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Behav. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2020) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this article, Jenkins, Hernandez, and Harris discuss findings from their recent study examing the drinking behaviors of African American college students. Strategic in selecting participants and location, these authors interviewed students attending a predominately African American college and university, commonly known in the United States as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), located in the southern region of the country. As this is primarly an area riddled with poverty, drugs, and high incidences of crime, Jenkins, Hernandez, and Harris were eager to investigate alcohol usage, consumption, and its impact on positive and negative expectancies, as well as self-efficacy outcomes among students attending this specific university. Findings revealed relationships between factors contributing to alcohol consumption in this population were complicated and warrant further studying. View [...] Read more.
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Article
Neuromodulatory Control and Language Recovery in Bilingual Aphasia: An Active Inference Approach
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100161 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Understanding the aetiology of the diverse recovery patterns in bilingual aphasia is a theoretical challenge with implications for treatment. Loss of control over intact language networks provides a parsimonious starting point that can be tested using in-silico lesions. We simulated a complex recovery [...] Read more.
Understanding the aetiology of the diverse recovery patterns in bilingual aphasia is a theoretical challenge with implications for treatment. Loss of control over intact language networks provides a parsimonious starting point that can be tested using in-silico lesions. We simulated a complex recovery pattern (alternate antagonism and paradoxical translation) to test the hypothesis—from an established hierarchical control model—that loss of control was mediated by constraints on neuromodulatory resources. We used active (Bayesian) inference to simulate a selective loss of sensory precision; i.e., confidence in the causes of sensations. This in-silico lesion altered the precision of beliefs about task relevant states, including appropriate actions, and reproduced exactly the recovery pattern of interest. As sensory precision has been linked to acetylcholine release, these simulations endorse the conjecture that loss of neuromodulatory control can explain this atypical recovery pattern. We discuss the relevance of this finding for other recovery patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bilingual Aphasia)
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Article
A Challenge for Palliative Psychology: Freedom of Choice at the End of Life among the Attitudes of Physicians and Nurses
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100160 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1497
Abstract
This article considers a particular aspect of palliative psychology that is inherent to the needs in the area of attitudes concerning Advance Healthcare Directives (AHDs) among Italian physicians and nurses after the promulgation of Law No. 219/2017 on AHDs and informed consent in [...] Read more.
This article considers a particular aspect of palliative psychology that is inherent to the needs in the area of attitudes concerning Advance Healthcare Directives (AHDs) among Italian physicians and nurses after the promulgation of Law No. 219/2017 on AHDs and informed consent in 2018. The study utilized a mixed-method approach. The group of participants was composed of 102 healthcare professionals (63 females and 39 males). The quantitative part utilized the following scales: Attitudes toward Euthanasia, the Religious Orientation Scale, the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, and the Testoni Death Representation Scale. The results were mostly in line with the current literature, especially concerning a positive correlation between religiosity and the participants’ rejection of the idea of euthanasia. However, the qualitative results showed both positive and negative attitudes towards AHDs, with four main thematic areas: “Positive aspects of the new law and of AHDs”, “Negative aspects of the new law and of AHDs”, “Changes that occurred in the professional context and critical incidents”, and “Attitudes towards euthanasia requests.” It emerged that there is not any polarization between Catholics or religious people and secularists: Their positions are substantially similar with respect to all aspects, including with regard to euthanasia. The general result is that the law is not sufficiently understood, and so a quarter of the participants associate AHDs with euthanasia. Discussions on the opportunity for palliative psychologists to help health professionals to better manage these issues through death education courses are presented. Full article
Article
Network Structure of Affective Communication and Shared Emotion in Teams
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100159 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
This paper identifies the relative effectiveness of two mechanisms of emotional contagion on shared emotion in teams: explicit mechanism (active spreading of one’s emotion) and implicit mechanism (passive mimicry of others’ emotion). Using social network analysis, this paper analyzes affective communication networks involving [...] Read more.
This paper identifies the relative effectiveness of two mechanisms of emotional contagion on shared emotion in teams: explicit mechanism (active spreading of one’s emotion) and implicit mechanism (passive mimicry of others’ emotion). Using social network analysis, this paper analyzes affective communication networks involving or excluding a focal person in the process of emotional contagion by disaggregating team emotional contagion into individual acts of sending or receiving emotion-laden responses. Through an experiment with 38 pre-existing work teams, including undergraduate or MBA project teams and teams of student club or co-op officers, we found that the explicit emotional contagion mechanism was a more stable channel for emotional contagion than the implicit emotional contagion mechanism. Active participation in affective communication, measured by outdegree centrality in affective communication networks, was positively and significantly associated with emotional contagion with other members. In contrast, a team member’s passive observation of humor, measured by ego network density, led to emotional divergence when all other members engaged in humor communication. Our study sheds light on the micro-level process of emotional contagion. The individual-level process of emotional convergence varies with the relational pattern of affective networks, and emotion contagion in teams depends on the interplay of the active expresser and the passive spectator in affective networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Abilities: Cross-Sectional Study across School Education
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100158 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2439
Abstract
The relationship between cognitive abilities and academic achievement across schooling from the first to the eleventh grade was analyzed. Information processing speed, visuospatial working memory, number sense, and fluid intelligence were considered predictors of general academic achievement, which was derived from grades in [...] Read more.
The relationship between cognitive abilities and academic achievement across schooling from the first to the eleventh grade was analyzed. Information processing speed, visuospatial working memory, number sense, and fluid intelligence were considered predictors of general academic achievement, which was derived from grades in mathematics, language, and biology. This cross-sectional study involved 1560 pupils who were in grades 1–11 at general education schools and were aged from 6.8 to 19.1 years (50.4% were boys). Information processing speed, visuospatial working memory, and number sense were measured using the Choice Reaction Time, Corsi Block-Tapping, and Number Sense computerized tests, respectively. Fluid intelligence was measured using the paper-and-pencil version of the Standard Progressive Matrices test. Correlation analysis and structural equation modeling were carried out. It was shown that it is possible to describe the structure of the relationship between cognitive abilities and academic achievement for all levels of schooling with a single model. In this model, information processing speed is the key predictor of fluid intelligence, working memory, and number sense, which in turn contribute to individual differences in academic success. Additionally, the specificity of the relationship between individual indicators of cognitive abilities and academic achievement at each level of schooling was revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
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Article
Semantics Based on the Physical Characteristics of Facial Expressions Used to Produce Japanese Vowels
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100157 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
Previous studies have reported that verbal sounds are associated—non-arbitrarily—with specific meanings (e.g., sound symbolism and onomatopoeia), including visual forms of information such as facial expressions; however, it remains unclear how mouth shapes used to utter each vowel create our semantic impressions. We asked [...] Read more.
Previous studies have reported that verbal sounds are associated—non-arbitrarily—with specific meanings (e.g., sound symbolism and onomatopoeia), including visual forms of information such as facial expressions; however, it remains unclear how mouth shapes used to utter each vowel create our semantic impressions. We asked 81 Japanese participants to evaluate mouth shapes associated with five Japanese vowels by using 10 five-item semantic differential scales. The results reveal that the physical characteristics of the facial expressions (mouth shapes) induced specific evaluations. For example, the mouth shape made to voice the vowel “a” was the one with the biggest, widest, and highest facial components compared to other mouth shapes, and people perceived words containing that vowel sound as bigger. The mouth shapes used to pronounce the vowel “i” were perceived as more likable than the other four vowels. These findings indicate that the mouth shapes producing vowels imply specific meanings. Our study provides clues about the meaning of verbal sounds and what the facial expressions in communication represent to the perceiver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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Article
Motor Coordination Disorders Evaluated through the Grid Test and Changes in the Nigral Nrf2 mRNA Expression in Rats with Pedunculopontine Lesion
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100156 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Neurotoxic lesion of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is known to cause subtle motor dysfunctions. However, motor coordination during advance on a discontinuous and elevated surface has not been studied. It is also not known whether there are changes in the mRNA expression of [...] Read more.
Neurotoxic lesion of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is known to cause subtle motor dysfunctions. However, motor coordination during advance on a discontinuous and elevated surface has not been studied. It is also not known whether there are changes in the mRNA expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) in nigral tissue. Methods: The effects of the unilateral neurotoxic lesion of the PPN in motor coordination evaluated through grid test and Nrf2 mRNA expression in nigral tissue were evaluated. Two experimental designs (ED) were organized: ED#1 behavioral study (7 and 30 days after PPN lesion) and ED#2 molecular biology study (24 h, 48 h and 7 days) after PPN lesion. Results: ED#1—The number of faults made with left limbs, were significant higher in the lesioned groups (p < 0.01) both 7 and 30 days post-lesion. The number of failures made by the right limbs, was also significantly higher (p < 0.05) vs. control groups. ED#2—Nrf2 mRNA expression showed an increase 24 h after PPN injury (p < 0.01), followed by a peak of expression 48 h post injury (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Disorders of motor coordination associated with PPN injury are bilateral. The increased Nrf2 mRNA expression could represent an adaptive response to oxidative stress in the nigral tissue following pontine injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behavioral Disorders, Coronavirus and the Nervous System)
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Article
Lexical and Cognitive Underpinnings of Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Bengali-English Bilingual Aphasia
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100155 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Research in bilingual healthy controls (BHC) has illustrated that detailed characterization of verbal fluency along with separate measures of executive control stand to inform our understanding of the lexical and cognitive underpinnings of the task. Such data are currently lacking in bilinguals with [...] Read more.
Research in bilingual healthy controls (BHC) has illustrated that detailed characterization of verbal fluency along with separate measures of executive control stand to inform our understanding of the lexical and cognitive underpinnings of the task. Such data are currently lacking in bilinguals with aphasia (BWA). We aimed to compare the characteristics of verbal fluency performance (semantic, letter) in Bengali–English BWA and BHC, in terms of cross-linguistic differences, variation on the parameters of bilingualism, and cognitive underpinnings. BWA showed significant differences on verbal fluency variables where executive control demands were higher (fluency difference score, number of switches, between-cluster pauses); whilst performed similarly on variables where executive control demands were lower (cluster size, within-cluster pauses). Despite clear cross-linguistic advantage in Bengali for BHC, no cross-linguistic differences were noted in BWA. BWA who were most affected in the independent executive control measures also showed greater impairment in letter fluency condition. Correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship for BWA between inhibitory control and number of correct responses, initial retrieval time, and number of switches. This research contributes to the debate of underlying mechanisms of word retrieval deficits in aphasia, and adds to the nascent literature of BWA in South Asian languages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bilingual Aphasia)
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Article
Delta Event-Related Oscillations Are Related to a History of Extreme Binge Drinking in Adolescence and Lifetime Suicide Risk
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100154 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Alcohol exposure typically begins in adolescence, and heavy binge drinking is associated with health risk behaviors. Event-related oscillations (EROs) may represent sensitive biomarkers or endophenotypes for early alcohol exposure as well as other risk behaviors such as suicidal thoughts and actions. In this [...] Read more.
Alcohol exposure typically begins in adolescence, and heavy binge drinking is associated with health risk behaviors. Event-related oscillations (EROs) may represent sensitive biomarkers or endophenotypes for early alcohol exposure as well as other risk behaviors such as suicidal thoughts and actions. In this study, young adults (age 18–30 years) of American Indian (AI) (n = 479) and Mexican American (MA) (n = 705) ancestry were clinically assessed, and EROs were generated to happy, sad and neutral faces. Extreme adolescent binge drinking (10+ drinks) was common (20%) in this population of AI/MA and associated with a significantly increased risk of a lifetime history of suicidal acts (SA, suicide attempts, deaths) but not suicidal thoughts (ST, ideation, plans). ST were reported among MA participants, whereas SA were more common among AI young adults. Extreme adolescent binge drinking was also associated with errors in detection of sad and neutral faces, increases in delta ERO energy, and decreases in phase locking (PL), particularly in parietal areas. A lifetime history of ST was associated with increases in delta ERO energy and PL, whereas SA were associated with decreases in both. These studies suggest that ERO measures may represent important potential biomarkers of adolescent extreme binge drinking and risk for suicidal behaviors. Full article
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Article
African American College Students’ Drinking Behaviors and Their Relationship to Self-Efficacy and Positive or Negative Expectancies Regarding Alcohol Consumption
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100153 - 06 Oct 2020
Viewed by 939
Abstract
College students’ alcohol consumption remains a significant concern for colleges and universities. However, most research overwhelmingly utilizes White samples from predominantly White universities, limiting knowledge of African American students’ drinking behaviors on historically Black campuses. This study examined alcohol usage among African American [...] Read more.
College students’ alcohol consumption remains a significant concern for colleges and universities. However, most research overwhelmingly utilizes White samples from predominantly White universities, limiting knowledge of African American students’ drinking behaviors on historically Black campuses. This study examined alcohol usage among African American college students by investigating relationships between alcohol consumption and positive and negative expectancies as well as self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 282 students was used. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) measured alcohol consumption and identified individuals whose consumption created hazardous drinking patterns. Alcohol expectancy was measured by the Alcohol Effects Questionnaire (AEQ), and the Spheres of Control Scale measured self-efficacy. Students in this sample tended to believe that alcohol consumption was linked with more negative than positive alcohol expectancy beliefs. Alcohol expectancies, specifically positive expectancies, appeared to play a significant role in predicting alcohol consumption. There was also a positive relationship between positive expectancies and alcohol consumption. Despite these results, our regression model was only able to account for about 20% of the variance (r2 = 0.187). These findings are important in developing prevention and intervention programs to address the pervasive and critical social ills and reduce alcohol consumption among African American college students. Full article
Article
Cyber and Offline Dating Abuse in a Portuguese Sample: Prevalence and Context of Abuse
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100152 - 05 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
The increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and networking has promoted the occurrence of different forms of victimization, specifically in terms of interpersonal interaction (e.g., cyberbullying or online risk-taking behaviour), which also includes cyber dating abuse (CDA). Some studies report that [...] Read more.
The increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and networking has promoted the occurrence of different forms of victimization, specifically in terms of interpersonal interaction (e.g., cyberbullying or online risk-taking behaviour), which also includes cyber dating abuse (CDA). Some studies report that CDA is an extension of offline dating abuse (ODA). Because Portuguese studies in this area are scarce, this study aims to bridge this knowledge gap, seeking to investigate the extent and the context of CDA occurrence, and the relationship between CDA and all forms of ODA, i.e., physical, verbal–emotional and control. A convenience sample of 173 Portuguese adolescents and young adults was studied. This sample is mostly female (86.7%), has a mean (M) age of 25.36 years old and a standard deviation (SD) of 6.88 years of age. The results show that CDA and ODA among the Portuguese are very prevalent and related. Control (31.8 vs. 20.8%) and verbal–emotional ODA (26.7 vs. 20.2%) as well as control CDA (38.2 vs. 43.4%) were the most prevalent forms of abuse, either in terms of victimization or in terms of perpetration. The results also showed that CDA usually appears in a context of jealousy, also explaining control CDA and CDA direct aggression. A significant relationship between control CDA and CDA direct aggression and physical, verbal–emotional and control ODA was found. Experiencing control and verbal–emotional ODA are the main risk factors of control CDA victimization. This study allows to lay the groundwork for further research on dating victimization and perpetration through ICT, and has important practical implications at the level of Portuguese prevention strategies and intervention policies, thus emphasizing the role of the official authorities and the law itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Developmental Psychology)
Article
Retirement or no Retirement? The Decision’s Effects on Cognitive Functioning, Well-Being, and Quality of Life
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100151 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
This study addressed the psychological effects on personal well-being and reported quality of life of staying professionally active in late adulthood, and to what extent years of professional inactivity modulates cognitive abilities. Design and Methods: We collected data on 262 elderly adults, 129 [...] Read more.
This study addressed the psychological effects on personal well-being and reported quality of life of staying professionally active in late adulthood, and to what extent years of professional inactivity modulates cognitive abilities. Design and Methods: We collected data on 262 elderly adults, 129 of whom were professionally active elderly adults (who voluntarily maintained their professional activity after the age of retirement) and 133 of whom were retired adults, in a set of experimental tasks to measure basic cognitive resources. The study took place during the first quarter of 2020. Results: Active elderly people performed better on cognitive tasks that assessed attention, memory, and solving abilities and also reported more satisfaction with life and their current work. Multiple linear regressions analyses revealed that years of inactivity were associated with lower cognitive performance. Mentally demanding jobs were significantly associated with memory performance, but not with attention and planning. Conclusions: An involuntary separation from professional activity in the beginning of late adulthood may cause a deeper decline of cognitive functions, poorer adaptive adjustment to the aging process, and higher dissatisfaction with the period of life the individual is going through. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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Article
Drivers’ Braking Behavior Affected by Cognitive Distractions: An Experimental Investigation with a Virtual Car Simulator
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100150 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1306
Abstract
In this study, a cohort of 78 university students performed a driving experience in a virtual urban scenario, by means of a car driving simulator, to examine effects of a planned hands-free mobile phone conversation on young drivers’ braking behaviors. To this aim, [...] Read more.
In this study, a cohort of 78 university students performed a driving experience in a virtual urban scenario, by means of a car driving simulator, to examine effects of a planned hands-free mobile phone conversation on young drivers’ braking behaviors. To this aim, a control group was left free to drive without any imposed cognitive task. An experimental group faced the same scenario while engaged in a phone call. The conversation via earphones was arranged to diminish the amount of cognitive resources allocated to the driving task. For both groups, the analyses focused on the moment at which a child entered a pedestrian crossing from a sidewalk. The results of a mixed two-way ANOVA showed the presence of a significant difference for distracted and non-distracted drivers with the absence of gender-related differences across the two groups. Distracted participants assumed lower initial speeds, took the first action to stop at shorter distances from the zebra crossing, and had more difficulty in keeping speed variations under control. These findings suggest that the distraction induced by the use of earphones may induce risk compensation behaviors and delay pedestrian perception. Moreover, the effects on the participants’ braking behavior suggest that the procedure adopted to increase cognitive load, based on a story retelling, is an effective method to analyze the impact of hands-free cellphone use on driving skills in a car simulation experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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Article
Relationship between Psychological Factors and Social Support after Lifting of Evacuation Order in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100149 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 976
Abstract
We examined the relationships among social support and psychological variables and investigated the status of social support among villagers whose evacuation order had been lifted. A written questionnaire was posted to 4828 registered residents of Iitate Village; 1405 valid responses were received. The [...] Read more.
We examined the relationships among social support and psychological variables and investigated the status of social support among villagers whose evacuation order had been lifted. A written questionnaire was posted to 4828 registered residents of Iitate Village; 1405 valid responses were received. The main finding (in joint assessment by local and external experts) was the “need for professional support” (191 respondents, 13.6%). A multivariate analysis found that among those living in permanent housing outside the village, the need for support was significantly more likely for those without emotional support or instrumental support than for those not providing support. The associations between perceived social support and living environment suggest the need to strengthen social support measures in areas where evacuation orders are yet to be lifted, and provide useful information for examining the effects of future support efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
Article
Prevalence of Worry-Induced Sleep Disturbance and Associated Factors among a National Sample of In-School Adolescents in Lebanon
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100148 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Persistent worry can cause significant distress among adolescents. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of worry-induced sleep disturbance (WISD) among adolescent school children in Lebanon. Cross-sectional, nationally representative data were analysed from 5849 adolescents (15 years median [...] Read more.
Persistent worry can cause significant distress among adolescents. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of worry-induced sleep disturbance (WISD) among adolescent school children in Lebanon. Cross-sectional, nationally representative data were analysed from 5849 adolescents (15 years median age) that took part in the “2017 Lebanon Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)”. The results indicate that the prevalence of WISD was 14.7%, 9.6% among males and 17.2% among females. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, loneliness, older age, female sex, having no close friends, infrequent bullying victimization, parents disrespected privacy, current tobacco use, ever cannabis use, high leisure-time sedentary behaviour and having sustained multiple serious injuries (past year) were associated with WISD. In addition, in unadjusted analysis, mostly or always feeling hungry (or low economic status), school truancy, having been physically attacked, frequently being in physical fights (past year), low peer support, parental emotional neglect, parents never checking homework, ever drunk and frequent soft drink intake were positively, and infrequent fast food intake was negatively, associated with WISD. One in seven students reported WISD and several associated factors were identified, which can aid intervention strategies. Multi-level interventions are needed targeting psychosocial distress, social-environmental factors and health risk behaviours to prevent WISD in this adolescent school population. Full article
Article
Perceptions and Emotional State of Mothers of Children with and without Microcephaly after the Zika Virus Epidemic in Rural Caribbean Colombia
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100147 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1306
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can cause neurological manifestations such as microcephaly. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of ZIKV and mental health in women exposed to ZIKV during pregnancy in Colombia. This was a mixed-methods study based on [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can cause neurological manifestations such as microcephaly. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of ZIKV and mental health in women exposed to ZIKV during pregnancy in Colombia. This was a mixed-methods study based on structured interviews and psychological tests. Structured interviews were transcribed and analysed with Atlas Ti software. A grounded theory approach was applied. Quantitative analysis was performed with Statistical Package for Social Science, SPSS, V. 20. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universidad de Córdoba, Montería. Seventeen women participated in the study; nine of them were mothers of children with microcephaly. Maternal age ranged from 16 to 41 years old. The main themes discussed during interviews were: feelings, support, sources of information, and consequences on children’s health. Women with children affected by microcephaly showed worse mental health compared to women with normocephalic children. Maternal mental health worsened after 24 months from giving birth. Perceptions regarding disease severity and lack of knowledge were considered to affect maternal mental health. Social support and spirituality were key determinants for caregivers. Future research is needed to further study coping mechanisms and mental health outcomes over time by affected populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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Article
Job Insecurity, Family Functionality and Mental Health: A Comparative Study between Male and Female Hospitality Workers
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100146 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
The aim of the present article is to compare the family functionality, mental health and job insecurity of employees of the hospitality industry in Puerto Vallarta and Bahía de Banderas, in México. This is a quantitative and cross-sectional study. The sample was selected [...] Read more.
The aim of the present article is to compare the family functionality, mental health and job insecurity of employees of the hospitality industry in Puerto Vallarta and Bahía de Banderas, in México. This is a quantitative and cross-sectional study. The sample was selected by non-probabilistic sampling for convenience and comprised a total of 914 people, of whom 438 were women (47.92%) and 476 were men (52.08%). The women surveyed reported more somatic symptoms, anxiety, insomnia and social dysfunction compared to men, which allows the conclusion that their mental health is vulnerable; meanwhile, men showed better perception of family functionality, a positive factor that reveals the family as a potential support factor that reduces stress, anxiety and improves men’s mental health. Another result reveals that the gender structure permeates the hotel sector, inequalities in the type of contract and income are corroborated, and the existence of a sexual division of labor to the detriment of women is confirmed, as they are mostly employed in low-skilled jobs that reproduce domestic tasks, particularly those related to cleaning and food service tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout, Perceived Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction)
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Article
Quantifying the Predictive Role of Temperament Dimensions and Attachment Styles on the Five Factor Model of Personality
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100145 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Background: The present study investigated the role of temperament and attachment security in predicting individual differences in the five factor personality traits among adults. As previous studies suggested the potential moderating role of attachment in the association between temperament and personality traits, the [...] Read more.
Background: The present study investigated the role of temperament and attachment security in predicting individual differences in the five factor personality traits among adults. As previous studies suggested the potential moderating role of attachment in the association between temperament and personality traits, the present study sought to examine an interactionist model combining attachment and temperament in explaining individual differences in personality traits. Methods: A sample of 1871 participants (1151 women and 719 men) completed self-report measures of adult attachment style (the Relationships Questionnaire—RQ), temperament dimension (the Fisher Temperament Inventory—FTI), and personality domain (the Five Factor Model—FFM). Results: Partial correlational analyses revealed associations between attachment security and each of the five domains of the FFM, and few associations between some temperament dimensions and several domains of the FFM. Moderated regression analyses showed that attachment security moderated the associations between temperament dimensions and the Agreeableness domain of the FFM. Among secure individuals, those with higher scores on the Curious/Energetic, Cautious/Social Norm Compliant and Prosocial/Empathetic scales exhibited higher Agreeableness scores, whereas among insecure individuals, those with higher scores on the Analytic/Tough-minded scale exhibited lower scores on the Agreeableness scale. Conclusion: Overall, the current study provides evidence in support of the substantive role of social-environmental factors (Adult Attachment) as a moderating element bridging temperament-related personality elements and a number of their FFM manifestations. Full article
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