictive value was more pronounced relative to personality traits. Concerning the association between personality traits and responses, Honesty-Humility and Conscientiousness were predictive of one’s behaviors, Emotionality was predictive of one’s worries, and almost all the HEXACO traits were associated with one’s attitudes toward people infected with COVID-19. This study sheds some light on understanding how situations and individual differences shape one’s responses in a time of emergency. Full article
13 pages, 719 KiB  
Systematic Review
“Leading through Crisis”: A Systematic Review of Institutional Decision-Makers in Emergency Contexts
by Ivan D’Alessio, Alessandro Quaglieri, Jessica Burrai, Alessandra Pizzo, Emanuela Mari, Umberto Aitella, Giulia Lausi, Ginevra Tagliaferri, Pierluigi Cordellieri, Anna Maria Giannini and Clarissa Cricenti
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060481 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 388
Abstract
This review aims to map studies on governmental and institutional decision-making processes in emergencies. The literature reveals various approaches used by governments in managing emergencies. Consequently, this article suggests the need for a systematic literature review to outline how institutional decision-makers operate during [...] Read more.
This review aims to map studies on governmental and institutional decision-making processes in emergencies. The literature reveals various approaches used by governments in managing emergencies. Consequently, this article suggests the need for a systematic literature review to outline how institutional decision-makers operate during emergencies. To achieve this goal, the most widely used databases in psychological research were consulted, with a specific focus on selecting scientific articles. Subsequently, these studies were rigorously assessed for their relevance using a structured literature selection process following the PRISMA 2020 guidelines. At the conclusion of the review process, nine studies were identified, each suggesting different methods by which governments manage emergencies. This diversity arises because emergency decision-making processes must account for numerous variables that change depending on the type of crisis and the specific context. However, several critical aspects have emerged, such as the centrality of pre-disaster planning to improve intervention practices and methods, attention to information gaps that inevitably arise during an emergency, and the importance of streamlining and delegating decision-making to emergency responders in the field to counter the phenomenon of centralized decision-making that often hampers crucial interventions during emergencies. Full article
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13 pages, 1102 KiB  
Article
Patient Adherence to a Real-World Digital, Asynchronous Weight Loss Program in Australia That Combines Behavioural and GLP-1 RA Therapy: A Mixed Methods Study
by Louis Talay and Matt Vickers
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060480 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Increasingly large numbers of people are using digital weight loss services (DWLSs) to treat being overweight and obesity. Although it is widely agreed that digital modalities improve access to care in general, obesity stakeholders remain concerned that many DWLSs are not comprehensive or [...] Read more.
Increasingly large numbers of people are using digital weight loss services (DWLSs) to treat being overweight and obesity. Although it is widely agreed that digital modalities improve access to care in general, obesity stakeholders remain concerned that many DWLSs are not comprehensive or sustainable enough to deliver meaningful health outcomes. This study adopted a mixed methods approach to assess why and after how long patients tend to discontinue Australia’s largest DWLS, a program that combines behavioural and pharmacological therapy under the guidance of a multidisciplinary care team. We found that in a cohort of patients who commenced the Eucalyptus DWLS between January and June 2022 (n = 5604), the mean program adherence was 171.2 (±158.2) days. Inadequate supplying of a patient’s desired glucose-like peptide-1 receptor agonist medication was the most common reason for discontinuation (43.7%), followed by program cost (26.2%), result dissatisfaction (9.9%), and service dissatisfaction (7.2%). Statistical tests revealed that ethnicity and age both had a significant effect on patient adherence. These findings suggest that DWLSs have the potential to improve access to comprehensive, continuous obesity care, but care models need to improve upon the one observed in the Eucalyptus Australia DWLS to mitigate common real-world program attrition factors. Full article
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13 pages, 1309 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Seller Trust in a C2C Platform on Golf Club Purchase Intention and the Interaction Effect of Regulatory Focus
by Chulhwan Choi, Inyup Lee and Hosuk Yoo
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060479 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 284
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aimed to investigate the influence of seller trust on the purchase intention of consumers of used golf clubs in the context of increasing C2C transactions and further explore the interaction effect of regulatory focus. (2) Methods: Data were collected [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aimed to investigate the influence of seller trust on the purchase intention of consumers of used golf clubs in the context of increasing C2C transactions and further explore the interaction effect of regulatory focus. (2) Methods: Data were collected from 200 participants who had experience purchasing golf clubs through the Carrot Market platform, employing a 2 × 2 experimental design. An independent samples t-test was utilized to examine the effect of seller trust on purchase intention, followed by a two-way analysis of variance to assess the interaction effect of regulatory focus. (3) Results: The results revealed a significant difference in purchase intention based on seller trust, with higher purchase intentions observed when seller trust was high compared to when it was low. Additionally, the interaction effect of regulatory focus was found to be significant in the impact of seller trust on golf club purchase intention. Specifically, when seller trust was high, no significant differences were observed among control focus groups. However, when seller trust was low, promotion-focused consumers exhibited higher purchase intentions than prevention-focused consumers. (4) Conclusions: These findings underscore the importance of seller trust in the context of an expanding market for online second-hand trading platforms. Full article
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13 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Coping on the Relationship between Work-Family Conflict and Stress, Anxiety, and Depression
by Cristina de Sousa, João Viseu, Ana Cristina Pimenta, Helena Vinagre, João Ferreira, Rafaela Matavelli, Helena José, Luís Sousa, Fernando Acabado Romana and Olga Valentim
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060478 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 388
Abstract
The challenges experienced in the context of the pandemic have required a significant reconciliation between work and family domains due to confinement and the need to spend more time at home, which may have increased the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression, making [...] Read more.
The challenges experienced in the context of the pandemic have required a significant reconciliation between work and family domains due to confinement and the need to spend more time at home, which may have increased the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression, making it necessary to use resilient coping strategies to overcome the difficulties felt. This study examined the effect of resilient coping on the relationship between work-family conflict and stress, anxiety, and depression in this context. Data were collected using a self-report protocol from a sample of Portuguese workers (N = 476). The results indicated that work-family conflict was positively associated with stress, anxiety, and depression. Resilient coping established a negative relationship with stress, anxiety, and depression. The moderation effect was not corroborated; it was found that in the presence of the moderating variable (resilient coping), the relationship between the variables of work-family conflict and stress, anxiety, and depression was strengthened. This study reinforces the importance of appropriate interventions in resilient coping in the work-family context, which helps control stress, anxiety, and resilience levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
12 pages, 728 KiB  
Review
Ineffective Learning Behaviors and Their Psychological Mechanisms among Adolescents in Online Learning: A Narrative Review
by Ji Li, Li Fang, Yu Liu, Jiayu Xie and Xiaoyu Wang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14060477 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 370
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries and regions experienced a surge in online learning, but the public complained about and questioned its effectiveness. One of the most important reasons for this was the inadequate metacognitive abilities of adolescents. Studies in learning sciences have [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries and regions experienced a surge in online learning, but the public complained about and questioned its effectiveness. One of the most important reasons for this was the inadequate metacognitive abilities of adolescents. Studies in learning sciences have identified various inefficient learning behaviors among students in online learning, including help abuse, help avoidance, and wheel spinning; all closely related to metacognition. Despite concerns about ecological validity, researchers in psychology have proposed the agenda-based regulation framework, the COPES model, and MAPS model, which may help explain the inefficient learning behaviors among adolescents in online learning. Future studies should aim to verify these theoretical frameworks within the context of online learning and elucidate the causes of inefficient learning behaviors; the design and optimization of online learning systems should be informed by theories in cognitive psychology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Behaviors in Childhood: Causes and Consequences)
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