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Animals, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2020) – 176 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The horse population in Fiji plays an important role in supporting the livelihoods of their owners. Horses are used in rural Fiji for a variety of functions. People rely on horses for transport, particularly in the wet season when remote villages are inaccessible even by 4x4 vehicles. Farm produce is carried to the markets on horseback, and family members are transported to schools and primary health care clinics. Horses are also used for pig hunting in the forests and horseback net-fishing in coastal estuaries. There is also an increase in the use of horses in the Fijian tourist industry. Despite their socioeconomic importance, though, working horses are often not included in animal health policies, educational initiatives or research projects in Fiji. In order to address this deficit, formal research was undertaken on owner husbandry practices and the welfare of working horses in Viti [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Starch Structure on Growth Performance, Serum Glucose–Insulin Response, and Intestinal Health in Weaned Piglets
Animals 2020, 10(3), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030543 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 755
Abstract
To investigate the effects of dietary starch structure (amylose/amylopectin ratio, AR) on serum glucose absorption metabolism and intestinal health, a total of ninety weaned piglets (Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)) were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments and fed with a diet containing [...] Read more.
To investigate the effects of dietary starch structure (amylose/amylopectin ratio, AR) on serum glucose absorption metabolism and intestinal health, a total of ninety weaned piglets (Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)) were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments and fed with a diet containing different AR (2.90, 1.46, 0.68, 0.31, and 0.14). The trial lasted for 21 d. In this study, the growth performance was not affected by the dietary starch structure (p > 0.05). Diets with higher amylose ratios (i.e., AR 2.90 and 1.46) led to a significant reduction of the serum glucose concentration at 3 h post-prandium (p < 0.01), while high amylopectin diets (AR 0.31 and 0.14) significantly elevated The expression of gene s at this time point (p < 0.01). High amylopectin diets also increased the apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and crude ash (p < 0.001). Interestingly, diet rich in amylose (AR 2.90) significantly elevated the butyric acid content (p < 0.05) and decreased the pH value (p < 0.05) in the cecal digesta. In contrast, diet rich in amylopectin (i.e., AR 0.14) significantly elevated the total bacteria populations in the cecal digesta (p < 0.001). Moreover, a high amylopectin diet (AR 0.14) tended to elevate the mRNA level of fatty acid synthase (FAS, p = 0.083), but significantly decreased the mRNA level of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1, p < 0.05) in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa, respectively. These results suggested that blood glucose and insulin concentrations were improved in high AR diets, and the diet also helped to maintain the intestinal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Differentiation of the Two Types of Polish Cold-blooded Horses Included in the National Conservation Program
Animals 2020, 10(3), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030542 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 847
Abstract
The current role of the horse as a companion animal resulted in a decrease of interest in breeding and usage of draft horses. This meant that the population of cold-blooded horses in Poland has been dramatically reduced during the last decades. To avoid [...] Read more.
The current role of the horse as a companion animal resulted in a decrease of interest in breeding and usage of draft horses. This meant that the population of cold-blooded horses in Poland has been dramatically reduced during the last decades. To avoid impoverishment of the gene pool of the local horse population, a conservation program was established which involves draft horses and other local horse breeds. The draft horses bred in Poland can be subdivided in a few horse types of which the most widespread and consolidated are Sztumski and Sokólski horses. These two subpopulations are phenotypically diversified, however, the overall level of their genetic differentiation seems to be relatively low and not precisely determined, especially with the use of molecular markers. In reference to this, in this study we used Illumina genotyping arrays to describe in detail the genetic differentiation of these two cold-blooded horse populations. We describe the genetic distance between them, as well as within-population variation, admixture patterns, and level of relatedness within populations. We also made an attempt to detect genome regions divergently selected between those horses by the detection of diversifying selection signals. The results of this study provide initial evidence supporting breeding decisions that were made during conservation breeding program design and answer questions raised by the breeders of Sokólski and Sztumski horses concerning the level of their genetic variation and differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horse Breeding and Genetics)
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Open AccessArticle
Cats Have Increased Protein Digestibility as Compared to Dogs and Improve Their Ability to Absorb Protein as Dietary Protein Intake Shifts from Animal to Plant Sources
Animals 2020, 10(3), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030541 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2306
Abstract
This retrospective study used 226 dogs and 296 cats to evaluate whether protein absorption was influenced by species, and within species, what influence increasing the percentage of total dietary protein, as plant protein, had on protein absorption. Each food was evaluated by at [...] Read more.
This retrospective study used 226 dogs and 296 cats to evaluate whether protein absorption was influenced by species, and within species, what influence increasing the percentage of total dietary protein, as plant protein, had on protein absorption. Each food was evaluated by at least one study with a minimum of six dogs or cats assigned to each study. Dietary inclusion of animal and plant based protein was calculated by analysis of ingredients and dietary inclusion level. Both dogs and cats were able to digest dietary plant protein, with protein digestibility in dogs unchanged as plant protein increased, while in cats, eating dry food, an increase in plant protein, was associated with increased protein digestibility. When individual plant high-concentration protein sources (excluding the protein from whole grains) were evaluated (i.e., soybean meal, soybean protein isolate, corn gluten meal, and rice protein concentrate) there was no response to increasing protein from these sources in the dog. In the cat, there was a significant positive effect on protein digestibility associated with an increasing concentration of corn gluten meal. In summary, as the dietary protein shifted from striated muscle and other animal proteins to plant based proteins, there was no effect in the dog, while in cats, increasing dietary plant protein was associated with increasing protein digestibility (5.5% increase at 50% protein from plants in dry cat food). Protein digestibility of food in dogs and cats is similar, if not enhanced, when the plant protein sources are concentrated from soybeans (soybean isolate, soybean meal), corn (corn gluten meal), or rice (rice protein concentrate). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Farm Animal Welfare Science in China—A Bibliometric Review of Chinese Literature
Animals 2020, 10(3), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030540 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Farm animal welfare in the People’s Republic of China (henceforth, China) is not well represented in the international scientific literature. This may lead researchers, advocates and those with agricultural partnerships in China to assume that animal welfare is not a field of interest [...] Read more.
Farm animal welfare in the People’s Republic of China (henceforth, China) is not well represented in the international scientific literature. This may lead researchers, advocates and those with agricultural partnerships in China to assume that animal welfare is not a field of interest there. This study reports a literature review of published pig and poultry welfare research in China using Chinese scientific databases. We aimed to determine which areas of welfare research have recently received academic attention in China. From an understanding of areas being studied, current and emerging priority areas for research could be determined. This study identified 854 academic publications citing pig or chicken welfare in China published between 2008 and 2018. Within these publications, two broader areas of significant attention were addressed in the context of animal welfare; yield and product quality, such as feeding, biosecurity and antimicrobial resistance, including immunity and second, the relationship of animal welfare with the Chinese philosophy of ‘ecological agriculture.’ Holistic systems were advocated to maximize sustainability and maintain a healthy environment, such as the creation of fermented bedding for pigs. Environmental enrichment was also a focus of attention, demonstrating an interest in animals’ mental welfare, which was usually conjectured from their behavior. Few of the articles were translated into English or other languages and therefore most were largely unavailable to the English-speaking global scientific community. This presents an opportunity to provide relevant animal welfare knowledge, which could improve animal welfare globally. China is a global animal trade leader and the home of the largest agricultural industries in the world. An increase in collaboration on animal welfare research and understanding of the advancements that have been made in China, as reviewed in this manuscript, could advance farm animal welfare from a global perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Welfare)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Supplemented Curcumin Improves Meat Quality and Antioxidant Status of Intrauterine Growth Retardation Growing Pigs via Nrf2 Signal Pathway
Animals 2020, 10(3), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030539 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) exhibits programming consequences and may induce oxidative stress in growing animals and humans. This study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that dietary curcumin may protect growing pigs from IUGR-induced oxidative stress via the Nrf2 pathway. Twelve normal birth [...] Read more.
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) exhibits programming consequences and may induce oxidative stress in growing animals and humans. This study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that dietary curcumin may protect growing pigs from IUGR-induced oxidative stress via the Nrf2 pathway. Twelve normal birth weight (NBW) and 24 IUGR female piglets were selected and fed control diets supplemented 0 (NBW), 0 (IUGR) and 200 (IUGR + Cur) mg/kg curcumin from 26 to 115 days of age (n = 12). Growth performance, meat quality, redox status and its related Nrf2 pathway were determined. Results showed that IUGR pigs exhibited decreased body weight on 0 d, 26 d and 56 d (p < 0.01) but had no difference on 115 d among NBW, IUGR and IUGR + Cur groups (p > 0.05). Compared with NBW and IUGR groups, a significant decrease in drip loss (24 h and 48 h) was observed in the IUGR + Cur group (p < 0.01). IUGR pigs had higher concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) (p < 0.01) and protein carbonyl (PC) (p = 0.03) and lower activities of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.02), catalase (p < 0.01) and peroxidase (p = 0.02) in leg muscles than NBW pigs. Dietary-added 200 mg/kg curcumin decreased concentrations of MDA and PC and improved the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase as compared to the IUGR group (p < 0.05). Additionally, dietary curcumin enhanced protein (NQO1) and mRNA expression of genes (Nrf2, NQO1, gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)) as compared to the IUGR group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary curcumin could serve as a potential additive to enhance redox status and improve meat quality of IUGR growing pigs via the Nrf2 signal pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Physiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Variability and Management in Nero di Parma Swine Breed to Preserve Local Diversity
Animals 2020, 10(3), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030538 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
Nero di Parma is an endangered swine breed reared in the North of Italy which nowadays counts 1603 alive pigs. The aims of this study were (i) to explore the genetic diversity of the breed at pedigree level to determine the actual genetic [...] Read more.
Nero di Parma is an endangered swine breed reared in the North of Italy which nowadays counts 1603 alive pigs. The aims of this study were (i) to explore the genetic diversity of the breed at pedigree level to determine the actual genetic structure, (ii) to evaluate the effectiveness of the breeding recovery project and (iii) to potentially propose breeding strategies for the coming generations. The pedigree dataset contained 14,485 animals and was used to estimate demographic and genetic parameters. The mean equivalent complete generations was equal to 6.47 in the whole population, and it reached a mean value of 7.94 in the live animals, highlighting the quality of the available data. Average inbreeding was 0.28 in the total population, whereas it reached 0.31 in the alive animals and it decreased to 0.27 if only breeding animals were considered. The rate of inbreeding based on the individual increase in inbreeding was equal to 7%. This study showed the effectiveness of the recovery project of the breed. Nevertheless, we found that inbreeding and genetic diversity have reached alarming levels, therefore novel breeding strategies must be applied to ensure long-term survival of this breed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morpho-Functional and Genetic Characterization of Local Breeds)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Pre- and Post-Weaning Mortalities in Rabbits Bred in Egypt, with Reference to Parasitic and Bacterial Causes
Animals 2020, 10(3), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030537 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the causes of mortality in young rabbits. A total of 110 V-Line breed female rabbits aged 5 m were used in this study. Rabbit kits were examined daily in pre- and postweaning stages to detect clinical disorders [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the causes of mortality in young rabbits. A total of 110 V-Line breed female rabbits aged 5 m were used in this study. Rabbit kits were examined daily in pre- and postweaning stages to detect clinical disorders that caused death. The postmortem examination was carried out on dead kits. Furthermore, rabbits were examined for the probable bacteriological and parasitological causes of death. Fecal samples were collected from each dead kit and examined by standard microbiological procedures for bacterial pathogens and macroscopically and microscopically for the presence of endo- and ectoparasites. Throughout two breeding seasons, 2238 newborns were obtained, of which 1736 died, accounting for a 77.57% mortality rate. During preweaning (1st month of age) and postweaning (up to 3 months of age), 1501 (67.10%) and 235 (31.90%) deaths were recorded, respectively. A postweaning fecal examination revealed that 198 out of 229 (86.50%) were diarrheic rabbits due to Eimeria infection. Cittotaenia spp. eggs were detected in 4.37% of fecal samples, and mites (Sarcoptis scabiei) were present in 6.55%. E. coli was detected in 100% of examined animals during pre- and postweaning periods; however, Salmonella spp. were 97.22% and 43.67, respectively. Managemental risk factors were the main causes in preweaning mortality, including insufficient milk supply (37.37%), cannibalism (26.38%), mange infestation of a rabbit doe (22.20%), mastitis (4.30%), lack of doe care (5.00%), bronchopneumonia (2.13%), and enteritis (1.80%). However, risk factors in postweaning mortality included sudden death with general septicemia (13.80%), enteritis (9.63%), bronchopneumonia (5.43%), mange infestation (2.04%), and malnutrition (0.81%). In conclusion, the etiology of preweaning mortality in kits was related mainly to the doe, especially managemental risk factors. However, a combination of multiple pathogenic agents (parasites and bacteria) and managemental factors was reported in the postweaning stage. Careful attention must be paid to avoid these causes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
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Open AccessCommentary
Progress in Veterinary Behavior in North America: The Case of the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists
Animals 2020, 10(3), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030536 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The American College of Veterinary Behavior has grown in number and in expertise over the past quarter century. There are now 86 diplomates, at least three textbooks on treating behavior problems, and a text on veterinary psychopharmacology. Although veterinary behavior began in veterinary [...] Read more.
The American College of Veterinary Behavior has grown in number and in expertise over the past quarter century. There are now 86 diplomates, at least three textbooks on treating behavior problems, and a text on veterinary psychopharmacology. Although veterinary behavior began in veterinary colleges, the majority of residents are now trained in non-conforming programs. Many more diplomates practice privately in specialty clinics or as separate businesses. Progress has been made in both diagnosis and treatment with polypharmacy, resulting in successful outcomes for many dogs and cats suffering from separation anxiety, fear, or aggression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamentals of Clinical Animal Behaviour)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Breed on Fatty Acid Composition of Meat and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Light Lambs
Animals 2020, 10(3), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030535 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Lamb meat is the main product of Central Italy transhumant farms, where lambs are traditionally reared with their mothers on pastures and are supplemented with concentrates and/or hay from day 20–30 until slaughter. However, few data are available on the fatty acid (FA) [...] Read more.
Lamb meat is the main product of Central Italy transhumant farms, where lambs are traditionally reared with their mothers on pastures and are supplemented with concentrates and/or hay from day 20–30 until slaughter. However, few data are available on the fatty acid (FA) composition of unweaned lambs reared by extensive systems in Central Italy. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of breed (Bergamasca, Italian Merino, and Sopravissana) on the FA composition of intramuscular (longissimus lumborum, LL) and subcutaneous (SC) fats of light lambs. Statistical analysis showed that breed had effect only on some FAs in LL muscle fat (C18:0, C20:0, C14:1, C16:1, C17:1, C18:3 n-3, trans and conjugated linoleic acid isomers) and in SC adipose tissue (C21:0, C16:1, C18:1, C20:4 n-6, C20:5 n-3, C18:1 trans isomers). Gas chromatography data in combination with a chemometric approach could have some potential to discriminate among breeds. Indices of nutritional quality of the lipids suggested that the meat of Italian Merino and Sopravissana lambs might have better nutritional quality than Bergamasca; further studies, involving a greater number of animals, are needed to confirm these early results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Products from Ruminants in Extensive Production Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Therapeutic Reagent, KA-1002 for Alleviating Lysophosphatidic Acid-Mediated Inflammation Related Gene Expression in Swine Macrophages
Animals 2020, 10(3), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030534 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Stresses and various infectious reagents caused multiple inflammatory diseases in swine in a livestock industrial environment. Therefore, there is a need for an effective therapeutic or preventive agent that could alleviate chronic and acute inflammation. We found that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a stress-induced [...] Read more.
Stresses and various infectious reagents caused multiple inflammatory diseases in swine in a livestock industrial environment. Therefore, there is a need for an effective therapeutic or preventive agent that could alleviate chronic and acute inflammation. We found that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a stress-induced potent endogenous inflammatory molecule, causes a broad range-regulation of inflammation related genes inflammation in swine macrophages. We further investigated the genome scaled transcriptional regulatory effect of a novel LPA-signaling antagonist, KA-1002 on swine macrophages, inducing the alleviated LPA-mediated inflammation related gene expression. Therefore, KA-1002 could potentially serve as a novel therapeutic or preventive agent to maintain physiologically healthy and balanced conditions of pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Physiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Soybean Meal Substitution by Raw Chickpea Seeds on Thermal Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Subcutaneous Fat Tissue of Broiler Chickens
Animals 2020, 10(3), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030533 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
In this study, the effect of soybean meal substitution by raw chickpea seeds on the thermal properties and fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat tissue of broiler chickens was examined. The experiment, performed on Ross 308 chickens, lasted for 42 days. Tight subcutaneous [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of soybean meal substitution by raw chickpea seeds on the thermal properties and fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat tissue of broiler chickens was examined. The experiment, performed on Ross 308 chickens, lasted for 42 days. Tight subcutaneous fat tissue was analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements while the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue was determined chromatographically. There was no effect of soybean meal substitution on fat crystallization temperature or crystallization enthalpy. However, the total calorimetric enthalpy of the melting of low-melting monounsaturated and saturated triacylglycerols differed between groups. Fatty acid proportions in the subcutaneous fat tissue of broiler chickens were also altered. Among others, chickpea seed inclusion decreased the content of main saturated acid (palmitic acid) and increased the content of main monounsaturated (oleic) and tri-unsaturated (linolenic) acids. The results show that the soybean meal substitution by raw chickpea seeds in the feed can affect the structural properties of adipose tissue in broiler chickens, including the thermal transformation of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to the numerous physiological functions of subcutaneous fat tissue, understanding these mechanisms can promote the use of alternative protein both in poultry and human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Seroprevalence and Clinical Outcomes of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Besnoitia besnoiti Infections in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
Animals 2020, 10(3), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030532 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
One hundred twenty-four water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) originating from 9 farms located in southern Italy were tested to investigate simultaneously, for the first time, the seroprevalence of the protozoa Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Besnoitia besnoiti by ELISA tests and to [...] Read more.
One hundred twenty-four water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) originating from 9 farms located in southern Italy were tested to investigate simultaneously, for the first time, the seroprevalence of the protozoa Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Besnoitia besnoiti by ELISA tests and to evaluate the clinical findings potentially associated to the presence of these aborting parasitic pathogens. Twenty-five of 124 buffaloes (20.2%) were positive for N. caninum, while 17/124 (13.7%) for T. gondii. No buffalo showed specific antibodies for B. besnoiti. Nineteen of 124 animals (15.3%) were found seropositive for both T. gondii and N. caninum. The univariate statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of N. caninum is significantly associated with abortion and presence of retained foetal membranes, while the seroprevalence of T. gondii is significantly associated with an increase of days open. The logistic regression models showed that the co-infection by N. caninum and T. gondii strengthened the abortive effects (OR = 7.330) and showed further negative effects on the parameter embryonic death (OR = 2.607). The outcome revealed herein represents a high exposure of N. caninum and T. gondii in water buffaloes with reproduction disorders that deserves attention for both economic reasons, animal health and welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in Domestic and Wild Ruminants)
Open AccessArticle
Interplay between Neuroendocrine Biomarkers and Gut Microbiota in Dogs Supplemented with Grape Proanthocyanidins: Results of Dietary Intervention Study
Animals 2020, 10(3), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030531 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
Several studies on the interaction between gut microbiota and diets, including prebiotics, have been reported in dogs, but no data are available about the effects of dietary administration of grape proanthocyanidins. In the study, 24 healthy adult dogs of different breeds were recruited [...] Read more.
Several studies on the interaction between gut microbiota and diets, including prebiotics, have been reported in dogs, but no data are available about the effects of dietary administration of grape proanthocyanidins. In the study, 24 healthy adult dogs of different breeds were recruited and divided in 3 groups of 8 subjects each. A group was fed with a control diet (D0), whilst the others were supplemented with 1 (D1) or 3 (D3) mg/kg live weight of grape proanthocyanidins. Samples of feces were collected at the beginning and after 14 and 28 days for microbiota, short chain fatty acid, and lactic acid analysis. Serotonin and cortisol were measured in saliva, collected at the beginning of the study and after 28 days. A significantly higher abundance (p < 0.01) of Enterococcus and Adlercreutzia were observed in D0, whilst Escherichia and Eubacterium were higher in D1. Fusobacterium and Phascolarctobacterium were higher (p < 0.01) in D3. Salivary serotonin increased (p < 0.01) at T28 for D1 and D3 groups but cortisol did not vary. Proanthocyanidins administration influenced the fecal microbiota and neuroendocrine response of dogs, but a high variability of taxa was observed, suggesting a uniqueness and stability of fecal microbiota related to the individual. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Influence of Anaesthetic Drugs on the Laryngeal Motion in Dogs: A Systematic Review
Animals 2020, 10(3), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030530 - 22 Mar 2020
Viewed by 761
Abstract
Anaesthetic drugs are commonly used during the evaluation of laryngeal function in dogs. The aim of this review was to systematically analyse the literature describing the effects of anaesthetic drugs and doxapram on laryngeal motion in dogs and to determine which drug regime [...] Read more.
Anaesthetic drugs are commonly used during the evaluation of laryngeal function in dogs. The aim of this review was to systematically analyse the literature describing the effects of anaesthetic drugs and doxapram on laryngeal motion in dogs and to determine which drug regime provides the best conditions for laryngeal examination. PubMed, Google Scholar, and EMBASE databases were used for the literature search up to November 2019. Relevant search terms included laryngeal motion, anaesthetic drugs and dogs. Studies were scored based on their level of evidence (LoE), according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine, and the quality was assessed using the risk-of-bias tool and SIGN-checklist. In healthy dogs, premedication before laryngeal examination provided better examination conditions and maintained overall adequate laryngeal motion in 83% of the studies. No difference in laryngeal motion between induction drugs was found in 73% of the studies but the effects in dogs with laryngeal paralysis remain largely unknown. Doxapram increased laryngeal motion in healthy dogs without serious side effects, but intubation was necessary for some dogs with laryngeal paralysis. Methodological characteristics varied considerably between studies, including the technique and timing of evaluation, number of assessors, study design, drug dose, combinations, route and speed of administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Lauric Acid on Lactation Function, Mammary Gland Development, and Serum Lipid Metabolites in Lactating Mice
Animals 2020, 10(3), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030529 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
Our previous studies demonstrated that lauric acid (LA) stimulated mammary gland development during puberty. However, the roles of LA on lactation in mice remain indeterminate. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary LA supplementation on lactation functioning [...] Read more.
Our previous studies demonstrated that lauric acid (LA) stimulated mammary gland development during puberty. However, the roles of LA on lactation in mice remain indeterminate. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary LA supplementation on lactation functioning and to study the potential mechanisms during lactation. in vivo, there was no effect of 1% LA dietary supplementation during lactation on the feed intake or body weight of breast-feeding mice. However, maternal LA supplementation significantly expanded the number of mammary gland alveoli of mice during lactation and the average body weight of the offspring, suggesting that LA supplementation enhanced the development and lactation function of the mammary glands. in vitro, 100 μM of LA significantly increased the content of triglycerides (TG) in the cell supernatant of induced HC11 cells, however, with no effect on the expression of the genes associated with fatty acid synthesis. LA also activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. LA dietary supplementation significantly expanded the serum levels of lipid metabolites, including sphingomyelin and other metabolites with the sn-2 position of C12 and sn-1 position of C18 in the TG of the lactating mice. Taken together, dietary supplementation of LA during lactation could promote the lactation function of mice, which might be related to increasing the development of the mammary glands and alternation of serum lipid metabolites. These findings provided more theoretical and experimental basis for the application of lauric acid in the development of mammary glands and lactation function of lactating animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Praziquantel in Sparus aurata L. after Administration of Medicated Animal Feed
Animals 2020, 10(3), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030528 - 21 Mar 2020
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Praziquantel (PZQ) is an anthelmintic drug used in humans and animals against Platyhelminthes and in aquaculture in the Far East. Medicated feed is one of the most convenient forms of oral administration of drugs in aquaculture because it allows to treat a large [...] Read more.
Praziquantel (PZQ) is an anthelmintic drug used in humans and animals against Platyhelminthes and in aquaculture in the Far East. Medicated feed is one of the most convenient forms of oral administration of drugs in aquaculture because it allows to treat a large population of fish in an easy way. However, this treatment may lead to residues in fish intended for human consumption. In this study, a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed in order to verify the presence of PZQ in samples of Sparus aurata after oral administration of feed treated with PZQ. The method was validated according to international guidelines. It showed good recoveries, selectivity and sensitivity (LOD and LOQ were 3.0 and 9.3 ng/g, respectively), with precision and matrix effect values ≤ 15%. This method could also be applied to determine PZQ residue in other fish species and thus to evaluate the appropriate withdrawal time in treated fish intended for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Animals)
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Open AccessReview
Development of Swine’s Digestive Tract Microbiota and Its Relation to Production Indices—A Review
Animals 2020, 10(3), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030527 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
The development of research methods and tools related to microbiome investigation, as well as widened knowledge and awareness concerning the significance of microorganisms inhabiting mammalian organisms, has led to an increasing popularity of studies in this field. This review paper presents some issues [...] Read more.
The development of research methods and tools related to microbiome investigation, as well as widened knowledge and awareness concerning the significance of microorganisms inhabiting mammalian organisms, has led to an increasing popularity of studies in this field. This review paper presents some issues related to the swine microbiome, its development starting from an early age of life and its status in adult animals, as well as factors affecting the microbiome in pigs. Attention is paid to the role of probiotics and prebiotics as alternatives to antibiotics in the context of post-weaning diarrhea treatment, and to the role of microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tract of pigs in performance indices formation. In veterinary and pork production practice, understanding of the swine microbiome and its relationships with the host organism may be useful in the prevention of some diseases and also in improvement of performance results of animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Pig Nutrition)
Open AccessReview
Factors Affecting Levels of Airborne Bacteria in Dairy Farms: A Review
Animals 2020, 10(3), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030526 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
This review attempts to reflect the importance of different factors that affect the environmental quality of dairy farms and must, therefore, be taken into account when considering the importance of environmental microbiology as a tool in the improvement of the quality of milk [...] Read more.
This review attempts to reflect the importance of different factors that affect the environmental quality of dairy farms and must, therefore, be taken into account when considering the importance of environmental microbiology as a tool in the improvement of the quality of milk and dairy products. The effect of a factor such as temperature is vital for the dairy farm environment, especially when the temperatures are extreme, because a proper choice of temperature range improves the quality of the air and, thus, animal welfare. Similarly, the appropriate level of relative humidity in the environment should be taken into consideration to avoid the proliferation of microorganisms on the farm. Air quality, well-designed livestock housing, proper hygienic practices on the farm, stocking density, and the materials used in the livestock houses are all important factors in the concentration of microorganisms in the environment, promoting better welfare for the animals. In addition, a ventilation system is required to prevent the pollution of the farm environment. It is demonstrated that proper ventilation reduces the microbial load of the environment of dairy farms, enhancing the quality of the air and, therefore, the wellbeing of the animals. All this information is very useful to establish certain standards on dairy farms to improve the quality of the environment and, thereby, achieve better quality milk and dairy products. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Herbicide Diuron as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) through Histopathalogical Analysis in Gonads of Javanese Medaka (Oryzias javanicus, Bleeker 1854)
Animals 2020, 10(3), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030525 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
The expeditious augmentation of the agriculture industry is leaving a significant negative impact on aquatic ecosystems. However, the awareness of the impacts of herbicide Diuron toxicities on the non-targeted aquatic organism, especially fish is still lacking. Javanese medaka, a new model fish species [...] Read more.
The expeditious augmentation of the agriculture industry is leaving a significant negative impact on aquatic ecosystems. However, the awareness of the impacts of herbicide Diuron toxicities on the non-targeted aquatic organism, especially fish is still lacking. Javanese medaka, a new model fish species were exposed under sublethal levels and the long-term effects on gonads were investigated via histological studies. A total of 210 sexually mature fish were exposed to Diuron at seven different concentrations; control, solvent control, 1, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 μg/L for 21 days. In this study, Diuron caused histopathological alterations in gonads (ovary and testis) of Javanese medaka (Oryzias javanicus) by decreasing in gonadal staging and maturity of germ cells in oogenesis and spermatogenesis of female and male Javanese medaka. The results obtained in this study had proven our hypothesis that long-term exposure of herbicide Diuron can cause alterations in the gonadal histology of the adults of Javanese medaka. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Pollutants on Fish)
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Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Scan for Runs of Homozygosity Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Economically Important Traits in Chinese Merino
Animals 2020, 10(3), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030524 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
In this study, we estimated the number, length, and frequency of runs of homozygosity (ROH) in 635 Chinese Merino and identified genomic regions with high ROH frequency using the OvineSNP50 whole-genome genotyping array. A total of 6039 ROH exceeding 1 Mb were detected [...] Read more.
In this study, we estimated the number, length, and frequency of runs of homozygosity (ROH) in 635 Chinese Merino and identified genomic regions with high ROH frequency using the OvineSNP50 whole-genome genotyping array. A total of 6039 ROH exceeding 1 Mb were detected in 634 animals. The average number of ROH in each animal was 9.23 and the average length was 5.87 Mb. Most of the ROH were less than 10 Mb, accounting for 88.77% of the total number of detected ROH. In addition, Ovies aries chromosome (OAR) 21 and OAR3 exhibited the highest and lowest coverage of chromosomes by ROH, respectively. OAR1 displayed the highest number of ROH, while the lowest number of ROH was found on OAR24. An inbreeding coefficient of 0.023 was calculated from ROH greater than 1 Mb. Thirteen regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, and 16 were found to contain ROH hotspots. Within the genome regions of OAR6 and OAR11, NCAPG/LCORL, FGF11 and TP53 were identified as the candidate genes related to body size, while the genome region of OAR10 harbored RXFP2 gene responsible for the horn trait. These findings indicate the adaptive to directional trait selection in Chinese Merino. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Characterization of Multidrug Resistant and ESBL/AmpC Producing Escherichia coli in Healthy Horses in Quebec, Canada, in 2015–2016
Animals 2020, 10(3), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030523 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
Although antimicrobial resistance is an increasing threat in equine medicine, molecular and epidemiological data remain limited in North America. We assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, shedding multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase-producing E. coli in healthy horses [...] Read more.
Although antimicrobial resistance is an increasing threat in equine medicine, molecular and epidemiological data remain limited in North America. We assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, shedding multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase-producing E. coli in healthy horses in Quebec, Canada. We collected fecal samples in 225 healthy adult horses from 32 premises. A questionnaire on facility management and horse medical history was completed for each horse. Indicator (without enrichment) and specific (following enrichment with ceftriaxone) E. coli were isolated and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. The presence of ESBL/AmpC genes was determined by PCR. The prevalence of isolates that were non-susceptible to antimicrobials and to antimicrobial classes were estimated at the horse and the premises level. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess potential risk factors for MDR and ESBL/AmpC isolates. The shedding of MDR E. coli was detected in 46.3% of horses. Non-susceptibility was most commonly observed to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or streptomycin. ESBL/AmpC producing isolates were detected in 7.3% of horses. The most commonly identified ESBL/AmpC gene was blaCTX-M-1, although we also identified blaCMY-2. The number of staff and equestrian event participation were identified as risk factors for shedding MDR isolates. The prevalence of healthy horses harboring MDR or ESBL/AmpC genes isolates in their intestinal microbiota is noteworthy. We identified risk factors which could help to develop guidelines to preclude their spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Horses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Alternative Administration Programs of a Synbiotic Supplement on Broiler Performance, Foot Pad Dermatitis, Caecal Microbiota, and Blood Metabolites
Animals 2020, 10(3), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030522 - 20 Mar 2020
Viewed by 805
Abstract
This research investigated the effects of different synbiotic administration programs on broiler productive performance and foot pad dermatitis (FPD). Molecular insights on caecal microbiota and plasma metabolomics were also performed. - A total of 1000 one-day-old male chicks were grouped by the synbiotic [...] Read more.
This research investigated the effects of different synbiotic administration programs on broiler productive performance and foot pad dermatitis (FPD). Molecular insights on caecal microbiota and plasma metabolomics were also performed. - A total of 1000 one-day-old male chicks were grouped by the synbiotic treatment. The synbiotic was either sprayed as gel droplets onto newly hatched chicks at the hatchery (100 g/10,000 birds) or supplemented in-feed during the entire rearing period (1000, 500, and 250 g/ton according to feeding phase), or both. Only the treatments’ combination produced significant results in comparison with the control group (untreated), improving feed conversion ratio from 14 to 29 d and in the overall period of the trial (1.570 vs. 1.509 and 1.643 vs. 1.596, respectively; p < 0.05) while lowering FPD occurrence at slaughter (17% vs. 5%; p < 0.05). These findings can be related to significant variations of caecal microbiota, like higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (with favorable implications for host’s energy-harvesting potential from the diet) and more beneficial microbial consortium presumably sustaining eubiosis. Overall, these results indicate that administering synbiotics through gel droplets at the hatchery combined to in-feed supplementation for the whole growing cycle positively affects broiler feed efficiency and welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Cloning and Expression Analysis of Two Kdm Lysine Demethylases in the Testes of Mature Yaks and Their Sterile Hybrids
Animals 2020, 10(3), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030521 - 20 Mar 2020
Viewed by 521
Abstract
The objective of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism for male sterility of yak hybrids based on two demethylases. Total RNA was extracted from the testes of adult yaks (n = 10) and yak hybrids (cattle–yaks, n = 10). The [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism for male sterility of yak hybrids based on two demethylases. Total RNA was extracted from the testes of adult yaks (n = 10) and yak hybrids (cattle–yaks, n = 10). The coding sequences (CDS) of two lysine demethylases (KDMs), KDM1A and KDM4B, were cloned by RT-PCR. The levels of KDM1A and KDM4B in yaks and cattle–yaks testes were detected using Real-time PCR and Western blotting for mRNA and protein, respectively. In addition, the histone methylation modifications of H3K36me3 and H3K27me3 were compared between testes of yaks and cattle–yaks using ELISA. The CDS of KDM1A and KDM4B were obtained from yak testes. The results showed that the CDS of KDM1A exhibited two variants: variant 1 has a CDS of 2622 bp, encoding 873 amino acids, while variant 2 has a CDS of 2562 bp, encoding 853 amino acids. The CDS of the KDM4B gene was 3351 bp in length, encoding 1116 amino acids. The mRNA and protein expression of KDM1A and KDM4B, as well as the level of H3K36me3, were dramatically decreased in the testes of cattle–yaks compared with yaks. The present results suggest that the male sterility of cattle–yaks might be associated with reduced histone methylation modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Reproduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Milk Production of Lacaune Sheep with Different Degrees of Crossing with Manchega Sheep in a Commercial Flock in Spain
Animals 2020, 10(3), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030520 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the grade of crossbreeding (Lacaune x Manchega) and environmental factors on milk production in a commercial flock in Spain. A total of 5769 milk production records of sheep with different degrees [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the grade of crossbreeding (Lacaune x Manchega) and environmental factors on milk production in a commercial flock in Spain. A total of 5769 milk production records of sheep with different degrees of purity of the Lacaune breed crossed with Manchega were used as follows: 100% Lacaune (n = 2960), 7/8 Lacaune (n = 502), 13/16 Lacaune (n = 306), 3/4 (n = 1288), 5/8 Lacaune (n = 441) and 1/2 Lacaune: Manchega (n = 272). Additional available information included the number of parity (1 to 8), litter size (single or multiple), and the season of the year of lambing (spring, summer, autumn and winter). A mixed model was used to evaluate the level of crossbreeding and environmental factors on milk production. The 100% Lacaune sheep presented the highest milk production with respect to the F1 Lacaune x Manchega sheep (p < 0.01), showing that as the degree of gene absorption increases with the Manchega breed, it presents lower milk yield. The 100%, 13/16, and 3/4 Lacaune genotypes had the highest milk yields with respect to the 1/2 Lacaune/Manchega breed (p < 0.001). The Lacaune registered on average 181.1 L in a period adjusted to 160 days of lactation (1.13 L/ day). Likewise, the parity number, litter size, and season of lambing effects showed significant differences (p < 0.01). It was concluded that 13/16 and 3/4 Lacaune/Manchega ewes presented the highest milk yields with respect to the other crosses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheep Lactation, Nutrition and Reproduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality and Physicochemical Traits of Carcasses and Meat from Geese Fed with Lupin-Rich Feed
Animals 2020, 10(3), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030519 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 657
Abstract
The aim of the study was to analyze the quality of geese meat receiving feed with soybean meal (group 1), yellow lupin (group 2), narrow-leaved lupin (group 3), or white lupin (group 4). In total, 400 male White Kołuda® geese were randomly [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to analyze the quality of geese meat receiving feed with soybean meal (group 1), yellow lupin (group 2), narrow-leaved lupin (group 3), or white lupin (group 4). In total, 400 male White Kołuda® geese were randomly assigned to four groups, with 10 replicates and 10 birds each, during the 77-day rearing period. After the end of the rearing period, 10 birds from each group were slaughtered and dissected. Meat quality traits were measured. Based on the production results, it can be concluded that geese use fodder with yellow and white lupin to the same degree as in the case of the control group and higher body weight gain was recorded in the first rearing period. In contrast, the use of narrow-leaved lupin in mixtures for geese worsened the feed used. Meat traits were similar in all groups, including the content of muscles and fat in the carcass (p > 0.05), excluding abdominal fat. The weight of abdominal fat and its proportion in the carcass were higher (p < 0.05) in geese from group 4. A higher (p < 0.05) pH was found in group 1. The protein and intramuscular fat content in breast muscles was highest (p < 0.05) in geese from group 4, and a higher water content was found in group 1. The protein content in leg muscles was higher in group 3, and the fat content was higher in group 4 (p < 0.05). The color and water-holding capacity of meat were comparable in all groups (p > 0.05). The analysis revealed a positive effect of replacing soybean meal with alternative protein sources, especially yellow and white lupin, on the growth performance and quality of goose meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Udder Measurements and Their Relationship with Milk Yield in Pelibuey Ewes
Animals 2020, 10(3), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030518 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between udder measurements and milk yield (MY) in dairy Pelibuey ewes. Udder measurements were taken twice a week for eight weeks before (initial) and after (final) milking, including udder depth (UD), udder circumference (UC), udder width [...] Read more.
The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between udder measurements and milk yield (MY) in dairy Pelibuey ewes. Udder measurements were taken twice a week for eight weeks before (initial) and after (final) milking, including udder depth (UD), udder circumference (UC), udder width (UW), teat length (TL) and teat diameter (TD) in 38 multiparous ewes. Additionally, udder volume (UV) and the difference (VDF) between initial UV (UVi) and final (UVf) was calculated as VDF = UVi − UVf. The MY varied from 0.10 kg/d to 1.04 kg/d, with a mean of 0.39 kg/d, ± 0.18 kg/d. Initial UC (UCi) ranged from 25.80 cm to 53.30 cm, and VDF varied from 1 cm3 to 2418 cm3. The TL and TD were not correlated with MY (p > 0.05), while UCi, UVi and VDF were positively correlated with MY (p < 0.0001; r = from 0.66 to 0.74). For the prediction of MY, the obtained equations had an r2 ranging from 0.54 to 0.63. The UCi, UDf, UWi and UWf were included in these models (p < 0.05). It is concluded that there was an acceptable correlation (r = 0.60) between the measurements of the udder, the volume of the udder and the daily milk yield in Pelibuey sheep. When direct measurements of milk production cannot be performed in practice, the measurement of udders and their volume could be a viable alternative to estimate milk yield production as an indirect method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheep Lactation, Nutrition and Reproduction)
Open AccessArticle
Calcium Electroporation of Equine Sarcoids
Animals 2020, 10(3), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030517 - 19 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Sarcoids are common equine skin tumors where the risk of recurrence after treatment is high, and better treatment options are warranted. Calcium electroporation is a novel anti-cancer treatment where lethally high calcium concentrations are introduced into the cells by electroporation, a method where [...] Read more.
Sarcoids are common equine skin tumors where the risk of recurrence after treatment is high, and better treatment options are warranted. Calcium electroporation is a novel anti-cancer treatment where lethally high calcium concentrations are introduced into the cells by electroporation, a method where short high-voltage pulses induce transient permeabilization of the cell membrane. This study investigated the safety and long-term response of calcium electroporation on sarcoids. Thirty-two sarcoids in eight horses were included. The study suggested that calcium electroporation is a safe and feasible treatment for sarcoids, including inoperable sarcoids. Horses were treated once (2/8) or twice (6/8) under general anesthesia, where sarcoids were injected with 220 mM calcium chloride followed by electroporation with 8 pulses of 100 μs, 1 kV/cm, and 1 Hz. Biopsies were taken prior to treatment. The sarcoid size was monitored for 12–38 weeks after the first treatment. Complete response was observed in 22% (6/27) of treated sarcoids, and partial response in 22% (6/27), giving a 44% total response. Treatment efficacy did not appear to be related to location, type, or size. In all non-biopsied lesions, a complete response was seen (4/4). In conclusion, in this small study, 44% of sarcoids responded with 22% of sarcoids disappearing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Public Investment in Animal Protection Work: Data from Manitoba, Canada
Animals 2020, 10(3), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030516 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
There is a dearth of research on animal cruelty investigations policy and work, despite its importance for protecting animals from illegal forms of cruelty. This study provides baseline data about the approach used in Manitoba, one of the only Canadian provinces where animal [...] Read more.
There is a dearth of research on animal cruelty investigations policy and work, despite its importance for protecting animals from illegal forms of cruelty. This study provides baseline data about the approach used in Manitoba, one of the only Canadian provinces where animal protection is publicly funded. By integrating statistical and qualitative data collected through interviews with key informants, this paper elucidates how animal cruelty investigations are organized and undertaken in the province. Although animal protection in Manitoba is publicly funded, the workforce responsible for undertaking investigations is a cross-section of public and private actors with different occupational classifications and working conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legal Aspects of the Human-Animal Relationship)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Chickpea in Substitution of Soybean Meal on Milk Production, Blood Profile and Reproductive Response of Primiparous Buffaloes in Early Lactation
Animals 2020, 10(3), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030515 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the use of chickpea meal in substitution of soybean meal on plasma metabolites, reproductive response, milk yield and composition and milk coagulation traits of primiparous buffaloes in early lactation. Eighteen primiparous buffaloes were blocked by [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the use of chickpea meal in substitution of soybean meal on plasma metabolites, reproductive response, milk yield and composition and milk coagulation traits of primiparous buffaloes in early lactation. Eighteen primiparous buffaloes were blocked by age, body weight and days in milk and equally allotted to two experimental groups from 10 to 100 days of lactation. The experimental diets consisted of the same forage integrated with two different isonitrogenous and isoenergetic concentrates containing either 210 g/kg of soybean meal or 371 g/kg chickpea. The use of chickpea meal had no negative effects on dry matter intake (p = 0.69), body condition score (p = 0.33) and milk yield (p = 0.15). Neither milk composition nor blood metabolites were influenced by dietary treatments (p > 0.05), but an increment of urea concentrations in milk (p < 0.05) and blood plasma (p < 0.001) were observed in buffaloes fed chickpeas. Moreover, no effect (p > 0.05) of the dietary treatment was highlighted on milk coagulation traits as well as buffalo reproductive responses. We concluded that soybean meal can be replaced by chickpea meal in the diet for primiparous dairy buffaloes in the early lactation period without impairing their productive and reproductive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives Protein in Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Hepatic Inflammatory Response to Exogenous LPS Challenge is Exacerbated in Broilers with Fatty Liver Disease
Animals 2020, 10(3), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030514 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 602
Abstract
This study aimed to examine hepatic function and inflammatory response in broilers with fatty livers, following acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. One-day-old Lihua yellow broilers were fed a basal diet. Broilers were divided into four groups: control (CON), corticosterone treatment (CORT), LPS treatment (LPS), [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine hepatic function and inflammatory response in broilers with fatty livers, following acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. One-day-old Lihua yellow broilers were fed a basal diet. Broilers were divided into four groups: control (CON), corticosterone treatment (CORT), LPS treatment (LPS), and LPS and CORT treatment (LPS&CORT). Results show that CORT induced an increase in plasma and liver triglycerides (TGs), which were accompanied by severe hepatic steatosis. The LPS group showed hepatocyte necrosis with inflammatory cell infiltration. Total liver damage score in the LPS&CORT group was significantly higher than that in the LPS group (p < 0.05). Activity levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were similar in the CON and CORT groups, but higher in the LPS group. Gene expression upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines (NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, and iNOS) was also noted in the LPS group (p < 0.05). In particular, LPS injection exacerbated the gene expression of these proinflammatory cytokines, even when accompanied by CORT injections (p < 0.05). In summary, our results indicate that broilers suffering from fatty liver disease are more susceptible to the negative effects of LPS, showing inflammatory response activation and more severe damages to the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Liver in Domestic Animals)
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