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Behav. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Loneliness is an experience to which we can all relate. For many, chronic loneliness is strongly related to feeling like you do not matter. This feeling has been called “anti-mattering”. In this study, we propose that if loneliness and anti-mattering are indeed separate constructs, they will relate differently to a third variable. For the third variable, we chose self-reported measures of four distinct humor styles (affiliative, aggressive, self-deprecating, and self-enhancing). The results indicated a moderate correlation between loneliness and anti-mattering, but also similar profiles with humor styles. We discuss the implications of these similarities in terms of how we understand loneliness and how humor may be an indicator of psychosocial functioning. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
The Sense of Dignity at the End of Life: Reflections on Lifetime Values through the Family Photo Album
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110177 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 240
Abstract
This study focuses on the dimensions of dignity, linking Chochinov’s Dignity Therapy to Schwartz’s Theory of Values. The use of family photo albums has enriched the application of dignity therapy. Seven terminal patients in home-based palliative care participated in the therapeutic intervention. To [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the dimensions of dignity, linking Chochinov’s Dignity Therapy to Schwartz’s Theory of Values. The use of family photo albums has enriched the application of dignity therapy. Seven terminal patients in home-based palliative care participated in the therapeutic intervention. To measure the effects of the intervention, we administered the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale and the Patient Dignity Inventory, then, at the end of the meetings, collected the opinions of participants, available nurses, and relatives who attended the sessions. The resulting generativity documents were then analyzed through thematic analysis, which revealed three main themes linked to both fundamental values and the dimensions of dignity: The relationship between continuity of self and myriad values in the context of family relationships; personal dignity as characterized by the values of personal success, hope, and wisdom; and hope and generativity. The fourth theme reflected the participants’ final judgements on the intervention, which were highly positive and greatly encouraged further use of photographs in similar therapeutic interventions. The assessment protocol highlighted a significant decrease in tiredness amongst the participants and a trend towards a significant decrease in drowsiness after the intervention. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Numeracy Skills, Cognitive Reserve, and Psychological Well-Being: What Relationship in Late Adult Lifespan?
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110176 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Background: The capacity of understanding and manipulating numerical stimuli (i.e., numeracy) can impact decision making. This investigation was conducted to examine whether number comprehension and mental calculation predict hedonic (i.e., Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, SPANE) and eudaimonic (i.e., Flourishing Scale) well-being [...] Read more.
Background: The capacity of understanding and manipulating numerical stimuli (i.e., numeracy) can impact decision making. This investigation was conducted to examine whether number comprehension and mental calculation predict hedonic (i.e., Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, SPANE) and eudaimonic (i.e., Flourishing Scale) well-being in late adulthood, and whether cognitive reserve (i.e., education, time spent for gardening, and time spent for leisure activities) and non-verbal reasoning predict numeracy skills of old adults. Additionally, the effect of age on numeracy was examined, controlling for the effect of education and cognitive efficiency. Methods: One hundred and fifty-eight (i.e., 65–94 years old) community-dwellers completed a battery of tools assessing numeracy, cognitive and metacognitive efficiency, and psychological well-being. Results: Number comprehension, metacognition, time spent for leisure, and perceived physical health accounted for 23% of the variance in the SPANE condition, whereas metacognition, perceived physical health, time for leisure, and education explained 15% of the variance in the Flourishing condition. Moreover, cognitive reserve assessed in terms of vocabulary and education predicted mental calculation. Finally, aging significantly impacted the mental calculation performance of older participants. Conclusions: These findings suggest that numeracy skills can selectively impact the mental health and daily life of older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Developmental Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairmentmeasured by Resting State Functional Imaging
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110175 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as an intermediate state of cognitive alteration between normal aging and dementia. In this study, we performed a functional network connectivity analysis using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the association between changes in functional connectivity [...] Read more.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as an intermediate state of cognitive alteration between normal aging and dementia. In this study, we performed a functional network connectivity analysis using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the association between changes in functional connectivity in the brain and the improvement in cognitive abilities after cognitive training. A computerized cognitive training program was used to improve the abilities of fifteen participants with MCI. The cognitive training program (Comcog), which consists of three weekly sessions totaling 90 min, was conducted with all participants over six weeks. The cognitive abilities before (pre-Comcog) and after (post-Comcog) the cognitive training process were measured using a neurocognitive function test. After the Comcog, the participants enhanced their visual and verbal memories, attention, and visuo-motor coordination. The functional connectivity between cingulo-opercular (CON) and default mode (DMN) showed significant improvements after Comcog training. Therefore, our study suggests that cognitive training may improve the cognitive abilities of participants. This improvement was associated with an increase in the functional connectivity between DMN and CON. The increase in functional connectivity after cognitive training was specifically associated with overall cognitive functions, including executive, memory, decision-making, and motivational functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Workload and Work Flexibility on Work-Life Conflict and the Role of Emotional Exhaustion
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110174 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 346
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between contextual work-related factors in terms of job demands (workload—WL) and job resources (work flexibility—WF), work–life conflict (WLC) and the burnout dimension emotional exhaustion (EE) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between contextual work-related factors in terms of job demands (workload—WL) and job resources (work flexibility—WF), work–life conflict (WLC) and the burnout dimension emotional exhaustion (EE) in a large population-based sample. Building on the job demands resources model (JDRM), we have developed the hypothesis that WL has an indirect effect on EE that is mediated by WLC. We conducted a secondary analysis using data from the Dresden Burnout Study (DBS, N = 4246, mean age (SD) = 42.7 years (10.5); 36.4% male). Results from structural equation modelling revealed that EE is positively associated with WL (β = 0.15, p = 0.001) and negatively associated with WF (β = −0.13, p = 0.001), also after accounting for potential confounding variables (demography, depressive symptoms, and lifetime diagnosis of burnout). Both effects are mediated by WLC (β = 0.18; p = 0.001 and β = 0.08; p = 0.001, respectively) highlighting the important role of WLC in employee health. In summary, WF may help to reduce burnout symptoms in employees, whereas WL may increase them. Study results suggest that both associations depend on WLC levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout, Perceived Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction)
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Open AccessArticle
Time to Renovate the Humor Styles Questionnaire? An Item Response Theory Analysis of the HSQ
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110173 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 296
Abstract
The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) is one of the most popular self-report scales in humor research. The present research conducted a forward-looking psychometric analysis grounded in Rasch and item response theory models, which have not been applied to the HSQ thus far. Regarding [...] Read more.
The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) is one of the most popular self-report scales in humor research. The present research conducted a forward-looking psychometric analysis grounded in Rasch and item response theory models, which have not been applied to the HSQ thus far. Regarding strengths, the analyses found very good evidence for reliability and dimensionality and essentially zero gender-based differential item functioning, indicating no gender bias in the items. Regarding opportunities for future development, the analyses suggested that (1) the seven-point rating scale performs poorly relative to a five-point scale; (2) the affiliative subscale is far too easy to endorse and much easier than the other subscales; (3) the four subscales show problematic variation in their readability and proportion of reverse-scored items; and (4) a handful of items with poor discrimination and high local dependence are easy targets for scale revision. Taken together, the findings suggest that the HSQ, as it nears the two-decade mark, has many strengths but would benefit from light remodeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Suicide Attempts among 15- to 69-Year-Old Persons in Eswatini
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110172 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 328
Abstract
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of ever suicide attempt and past 12-month suicidal ideation, plans and/or attempts among persons aged 15–69 years in Eswatini. Cross-sectional nationally representative data from 3281 persons (33 years median age, range 15–69) of [...] Read more.
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of ever suicide attempt and past 12-month suicidal ideation, plans and/or attempts among persons aged 15–69 years in Eswatini. Cross-sectional nationally representative data from 3281 persons (33 years median age, range 15–69) of the 2014 Eswatini STEPS Survey were analysed. Results indicate that 3.6% of participants had attempted suicide, and 10.1% engaged in past 12-month suicidal ideation, plan and/or attempts. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, having family members who died from suicide and childhood sexual abuse were associated with ever suicide attempt. In addition, in unadjusted analysis, female sex, adult sexual abuse, threats and family member attempted suicide were associated with ever suicide attempt. In adjusted logistic regression, female sex, childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual abuse, threats, family alcohol problems and having family members who died from suicide were associated with past 12-month suicidal ideation, plan and/or attempts. In addition, in unadjusted analysis, 25–34-year-old participants, unemployed and other, childhood physical abuse, violent injury, family member attempted suicide and having had a heart attack, angina or stroke were associated with past 12-month suicidal ideation, plans and/or attempts. One in ten participants were engaged in suicidal ideation, plans and/or attempts in the past 12 months, and several associated factors were identified that can inform intervention programmes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
Open AccessReview
The Positive Impact and Associated Mechanisms of Physical Activity on Mental Health in Underprivileged Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Review
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110171 - 08 Nov 2020
Viewed by 601
Abstract
(1) Background: Review-based studies are required to consider the different designs and data that describe the association between physical activity and mental health for underprivileged children and adolescents. There is a particular need to identify mechanisms which could explain the association, and factors [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Review-based studies are required to consider the different designs and data that describe the association between physical activity and mental health for underprivileged children and adolescents. There is a particular need to identify mechanisms which could explain the association, and factors which influence the association in this population group. (2) Methods: An integrative review with a systematic search was conducted in three stages: (i) a systematic literature search on four databases from inception until May 2020. Studies were eligible if they examined underprivileged children, involved moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and had a focus on at least one outcome measure related to mental health. (ii) Two critical appraisal tools were used to assess quality across different study designs. (iii) Synthesis was undertaken in four stages, examining social, internal and physical outcomes and mechanisms. (3) Results: A total of 16 studies were included (2 qualitative; 12 quantitative and 2 mixed methods). Fifteen (15/16; 93.8%) showed an association between MVPA and a significant improvement in at least one mental health outcome. The most studied outcomes included: internal aspects (n = 14), significant effects were identified in 12/14 studies; social aspects (n = 6), significant effects were identified across all studies and finally physical aspects (n = 5), significant effects were found in 3/5 studies. Autonomy support was identified as a mechanism to explain the change, whilst age and gender influenced the strength of the association. (4) Conclusions: The findings provide confirmation of the link between MVPA and the improved mental health and wellbeing of disadvantaged children and adolescents. Future research must consider the long-term effect through longitudinal studies, along with determining whether any specific types of PA are more impactful than others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Physical and Psychological Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Brain Activations and Functional Connectivity Patterns Associated with Insight-Based and Analytical Anagram Solving
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110170 - 08 Nov 2020
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Insight is one of the most mysterious problem-solving phenomena involving the sudden emergence of a solution, often preceded by long unproductive attempts to find it. This seemingly unexplainable generation of the answer, together with the role attributed to insight in the advancement of [...] Read more.
Insight is one of the most mysterious problem-solving phenomena involving the sudden emergence of a solution, often preceded by long unproductive attempts to find it. This seemingly unexplainable generation of the answer, together with the role attributed to insight in the advancement of science, technology and culture, stimulate active research interest in discovering its neuronal underpinnings. The present study employs functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe and compare the brain activations occurring in the course of solving anagrams by insight or analytically, as judged by the subjects. A number of regions were activated in both strategies, including the left premotor cortex, left claustrum, and bilateral clusters in the precuneus and middle temporal gyrus. The activated areas span the majority of the clusters reported in a recent meta-analysis of insight-related fMRI studies. At the same time, the activation patterns were very similar between the insight and analytical solutions, with the only difference in the right sensorimotor region probably explainable by subject motion related to the study design. Additionally, we applied resting-state fMRI to study functional connectivity patterns correlated with the individual frequency of insight anagram solutions. Significant correlations were found for the seed-based connectivity of areas in the left premotor cortex, left claustrum, and left frontal eye field. The results stress the need for optimizing insight paradigms with respect to the accuracy and reliability of the subjective insight/analytical solution classification. Furthermore, the short-lived nature of the insight phenomenon makes it difficult to capture the associated neural events with the current experimental techniques and motivates complementing such studies by the investigation of the structural and functional brain features related to the individual differences in the frequency of insight-based decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Language Control, Semantic Control and Nonverbal Control
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110169 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 325
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between language control, semantic control, and nonverbal control in bilingual aphasia. Twelve bilingual adults with aphasia (BPWA) and 20 age-matched bilingual adults (AMBA) completed a language control task, semantic control task, and nonverbal [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between language control, semantic control, and nonverbal control in bilingual aphasia. Twelve bilingual adults with aphasia (BPWA) and 20 age-matched bilingual adults (AMBA) completed a language control task, semantic control task, and nonverbal control task, each designed to examine resistance to distractor interference. AMBA and BPWA exhibited significant effects of control on all tasks. To examine efficiency of control, conflict magnitudes for each task and group were analyzed. Findings revealed that AMBA exhibited larger conflict magnitudes on the semantic control task and nonverbal control task compared to the language control task, whereas BPWA exhibited no difference in conflict magnitudes between the language control task and semantic control task. Further analysis revealed that BPWA semantic control conflict magnitude was smaller than AMBA semantic control conflict magnitude. Taken together, these findings suggest that BPWA present with diminished effects of semantic control. In the final analysis, conflict magnitudes across tasks were correlated. For AMBA, semantic control and nonverbal control conflict magnitudes were significantly correlated, suggesting that these two types of control are related. For BPWA, language control and nonverbal control conflict magnitudes were significantly correlated; however, this finding may capture effects of domain general cognitive control as a function of increased cognitive load, rather than domain general cognitive control as a function of language control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bilingual Aphasia)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing a Virtual Multicultural Intervention for University Students
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110168 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 355
Abstract
The recent surge in acts of violence motivated by intergroup biases in the United States are of great concern. If allowed to progress, these conditions could create an unwelcoming atmosphere and could foster further division within the United States. Based on previous culture-related [...] Read more.
The recent surge in acts of violence motivated by intergroup biases in the United States are of great concern. If allowed to progress, these conditions could create an unwelcoming atmosphere and could foster further division within the United States. Based on previous culture-related studies, multiculturalism is a possible solution to reducing intergroup biases, as it positively affects implicit and explicit cultural attitudes, perceptions, as well as behaviors. The current study developed a virtual multiculturalism intervention as a means to improve intergroup relations and combat cultural biases within the undergraduate student population. Specifically, 249 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to the intervention condition and the control condition. Results showed that participants in the intervention condition had a significantly higher improvement in multiculturalism scores, supporting the incorporation of a virtual multiculturalism intervention in higher education. This study calls for the implementation of a better framework of understanding of how changes in multicultural events are perceived and how this can be used to create a more empathetic population who are more comfortable and understanding with one another. This inexpensive and timesaving model holds the possibility of being used in the future to aid in overcoming cultural differences between student populations and varying ethnics groups alike. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Rated Depressive Symptoms in Children and Youth with and without Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110167 - 01 Nov 2020
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often exhibit mental health problems, such as depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to describe the self-rated depressive symptoms in children with and without CP and to investigate the associated predictors. Participants included 24 children with [...] Read more.
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often exhibit mental health problems, such as depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to describe the self-rated depressive symptoms in children with and without CP and to investigate the associated predictors. Participants included 24 children with CP and 33 typically developing (TD) children. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Birleson Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children. Parents of the participants completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Severity of self-rated depressive symptoms was higher in children with CP than that in TD children. Particularly, decline in activities and enjoyment was identified as a contributor to the increased severity of depressive symptoms. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the greater severity of depressive symptoms in children with CP was mediated by hyperactivity/inattention and peer problems. Our study suggests that it is imperative to provide opportunities to participate in social activities from an early age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Correlates of Sexual Risk Behavior among School-Going Adolescents in Four Caribbean Countries
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110166 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 394
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents in the Caribbean. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were analyzed from 9143 adolescents (15 years = median age) that took part in the 2016 Dominican Republic, 2016 Suriname, 2017 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents in the Caribbean. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were analyzed from 9143 adolescents (15 years = median age) that took part in the 2016 Dominican Republic, 2016 Suriname, 2017 Jamaica, and 2017 Trinidad and Tobago Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). The results indicate that 41.4% of the students had ever had sex, ranging from 26.4% in Trinidad and Tobago to 48.1% in Jamaica. Among the sexually active, 58.8% had had ≥2 sexual partners; 58.6% had had an early sexual debut (≤14 years); 41.9% had not used birth control the last time they had sex; 28.4% had not used a condom the last time they had sex; and, of the whole sample, 31.9% had engaged in two or more (multiple) sexual risk behaviors, ranging from 16.5% in Trinidad and Tobago to 40.3% in Jamaica. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis, substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis), psychological distress, frequent soft drink intake, participation in physical fighting, school truancy, older age, and male sex were associated with single and/or multiple sexual risk behaviors. A large number of adolescents in the Caribbean reported sexual risk behaviors, emphasizing the need for intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex Desire, Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunction)
Open AccessArticle
No Laughing Matter: How Humor Styles Relate to Feelings of Loneliness and Not Mattering
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110165 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 498
Abstract
Loneliness and feeling that one does not matter are closely linked, but further investigation is needed to determine differentiating features. The relationship between not mattering to others (anti-mattering) and loneliness was explored by assessing how the two constructs correlated with an interpersonal dimension, [...] Read more.
Loneliness and feeling that one does not matter are closely linked, but further investigation is needed to determine differentiating features. The relationship between not mattering to others (anti-mattering) and loneliness was explored by assessing how the two constructs correlated with an interpersonal dimension, specifically four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, self-defeating, and aggressive). One hundred and fifty-eight women and 96 men completed a three-item loneliness scale, a new measure of anti-mattering, and a humor styles questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that the new anti-mattering measure is a unidimensional scale. Loneliness and anti-mattering were strongly correlated, and each correlated in the same direction with approximately the same magnitude as the four humor styles. The discussion concludes that anti-mattering and loneliness are strongly linked, a finding which may be important in psychological treatment. Humor styles also play a role in psychological well-being and present a unique pathway to mental health. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Mediating Role of Insomnia and Exhaustion in the Relationship between Secondary Traumatic Stress and Mental Health Complaints among Frontline Medical Staff during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110164 - 26 Oct 2020
Viewed by 479
Abstract
The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) brought significant psychological implications for healthcare professionals. We aimed to investigate the serial mediation effect of insomnia and exhaustion in the relationship between secondary traumatic stress (STS) and mental health complaints among the frontline healthcare professionals during [...] Read more.
The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) brought significant psychological implications for healthcare professionals. We aimed to investigate the serial mediation effect of insomnia and exhaustion in the relationship between secondary traumatic stress (STS) and mental health complaints among the frontline healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this cross-sectional study, 126 frontline healthcare workers from Romania completed validated surveys between March and April 2020. PROCESS macros were used to test the proposed hypotheses of the three-path mediation model. We computed the models for insomnia as the first mediator (M1) and exhaustion (M2) as our second mediator. STS was significantly related to insomnia. Insomnia was significantly related to exhaustion, and STS was positively related to exhaustion. In the third model, exhaustion was strongly and positively related to mental health complaints. The total indirect effect was positive, and the sequential indirect impact of STS on mental health complaints via both mediators in series (insomnia and exhaustion) was significant. Secondary traumatic stress had a positive direct effect on mental health complaints. In our limited sample, the results show that frontline medical staff during the COVID-19 outbreak have high STS, which are related to mental health complaints through insomnia and exhaustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout and Risk Factors in Nurses)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Emotional and Cultural Intelligences on Networks’ Behaviors in International SMEs: Evidence from Portugal
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110163 - 24 Oct 2020
Viewed by 457
Abstract
The major purpose of this research was to study the predictive value of the top managers’ psychological characteristics regarding their networking behavior. In the international business management context of small- and medium-sized enterprises, we took the top managers’ cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence [...] Read more.
The major purpose of this research was to study the predictive value of the top managers’ psychological characteristics regarding their networking behavior. In the international business management context of small- and medium-sized enterprises, we took the top managers’ cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence as determinant capabilities to perform better in their external networking. The sample was composed of 307 Portuguese SMEs’ international decision-makers, specifically founders, owners, chief executive officers (CEOs), managers of international activities, international market managers, or commercial managers. The data was collected from 2–30 April 2019 through online surveys directed to the Portuguese decision-makers that were directly responsible for the firms’ international activities. As a data collection instrument, the surveys were pretested and sent by e-mail. The average age of the participants was approximately 50 years old for males and 45 years old for females. We used self-reported measures to assess the different constructs and the hierarchical regression analysis to test our hypotheses. The results showed that cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence were significant drivers of decision-makers’ external networking behavior. A new factor structure concerning external networking behavior was retained. The major results exhibited the predictive value of some cultural and emotional intelligence dimensions over the new retained external networking behavior factors. Therefore, in the international business management context, the capability to adapt to new cultural contexts, as well as the capability to reason about emotions, improved the international decision-makers’ external networking behavior. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The COVID-19 Pandemic Can Impact Perinatal Mental Health and the Health of the Offspring
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110162 - 23 Oct 2020
Viewed by 915
Abstract
The COVID-19 ongoing pandemic constitutes a major challenge for countries throughout the world due to the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and devastating consequences in health. No one is free from COVID-19 impact. In this regard, pregnant women are not the exception. The COVID-19 [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 ongoing pandemic constitutes a major challenge for countries throughout the world due to the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and devastating consequences in health. No one is free from COVID-19 impact. In this regard, pregnant women are not the exception. The COVID-19 outbreak represents a massive source of stressful agents for women and their babies during the perinatal period. The COVID-19 pandemic has been suggested to potentially have short- and long-term detrimental effects on pregnant women and the baby. These adverse consequences range from mental to medical diseases. During the last centuries, several dreadful and fatal incidents have put pregnant women and their babies at higher risk of mortality and health deterioration. For example, it has been informed that women exposed to the 1918 flu pandemic (commonly known as the Spanish flu) while pregnant showed higher rates of premature delivery in the short term. Long-term consequences have also been reported and individuals (both males and females) who were exposed to the 1918 flu pandemic while in utero had a higher risk of developing schizophrenia, diabetes, coronary heart disease or cancer throughout their lifespan. Full article
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