Bilingual Aphasia

A special issue of Behavioral Sciences (ISSN 2076-328X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2020) | Viewed by 27606

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 0801 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: bilingual aphasia; non-linguistic deficits in aphasia; cognitive control and language

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research in the field of bilingualism is growing in many areas, ranging from linguistic issues with processing two languages to its non-linguistic collateral effects. However, the number of studies with brain-damaged bilingual patients remains low, and there is a special need for such evidence in order to foster evidence-based clinical practices in the context of language disorders. This need is strongly motivated by the fact that, in the future, the number of people who speak a second language will increase and, at the same time, the risk of age-related disorders will increase as a consequence of a longer life expectancy.

This Special Issue provides an opportunity to report studies that aim to identify current issues in bilingual aphasia (following a stroke or neurodegeneration) regarding a range of topics, including assessment of the two languages, cross-language interactions of deficits, clinical outcomes, and non-linguistic deficits in bilingual patients with aphasia.

Prof. Dr. Marco Calabria
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • bilingual aphasia
  • language disorders
  • cross-language deficits
  • cross-language recovery
  • progressive aphasia
  • stroke aphasia

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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25 pages, 2015 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Language Control, Semantic Control and Nonverbal Control
by Teresa Gray
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10110169 - 6 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2509
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between language control, semantic control, and nonverbal control in bilingual aphasia. Twelve bilingual adults with aphasia (BPWA) and 20 age-matched bilingual adults (AMBA) completed a language control task, semantic control task, and nonverbal [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between language control, semantic control, and nonverbal control in bilingual aphasia. Twelve bilingual adults with aphasia (BPWA) and 20 age-matched bilingual adults (AMBA) completed a language control task, semantic control task, and nonverbal control task, each designed to examine resistance to distractor interference. AMBA and BPWA exhibited significant effects of control on all tasks. To examine efficiency of control, conflict magnitudes for each task and group were analyzed. Findings revealed that AMBA exhibited larger conflict magnitudes on the semantic control task and nonverbal control task compared to the language control task, whereas BPWA exhibited no difference in conflict magnitudes between the language control task and semantic control task. Further analysis revealed that BPWA semantic control conflict magnitude was smaller than AMBA semantic control conflict magnitude. Taken together, these findings suggest that BPWA present with diminished effects of semantic control. In the final analysis, conflict magnitudes across tasks were correlated. For AMBA, semantic control and nonverbal control conflict magnitudes were significantly correlated, suggesting that these two types of control are related. For BPWA, language control and nonverbal control conflict magnitudes were significantly correlated; however, this finding may capture effects of domain general cognitive control as a function of increased cognitive load, rather than domain general cognitive control as a function of language control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bilingual Aphasia)
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16 pages, 1026 KiB  
Article
Neuromodulatory Control and Language Recovery in Bilingual Aphasia: An Active Inference Approach
by Noor Sajid, Karl J. Friston, Justyna O. Ekert, Cathy J. Price and David W. Green
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100161 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3984
Abstract
Understanding the aetiology of the diverse recovery patterns in bilingual aphasia is a theoretical challenge with implications for treatment. Loss of control over intact language networks provides a parsimonious starting point that can be tested using in-silico lesions. We simulated a complex recovery [...] Read more.
Understanding the aetiology of the diverse recovery patterns in bilingual aphasia is a theoretical challenge with implications for treatment. Loss of control over intact language networks provides a parsimonious starting point that can be tested using in-silico lesions. We simulated a complex recovery pattern (alternate antagonism and paradoxical translation) to test the hypothesis—from an established hierarchical control model—that loss of control was mediated by constraints on neuromodulatory resources. We used active (Bayesian) inference to simulate a selective loss of sensory precision; i.e., confidence in the causes of sensations. This in-silico lesion altered the precision of beliefs about task relevant states, including appropriate actions, and reproduced exactly the recovery pattern of interest. As sensory precision has been linked to acetylcholine release, these simulations endorse the conjecture that loss of neuromodulatory control can explain this atypical recovery pattern. We discuss the relevance of this finding for other recovery patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bilingual Aphasia)
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28 pages, 659 KiB  
Article
Lexical and Cognitive Underpinnings of Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Bengali-English Bilingual Aphasia
by Abhijeet Patra, Arpita Bose and Theodoros Marinis
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10100155 - 8 Oct 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3629
Abstract
Research in bilingual healthy controls (BHC) has illustrated that detailed characterization of verbal fluency along with separate measures of executive control stand to inform our understanding of the lexical and cognitive underpinnings of the task. Such data are currently lacking in bilinguals with [...] Read more.
Research in bilingual healthy controls (BHC) has illustrated that detailed characterization of verbal fluency along with separate measures of executive control stand to inform our understanding of the lexical and cognitive underpinnings of the task. Such data are currently lacking in bilinguals with aphasia (BWA). We aimed to compare the characteristics of verbal fluency performance (semantic, letter) in Bengali–English BWA and BHC, in terms of cross-linguistic differences, variation on the parameters of bilingualism, and cognitive underpinnings. BWA showed significant differences on verbal fluency variables where executive control demands were higher (fluency difference score, number of switches, between-cluster pauses); whilst performed similarly on variables where executive control demands were lower (cluster size, within-cluster pauses). Despite clear cross-linguistic advantage in Bengali for BHC, no cross-linguistic differences were noted in BWA. BWA who were most affected in the independent executive control measures also showed greater impairment in letter fluency condition. Correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship for BWA between inhibitory control and number of correct responses, initial retrieval time, and number of switches. This research contributes to the debate of underlying mechanisms of word retrieval deficits in aphasia, and adds to the nascent literature of BWA in South Asian languages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bilingual Aphasia)
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23 pages, 1299 KiB  
Article
Voluntary Language Switching in the Context of Bilingual Aphasia
by Nicholas Grunden, Giorgio Piazza, Carmen García-Sánchez and Marco Calabria
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10090141 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4604
Abstract
As studies of bilingual language control (BLC) seek to explore the underpinnings of bilinguals’ abilities to juggle two languages, different types of language switching tasks have been used to uncover switching and mixing effects and thereby reveal what proactive and reactive control mechanisms [...] Read more.
As studies of bilingual language control (BLC) seek to explore the underpinnings of bilinguals’ abilities to juggle two languages, different types of language switching tasks have been used to uncover switching and mixing effects and thereby reveal what proactive and reactive control mechanisms are involved in language switching. Voluntary language switching tasks, where a bilingual participant can switch freely between their languages while naming, are being utilized more often due to their greater ecological validity compared to cued switching paradigms. Because this type of task had not yet been applied to language switching in bilingual patients, our study sought to explore voluntary switching in bilinguals with aphasia (BWAs) as well as in healthy bilinguals. In Experiment 1, we replicated previously reported results of switch costs and mixing benefits within our own bilingual population of Catalan-Spanish bilinguals. With Experiment 2, we compared both the performances of BWAs as a group and as individuals against control group performance. Results illustrated a complex picture of language control abilities, indicating varying degrees of association and dissociation between factors of BLC. Given the diversity of impairments in BWAs’ language control mechanisms, we highlight the need to examine BLC at the individual level and through the lens of theoretical cognitive control frameworks in order to further parse out how bilinguals regulate their language switching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bilingual Aphasia)
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Review

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17 pages, 605 KiB  
Review
Variables and Mechanisms Affecting Response to Language Treatment in Multilingual People with Aphasia
by Mira Goral and Aviva Lerman
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10090144 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4793
Abstract
Background: Despite substantial literature exploring language treatment effects in multilingual people with aphasia (PWA), inconsistent results reported across studies make it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Methods: We highlight and illustrate variables that have been implicated in affecting cross-language treatment effects in multilingual [...] Read more.
Background: Despite substantial literature exploring language treatment effects in multilingual people with aphasia (PWA), inconsistent results reported across studies make it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Methods: We highlight and illustrate variables that have been implicated in affecting cross-language treatment effects in multilingual PWA. Main contribution: We argue that opposing effects of activation and inhibition across languages, influenced by pertinent variables, such as age of language acquisition, patterns of language use, and treatment-related factors, contribute to the complex picture that has emerged from current studies of treatment in multilingual PWA. We propose a new integrated model—Treatment Effects in Aphasia in Multilingual people (the TEAM model)—to capture this complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bilingual Aphasia)
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Other

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13 pages, 2143 KiB  
Case Report
Targeting Complex Orthography in the Treatment of a Bilingual Aphasia with Acquired Dysgraphia: The Case of a Malay/English Speaker with Conduction Aphasia
by Mohd Azmarul A Aziz, Rogayah A Razak and Maria Garraffa
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10070109 - 5 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6242
Abstract
Background: Disruption of spoken language in people with aphasia tends to interfere with the ability to write, which is referred to as dysgraphia. This study examined the effectiveness of the anagram and copy treatment (ACT), administered in English on a bilingual Malay/English patient [...] Read more.
Background: Disruption of spoken language in people with aphasia tends to interfere with the ability to write, which is referred to as dysgraphia. This study examined the effectiveness of the anagram and copy treatment (ACT), administered in English on a bilingual Malay/English patient with conduction aphasia (GM). ACT is the arrangement of component letters presented in scrambled order (i.e., an anagram) so that the patient could use the letters to form target words, followed by repeated copying of the word. Methods: A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used with sets of English words (both nouns and verbs) sequentially targeted for treatment. Prior to the treatment, a series of single word writing and reading baselines were conducted in two languages: English and Malay. The ACT treatment was done in English, the language reported as more dominant for reading by the patient. Probes assessing generalizations to untrained pictures were presented at 8th, 13th, and 18th sessions. Results: GM showed steady and incremental improvement in the writing of trained nouns and verbs, with generalizations to untrained English nouns and verbs. Conclusions: Single word writing treatment in a non-transparent language may improve dysgraphia among adults with bilingual aphasia through the administration of a structured and systematic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bilingual Aphasia)
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