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Pathogens, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2021) – 114 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Human skin-colonizing bacteria can have double “personalities”, which muddles the distinction between commensals and pathogens. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are part of the normal skin microbiota, but can also act as opportunistic pathogens, e.g., in prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). The anaerobic CoNS species Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a frequent colonizer of human skin. Its pathogenic potential is so far unclear. In our study, we describe the clinical features of seven hip and shoulder PJIs that were associated with S. saccharolyticus. Whole genome sequencing revealed two subspecies of S. saccharolyticus, one of which was exclusively associated with hip PJIs. Our study suggests that S. saccharolyticus has the potential to cause PJIs that were previously regarded as aseptic loosening of prosthetic joint devices. View this paper
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Article
TREM1 rs2234237 (Thr25Ser) Polymorphism in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania guyanensis: A Case-Control Study in the State of Amazonas, Brazil
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040498 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 672
Abstract
Background: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania parasites. A Th1 immune response is necessary in the acute phase to control the pathogen. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 is a potent amplifier of inflammation. Our aim is to identify [...] Read more.
Background: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania parasites. A Th1 immune response is necessary in the acute phase to control the pathogen. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 is a potent amplifier of inflammation. Our aim is to identify whether the TREM1 variant rs2234237 A/T (Thr25Ser) is associated with the disease development of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Leishmania guyanensis-infected individuals. The effects of the rs2234237 genotypes on plasma cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1 and TNF-α are also investigated. Methods: 838 patients with CL and 818 healthy controls (HCs) living in the same endemic areas were genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Plasma cytokines were assayed in 400 patients with CL and 400 HCs using the BioPlex assay. Results: The genotypes’ and alleles’ frequencies were similar in both patients with CL (AA = 618, 74%; AT = 202, 24%; TT = 18, 2%) and in HCs (AA = 580, 71%; AT = 220, 27%; TT = 18, 2%). Rs2234237 showed a modest effect on plasma IL-10 that disappeared when correction of the p-value was applied. Plasma IL-10 by rs2234237 genotypes were (mean ± SEM; AA = 2.91 pg/mL ± 0.14; AT = 2.35 pg/mL ± 0.12; TT = 3.14 pg/mL ± 0.56; p = 0.05). Conclusion: The TREM1 rs2234237 (Thr25Ser) seems to have no influence on the susceptibility or resistance to L. guyanensis infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Response in Parasite Infections)
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Case Report
Cerebral Toxoplasmosis, CMV and Bacterial Pneumonia with Decreasing CD4+ T-Cell Count as Results of Antiretroviral Therapy Discontinuation—A Case Report
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040497 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Cerebral toxoplasmosis occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts as a reactivation of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection. In the diagnostic process, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum testing, and biopsy are used. We describe a case of a 43-year-old HIV-positive patient presenting with altered levels of [...] Read more.
Cerebral toxoplasmosis occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts as a reactivation of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection. In the diagnostic process, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum testing, and biopsy are used. We describe a case of a 43-year-old HIV-positive patient presenting with altered levels of consciousness, aphasia, and hemiparesis. The patient had a history of antiretroviral therapy discontinuation for about 3 years. MRI revealed lesions, suggesting cerebral toxoplasmosis and subacute hemorrhage, serum tests for Toxoplasma gondii were positive. Antiparasitics and glycocorticosteroids were administered. A decline in viral load and clinical improvement were observed, however CD4+ T-cell count continued to decrease. The patient’s state worsened, he developed CMV and bacterial pneumonia, which led to his death. What is crucial in the management of an HIV-infected patient is effective and continuous antiretroviral therapy. Discontinuation of the treatment may result in AIDS and lead to poor recovery of the CD4+ T-cell population, even after reimplementation of antiretroviral therapy and a decrease in viral load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms)
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Communication
Antimicrobial Peptides Pom-1 and Pom-2 from Pomacea poeyana Are Active against Candidaauris, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans Biofilms
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040496 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
Recently two peptides isolated from the Cuban freshwater snail Pomacea poeyana (Pilsbry, 1927) were described to have antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens. Here we show considerable activities of Pom-1 and Pom-2 to reduce the viability of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and the [...] Read more.
Recently two peptides isolated from the Cuban freshwater snail Pomacea poeyana (Pilsbry, 1927) were described to have antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens. Here we show considerable activities of Pom-1 and Pom-2 to reduce the viability of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and the less common species C. auris measured as the decrease of metabolic activity in the resazurin reduction assay for planktonic cells. Although these activities were low, Pom-1 and Pom-2 turned out to be highly potent inhibitors of biofilm formation for the three Candida species tested. Whereas Pom-1 was slightly more active against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis as representatives of the more common Candida species Pom-2 showed no preference and was fully active also against biofilms of the more uncommon species C. auris. Pom-1 and Pom-2 may represent promising lead structures for the development of a classical peptide optimization strategy with the realistic aim to further increase antibiofilm properties and other pharmacologic parameters and to generate finally the first antifungal drug with a pronounced dedication against Candida biofilms. Full article
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Article
Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Cu Homeostasis among Xylella fastidiosa Strains
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040495 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 668
Abstract
Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterial pathogen causing severe diseases and asymptomatic colonization in more than 600 plants worldwide. Copper (Cu) is a widely used antimicrobial treatment for various plant diseases, including those affecting X. fastidiosa hosts. Cu homeostasis among X. fastidiosa strains from [...] Read more.
Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterial pathogen causing severe diseases and asymptomatic colonization in more than 600 plants worldwide. Copper (Cu) is a widely used antimicrobial treatment for various plant diseases, including those affecting X. fastidiosa hosts. Cu homeostasis among X. fastidiosa strains from different geographical locations and host species has not been characterized. Here, we assessed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cu for 54 X. fastidiosa strains. We observed strain-level variation in MIC values within each subspecies. We hypothesized that these differences could be explained by sequence variation in Cu homeostasis genes. Phylogenies based on copA, copB, copL, and cutC were created using 74 genomes (including 43 strains used in vitro) of X. fastidiosa, showing that the phylogenetic clustering of Cu homeostasis associated with clustering was based on core genome phylogenies, rather than on pattern of MIC. No association was found among Cu MIC, subspecies classification, and host and location of isolation, probably due to uneven and limited group of strains whose genomes are available. Further analysis focused on a subgroup of isolates from Georgia’s vineyards that shared similar Cu-related phenotypes. Further research is needed to better understand the distribution of Cu homeostasis for this pathogen. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Essential Oils and Extracts of Rose Geranium and Rose Petals as Natural Preservatives in Terms of Toxicity, Antimicrobial, and Antiviral Activity
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040494 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1837
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) and extracts of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) and petals of rose (Rosa damascena) have been fully characterized in terms of composition, safety, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties. They were analyzed against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) and extracts of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) and petals of rose (Rosa damascena) have been fully characterized in terms of composition, safety, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties. They were analyzed against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Adenovirus 35. Their toxicity and life span were also determined. EO of P. graveolens (5%) did not retain any antibacterial activity (whereas at 100% it was greatly effective against E. coli), had antifungal activity against A. niger, and significant antiviral activity. Rose geranium extract (dilutions 25−90%) (v/v) had antifungal and antibacterial activity, especially against E. coli, and dose-dependent antiviral activity. Rose petals EO (5%) retains low inhibitory activity against S. aureus and S. Typhimurium growth (about 20−30%), antifungal activity, and antiviral activity for medium to low virus concentrations. Rose petals extract had significant antibacterial activity at dilutions of 25−90%, especially against E. coli and S. Typhimurium, antifungal, and the most potent antiviral activity. None of the EOs and extracts were toxic in dilutions of up to 5% and 90%, respectively. Finally, all materials had a life span of more than eight weeks. These results support the aspect that rose petals and rose geranium EOs, and extracts, have beneficial antimicrobial and antiviral properties and they can be used as natural preservatives. Full article
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Article
High Biofilm Formation of Non-Smooth Candida parapsilosis Correlates with Increased Incorporation of GPI-Modified Wall Adhesins
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040493 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
Candida parapsilosis is among the most frequent causes of candidiasis. Clinical isolates of this species show large variations in colony morphotype, ranging from round and smooth to a variety of non-smooth irregular colony shapes. A non-smooth appearance is related to increased formation of [...] Read more.
Candida parapsilosis is among the most frequent causes of candidiasis. Clinical isolates of this species show large variations in colony morphotype, ranging from round and smooth to a variety of non-smooth irregular colony shapes. A non-smooth appearance is related to increased formation of pseudohyphae, higher capacity to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces, and invading agar. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the cell wall proteome of C. parapsilosis reference strain CDC317 and seven clinical isolates under planktonic and sessile conditions. This analysis resulted in the identification of 40 wall proteins, most of them homologs of known Candida albicans cell wall proteins, such as Gas, Crh, Bgl2, Cht2, Ecm33, Sap, Sod, Plb, Pir, Pga30, Pga59, and adhesin family members. Comparative analysis of exponentially growing and stationary phase planktonic cultures of CDC317 at 30 °C and 37 °C revealed only minor variations. However, comparison of smooth isolates to non-smooth isolates with high biofilm formation capacity showed an increase in abundance and diversity of putative wall adhesins from Als, Iff/Hyr, and Hwp families in the latter. This difference depended more strongly on strain phenotype than on the growth conditions, as it was observed in planktonic as well as biofilm cells. Thus, in the set of isolates analyzed, the high biofilm formation capacity of non-smooth C. parapsilosis isolates with elongated cellular phenotypes correlates with the increased surface expression of putative wall adhesins in accordance with their proposed cellular function. Full article
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Article
Maximising Productivity and Eliminating Campylobacter in Broilers by Manipulating Stocking Density and Population Structure Using ‘Biosecurity Cubes’
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040492 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 649
Abstract
This study investigates the effect of stocking density and population dynamics on broiler growth rates and productivity, while further validating the ability of the biosecurity cubes (BC) to protect birds from Campylobacter. In our methodology, six BC were constructed in a commercial [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effect of stocking density and population dynamics on broiler growth rates and productivity, while further validating the ability of the biosecurity cubes (BC) to protect birds from Campylobacter. In our methodology, six BC were constructed in a commercial broiler house containing approximately 28,500 birds. During three trials, the BC were stocked at densities of 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 22 birds/m2, with the main flock (20 birds/m2) considered the control. Periodically, 10 birds per density were weighed and examined. The Campylobacter status of the birds was monitored via faecal samples using the ISO 10272: 2017. The stocking density for maximum calculated yield was 20 (trials 1 and 2) or 22 birds/m2 (trial 3), followed by 18, 16, 14 and 12. At the stocking rate of 20 birds/m2, the birds in the pen grew faster than those at the same density in the main flock achieving 2 Kg 3–6 days faster. Birds in the BC were observed to be generally healthier, and in some cases, remained Campylobacter negative, even after the main flock was infected. Our results conclude that dividing the flock into sub-flocks of approximately 20 birds/m2 using BC could increase productivity up to 20%, while preventing Campylobacter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Pathogens)
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Article
In Vitro Evaluation of the Combination of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil and Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) against Trophozoites and Cysts of Acanthamoeba Strains. Oxygen Consumption Rate (OCR) Assay as a Method for Drug Screening
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040491 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Ameobae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are responsible for the human diseases Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). The treatment of these illnesses is hampered by the existence of a resistance stage (cysts). In an attempt to add new agents that [...] Read more.
Ameobae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are responsible for the human diseases Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). The treatment of these illnesses is hampered by the existence of a resistance stage (cysts). In an attempt to add new agents that are effective against trophozoites and cysts, tea tree oil (TTO) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), separately and in combination, were tested In Vitro against two Acanthamoeba isolates, T3 and T4 genotypes. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) assay was used as a drug screening method, which is to some extent useful in amoebicide drug screening; however, evaluation of lethal effects may be misleading when testing products that promote encystment. Trophozoite viability analysis showed that the effectiveness of the combination of both compounds is higher than when either compound is used alone. Therefore, the TTO alone or TTO + DMSO in combination were an amoebicide, but most of the amoebicidal activity in the combination’s treatments seemed to be caused mainly by the TTO effect. In fact, DMSO alone seems to be a non-amoebicide, triggering encystment. Regarding cytotoxicity, these compounds showed toxicity in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEpiC), even at low concentrations when tested in combination. In conclusion, the use of TTO and DMSO, in combination or alone, cannot be recommended as an alternative for AK treatment until more cytotoxicity and cyst adhesion tests are performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Acanthamoeba)
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Review
Gene Regulation of Biofilm-Associated Functional Amyloids
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040490 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
Biofilms are bacterial communities encased in a rigid yet dynamic extracellular matrix. The sociobiology of bacterial communities within a biofilm is astonishing, with environmental factors playing a crucial role in determining the switch from planktonic to a sessile form of life. The mechanism [...] Read more.
Biofilms are bacterial communities encased in a rigid yet dynamic extracellular matrix. The sociobiology of bacterial communities within a biofilm is astonishing, with environmental factors playing a crucial role in determining the switch from planktonic to a sessile form of life. The mechanism of biofilm biogenesis is an intriguingly complex phenomenon governed by the tight regulation of expression of various biofilm-matrix components. One of the major constituents of the biofilm matrix is proteinaceous polymers called amyloids. Since the discovery, the significance of biofilm-associated amyloids in adhesion, aggregation, protection, and infection development has been much appreciated. The amyloid expression and assembly is regulated spatio-temporarily within the bacterial cells to perform a diverse function. This review provides a comprehensive account of the genetic regulation associated with the expression of amyloids in bacteria. The stringent control ensures optimal utilization of amyloid scaffold during biofilm biogenesis. We conclude the review by summarizing environmental factors influencing the expression and regulation of amyloids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Regulation in Biofilms)
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Article
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Chlamydia abortus Infection in Sheep and Goats in Eastern Saudi Arabia
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040489 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) is intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium that cause enzootic abortion in sheep and goats. Information on C. abortus seroprevalence and flock management risk factors associated with C. abortus seropositivity in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The [...] Read more.
Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) is intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium that cause enzootic abortion in sheep and goats. Information on C. abortus seroprevalence and flock management risk factors associated with C. abortus seropositivity in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The objectives of this study were to (i) estimate the animal, flock, and within-flock seroprevalence of C. abortus among Eastern Province sheep and goat flocks and (ii) identify the flock management and animal risk factors associated with C. abortus seropositivity in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study with a two-stage sampling process was carried out in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, between 2015 and 2016. A total of 1717 sheep and 1101 goat serum samples were collected from 21 sheep and 14 goat flocks, then were tested for C. abortus antibodies using a commercial ELISA Kit. In addition, vaginal swabs and aborted tissue samples were collected from sheep (n = 48) and goats (n = 15) with recent history of abortion for detection of C. abortuspmp gene using PCR. A questionnaire was constructed to collect information about flock management and animal risk factors possibly associated with C. abortus infection in sheep and goats. The true sheep and goat-level seroprevalences were 11.1% (95% CI: 9.7–12.7) and 10.6% (95% CI: 8.8–12.5), respectively. The true flock-level seroprevalence was 100% for both sheep and goats. However, the average within sheep and goat flocks true seroprevalences were 9.6% (95% CI: 1.8–22.9) and 9.3% (95% CI: 1.8–19.5), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that introduction of new sheep to the flocks (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.5–4.4), type of breeding system (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0–3.4), flocks allowing females in (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1–3.3) or females out (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.3), and sheep age 1.4–2.8 years (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3–2.9) were potential risk factors for C. abortus seropositivity in sheep flocks. However, in goat flocks, the introduction of new goats to the flocks (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0) was identified as a risk factor, whereas good farm hygiene (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2–0.7) was identified as a protective factor. C. abortus pmp gene was identified in 45 (93.8%) and 15 (100%) of samples collected from sheep and goats, respectively. These results could be used to implement efficient management measures to prevent and control C. abortus infection in sheep and goats in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, but also could be used to reduce the risk of C. abortus infection in sheep and goat flocks with similar management practices in other regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Chlamydiae: A Concern for Human and Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Prevalence of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Oral Hygiene Practice of Kenyan Adolescents in Maasai Mara
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040488 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is implicated in the etiology of periodontitis that affects adolescents. The monitoring and mapping of the geographic dissemination pattern of JP2 and non-JP2 genotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans are of interest. In Africa, the highly leukotoxic JP2 genotype is known to be [...] Read more.
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is implicated in the etiology of periodontitis that affects adolescents. The monitoring and mapping of the geographic dissemination pattern of JP2 and non-JP2 genotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans are of interest. In Africa, the highly leukotoxic JP2 genotype is known to be prevalent, particularly in north-west Africa. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of JP2 and non-JP2 genotypes and investigate the oral hygiene practices among adolescents living in Maasai Mara, Kenya. A total of 284 adolescents (mean age: 15.0 yrs; SD 1.1) were interviewed regarding their age, gender, medical history, and oral hygiene practice, and the number of teeth present was recorded. One subgingival pooled plaque sample from all the first molars of each participant was analyzed by conventional PCR. The mean number of permanent teeth present was 27.9 (SD: 2.0; range: 22–32; 95% CI: 27.7–28.1). Sixteen (5.6%) and two (0.7%) adolescents were positive for non-JP2 and JP2 genotypes, respectively. For the vast majority of the adolescents, the use of a toothbrush (99.3%) and toothpaste (80.1%), as well as some kind of toothpick (>60.2%), were part of their oral hygiene practice, with dental floss (0.4%) and/or mouth rinses (0.4%) rarely being used. We have, for the first time, identified Kenyan adolescents colonized with the JP2 genotype. The prevalence of the JP2 genotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans is low, a possible indicator that it spreading through human migration from North and West Africa to East Africa is a rare occasion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Pathogens)
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Article
Rapid Detection of blaKPC-9 Allele from Clinical Isolates
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040487 - 17 Apr 2021
Viewed by 539
Abstract
The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) nosocomial outbreaks related to specific blaKPC gene variants dictates the need for applicable diagnostic methods for allele discrimination. We report here a simple method of blaKPC-9 allele recognition based on a combination of endonuclease [...] Read more.
The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) nosocomial outbreaks related to specific blaKPC gene variants dictates the need for applicable diagnostic methods for allele discrimination. We report here a simple method of blaKPC-9 allele recognition based on a combination of endonuclease digestion analysis and PCR amplification using unique primers. K. pneumoniae isolates carrying the blaKPC gene were tested. Digestion with RsaI restriction endonuclease was found to efficiently differentiate the blaKPC-2 from the blaKPC-9 variants into two distinct groups of digestion patterns named KPC-2-like and KPC-9-like, respectively. An additional procedure, the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) method, was applied to identify the variant within the same group. The principles of this procedure could be developed to identify several blaKPC gene variants, as well as monitoring the spread and evolution of specific KPC variants within local geographical regions. Full article
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Case Report
Myopericarditis Associated with COVID-19 in a Pediatric Patient with Kidney Failure Receiving Hemodialysis
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040486 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
The outbreak of COVID-19 can be associated with cardiac and pulmonary involvement and is emerging as one of the most significant and life-threatening complications in patients with kidney failure receiving hemodialysis. Here, we report a critically ill case of a 13-year-old female patient [...] Read more.
The outbreak of COVID-19 can be associated with cardiac and pulmonary involvement and is emerging as one of the most significant and life-threatening complications in patients with kidney failure receiving hemodialysis. Here, we report a critically ill case of a 13-year-old female patient with acute pericarditis and bilateral pleurisy, screened positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, presented with high fever, frequent dry cough, and dyspnea with tachypnea. COVID-19-induced myopericarditis has been noted to be a complication in patients with concomitant kidney failure with replacement therapy (KFRT). This article brings information in the light of our case experience, suggesting that the direct effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on cardiac tissue was a significant contributor to myopericarditis in our patient. Further studies in this direction are required, as such associations have thus far been reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection SARS-CoV Infections)
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Article
A Remarkable Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus A Circulating in Red Fox Population in Croatia
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040485 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Rotaviruses (RV), especially Rotavirus A (RVA), are globally recognized as pathogens causing neonatal diarrhea, but they also affect intensive animal farming. However, the knowledge on their significance in wildlife is rather limited. The aim of the study was to unveil the prevalence, molecular [...] Read more.
Rotaviruses (RV), especially Rotavirus A (RVA), are globally recognized as pathogens causing neonatal diarrhea, but they also affect intensive animal farming. However, the knowledge on their significance in wildlife is rather limited. The aim of the study was to unveil the prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and genetic diversity of RVA strains circulating in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in Croatia. From 2018 to 2019, 370 fecal samples from fox carcasses hunted for rabies monitoring were collected. All samples were first tested using a VP2 real-time RT-PCR; in the subsequent course, positives were subjected to VP7 and VP4 genotyping. The results revealed an RVA prevalence of 14.9%, while the circulating RVA strains showed a remarkable genetic diversity in terms of 11 G and nine P genotypes, among which one G and three P were tentatively identified as novel. In total, eight genotype combinations were detected: G8P[14], G9P[3], G9P[23], G10P[11], G10P[3], G11P[13], G15P[21], and G?P[?]. The results suggest a complex background of previous interspecies transmission events, shedding new light on the potential influence of foxes in RVA epidemiology. Their role as potential reservoirs of broad range of RVA genotypes, usually considered typical solely of domestic animals and humans, cannot be dismissed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Neglected Viruses and Zoonoses)
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Article
Interferon Gamma Inhibits Equine Herpesvirus 1 Replication in a Cell Line-Dependent Manner
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040484 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
The sole equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) immediate-early protein (IEP) is essential for viral replication by transactivating viral immediate-early (IE), early (E), and late (L) genes. Here, we report that treatment of mouse MH-S, equine NBL6, and human MRC-5 cells with 20 ng/mL of [...] Read more.
The sole equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) immediate-early protein (IEP) is essential for viral replication by transactivating viral immediate-early (IE), early (E), and late (L) genes. Here, we report that treatment of mouse MH-S, equine NBL6, and human MRC-5 cells with 20 ng/mL of IFN-γ reduced EHV-1 yield by 1122-, 631-, and 10,000-fold, respectively. However, IFN-γ reduced virus yield by only 2–4-fold in mouse MLE12, mouse L-M, and human MeWo cells compared to those of untreated cells. In luciferase assays with the promoter of the EHV-1 early regulatory EICP0 gene, IFN-γ abrogated trans-activation activity of the IEP by 96% in MH-S cells, but only by 21% in L-M cells. Similar results were obtained in assays with the early regulatory UL5 and IR4 promoter reporter plasmids. IFN-γ treatment reduced IEP protein expression by greater than 99% in MH-S cells, but only by 43% in L-M cells. The expression of IEP and UL5P suppressed by IFN-γ was restored by JAK inhibitor treatment, indicating that the inhibition of EHV-1 replication is mediated by JAK/STAT1 signaling. These results suggest that IFN-γ blocks EHV-1 replication by inhibiting the production of the IEP in a cell line-dependent manner. Affymetrix microarray analyses of IFN-γ-treated MH-S and L-M cells revealed that five antiviral ISGs (MX1, SAMHD1, IFIT2, NAMPT, TREX1, and DDX60) were upregulated 3.2–18.1-fold only in MH-S cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Herpesviruses)
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Article
Rapid and Efficient Cell-to-Cell Transmission of Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus in MDCK Cells Is Achieved by Trogocytosis
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040483 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Viruses have developed direct cell-to-cell transfer strategies to enter target cells without being released to escape host immune responses and antiviral treatments. These strategies are more rapid and efficient than transmission through indirect mechanisms of viral infection between cells. Here, we demonstrate that [...] Read more.
Viruses have developed direct cell-to-cell transfer strategies to enter target cells without being released to escape host immune responses and antiviral treatments. These strategies are more rapid and efficient than transmission through indirect mechanisms of viral infection between cells. Here, we demonstrate that an H5N1 influenza virus can spread via direct cell-to-cell transfer in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We compared cell-to-cell transmission of the H5N1 virus to that of a human influenza H1N1 virus. The H5N1 virus has been found to spread to recipient cells faster than the human influenza H1N1 virus. Additionally, we showed that plasma membrane exchange (trogocytosis) occurs between co-cultured infected donor cells and uninfected recipient cells early point, allowing the intercellular transfer of viral material to recipient cells. Notably, the H5N1 virus induced higher trogocytosis levels than the H1N1 virus, which could explain the faster cell-to-cell transmission rate of H5N1. Importantly, this phenomenon was also observed in A549 human lung epithelial cells, which are representative cells in the natural infection site. Altogether, our results provide evidence demonstrating that trogocytosis could be the additional mechanism utilized by the H5N1 virus for rapid and efficient cell-to-cell transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Influenza A Virus)
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Article
Molecular Typing of Listeria monocytogenes IVb Serogroup Isolated from Food and Food Production Environments in Poland
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040482 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most important foodborne pathogens that may be present in food and in food processing environments. In the present study, 91 L. monocytogenes isolates of serogroup IVb from raw meat, ready-to-eat food and food production environments in Poland [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most important foodborne pathogens that may be present in food and in food processing environments. In the present study, 91 L. monocytogenes isolates of serogroup IVb from raw meat, ready-to-eat food and food production environments in Poland were characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS). The strains were also compared, using core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST) analysis, with 186 genomes of L. monocytogenes recovered worldwide from food, environments, and from humans with listeriosis. The L. monocytogenes examined belonged to three MLST clonal complexes: CC1 (10; 11.0% isolates), CC2 (70; 76.9%), and CC6 (11; 12.1%). CC1 comprised of two STs (ST1 and ST515) which could be divided into five cgMLST, CC2 covered two STs (ST2 and ST145) with a total of 20 cgMLST types, whereas CC6 consisted of only one ST (ST6) classified as one cgMLST. WGS sequences of the tested strains revealed that they had several pathogenic markers making them potentially hazardous for public health. Molecular comparison of L. monocytogenes strains tested in the present study with those isolated from food and human listeriosis showed a relationship between the isolates from Poland, but not from other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Epidemiology and Surveillance of Foodborne Pathogens)
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Article
Investigation on Anthrax in Bangladesh during the Outbreaks of 2011 and Definition of the Epidemiological Correlations
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040481 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 656
Abstract
In 2011, in Bangladesh, 11 anthrax outbreaks occurred in six districts of the country. Different types of samples were collected from May to September in the six districts where anthrax had occurred in order to detect and type Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) strains. [...] Read more.
In 2011, in Bangladesh, 11 anthrax outbreaks occurred in six districts of the country. Different types of samples were collected from May to September in the six districts where anthrax had occurred in order to detect and type Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) strains. Anthrax was detected in 46.6% of the samples analysed, in particular in soils, but also in bone samples, water, animal feed, and rumen ingesta of dead animals. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (CanSNPs) analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to the major lineage A, sublineage A.Br.001/002 of China and Southeast Asia while the multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) analysis (MLVA) with 15 VNTRs demonstrated the presence of five genotypes, of which two resulted to be new genotypes. The single nucleotide repeats (SNRs) analysis showed 13 SNR types; nevertheless, due to its higher discriminatory power, the presence of two isolates with different SNR-type polymorphisms was detected within two MLVA genotypes. This study assumes that soil is not the only reason for the spread of the disease in Bangladesh; contaminated feed and water can also play an important role in the epidemiology of anthrax. Possible explanations for these epidemiological relationships are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Advanced Research on Bacillus Anthracis)
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Article
Correlation between Acinetobacter baumannii Resistance and Hospital Use of Meropenem, Cefepime, and Ciprofloxacin: Time Series Analysis and Dynamic Regression Models
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040480 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most difficult-to-treat pathogens worldwide, due to developed resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of widely prescribed antimicrobials and the respective resistance rates of A. baumannii, and to explore the relationship between antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most difficult-to-treat pathogens worldwide, due to developed resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of widely prescribed antimicrobials and the respective resistance rates of A. baumannii, and to explore the relationship between antimicrobial use and the emergence of A. baumannii resistance in a tertiary care hospital. Monthly data on A. baumannii susceptibility rates and antimicrobial use, between January 2014 and December 2017, were analyzed using time series analysis (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models) and dynamic regression models. Temporal correlations between meropenem, cefepime, and ciprofloxacin use and the corresponding rates of A. baumannii resistance were documented. The results of ARIMA models showed statistically significant correlation between meropenem use and the detection rate of meropenem-resistant A. baumannii with a lag of two months (p = 0.024). A positive association, with one month lag, was identified between cefepime use and cefepime-resistant A. baumannii (p = 0.028), as well as between ciprofloxacin use and its resistance (p < 0.001). The dynamic regression models offered explanation of variance for the resistance rates (R2 > 0.60). The magnitude of the effect on resistance for each antimicrobial agent differed significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Status of Acinetobacter Infections)
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Article
Molecular Pathology Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in Syncytiotrophoblast and Hofbauer Cells in Placenta from a Pregnant Woman and Fetus with COVID-19
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040479 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
A small number of neonates delivered to women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been found to become infected through intrauterine transplacental transmission. These cases are associated with a group of unusual placental pathology abnormalities that include chronic histiocytic intervillositis, syncytiotrophoblast necrosis, and positivity of [...] Read more.
A small number of neonates delivered to women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been found to become infected through intrauterine transplacental transmission. These cases are associated with a group of unusual placental pathology abnormalities that include chronic histiocytic intervillositis, syncytiotrophoblast necrosis, and positivity of the syncytiotrophoblast for SARS-CoV-2 antigen or RNA. Hofbauer cells constitute a heterogeneous group of immunologically active macrophages that have been involved in transplacental infections that include such viral agents as Zika virus and human immunodeficiency virus. The role of Hofbauer cells in placental infection with SARS-CoV-2 and maternal-fetal transmission is unknown. This study uses molecular pathology techniques to evaluate the placenta from a neonate infected with SARS-CoV-2 via the transplacental route to determine whether Hofbauer cells have evidence of infection. We found that the placenta had chronic histiocytic intervillositis and syncytiotrophoblast necrosis, with the syncytiotrophoblast demonstrating intense positive staining for SARS-CoV-2. Immunohistochemistry using the macrophage marker CD163, SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, and double staining for SARS-CoV-2 with RNAscope and anti-CD163 antibody, revealed that no demonstrable virus could be identified within Hofbauer cells, despite these cells closely approaching the basement membrane zone of the infected trophoblast. Unlike some other viruses, there was no evidence from this transmitting placenta for infection of Hofbauer cells with SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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Editorial
Editorial Comments to the Special Issue: “Colletotrichum spp. on Fruit Crops—State of the Art, Perspectives and Drawbacks”
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040478 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
The year 2020 has been celebrated as the International Year of Plant Health by the United Nations, and it has been a unique opportunity to realise the vital role of producing while preserving our natural and cultural heritage—Sustainable Food and Agriculture [...] Full article
Article
Antimicrobial Resistance Creates Threat to Chimpanzee Health and Conservation in the Wild
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040477 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Infectious disease is recognized as the greatest threat to the endangered chimpanzees made famous by the groundbreaking work of Dr. Jane Goodall at Gombe National Park (GNP), Tanzania. The permeable boundary of this small protected area allows for regular wildlife–human and wildlife–domestic animal [...] Read more.
Infectious disease is recognized as the greatest threat to the endangered chimpanzees made famous by the groundbreaking work of Dr. Jane Goodall at Gombe National Park (GNP), Tanzania. The permeable boundary of this small protected area allows for regular wildlife–human and wildlife–domestic animal overlap, which may facilitate cross-species transmission of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance. Few studies have examined the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in wild ape populations. We used molecular techniques to investigate the presence of genes conferring resistance to sulfonamides (often used to treat diarrheal illness in human settings in this region) and tetracycline (used in the past—though much less so now) in fecal specimens from humans, domestic animals, chimpanzees, and baboons in and around GNP. We also tested stream water used by these groups. Sulfonamide resistance was common in humans (74%), non-human primates (43%), and domestic animals (17%). Tetracycline resistance was less common in all groups: humans (14%), non-human primates (3%), and domestic animals (6%). Sul resistance genes were detected from 4/22 (18%) of streams sampled. Differences in sul gene frequencies did not vary by location in humans nor in chimpanzees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogens in African Great Apes)
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Review
Could Antigen Presenting Cells Represent a Protective Element during SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children?
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040476 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) are immune cells that recognize, process, and present antigens to lymphocytes. APCs are among the earliest immune responders against an antigen. Thus, in patients with COVID-19, a disease caused by the newly reported SARS-CoV-2 virus, the role of APCs [...] Read more.
Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) are immune cells that recognize, process, and present antigens to lymphocytes. APCs are among the earliest immune responders against an antigen. Thus, in patients with COVID-19, a disease caused by the newly reported SARS-CoV-2 virus, the role of APCs becomes increasingly important. In this paper, we dissect the role of these cells in the fight against SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, this virus appears to cause a higher mortality among adults than children. This may suggest that the immune system, particularly APCs, of children may be different from that of adults, which may then explain differences in immune responses between these two populations, evident as different pathological outcome. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that differentiate juvenile from other APCs are not well understood. Whether juvenile APCs are one reason why children are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 requires much attention. The goal of this review is to examine the role of APCs, both in adults and children. The molecular mechanisms governing APCs, especially against SARS-CoV-2, may explain the differential immune responsiveness in the two populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Viral Pathogens)
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Communication
Hybrid Atypical Enteropathogenic and Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (aEPEC/ExPEC) BA1250 Strain: A Draft Genome
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040475 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli is the major bacterial etiological agent of severe diarrhea and a major concern of public health. These pathogens have acquired genetic characteristics from other pathotypes, leading to unusual and singular genetic combinations, known as hybrid strains and may be more [...] Read more.
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli is the major bacterial etiological agent of severe diarrhea and a major concern of public health. These pathogens have acquired genetic characteristics from other pathotypes, leading to unusual and singular genetic combinations, known as hybrid strains and may be more virulent due to a set of virulence factors from more than one pathotype. One of the possible combinations is with extraintestinal E. coli (ExPEC), a leading cause of urinary tract infection, often lethal after entering the bloodstream and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), responsible for death of thousands of people every year, mainly children under five years old. Here we report the draft genome of a strain originally classified as aEPEC (BA1250) isolated from feces of a child with acute diarrhea. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that BA1250 genome content is genetically closer to E. coli strains that cause extraintestinal infections, other than intestinal infections. A deeper analysis showed that in fact this is a hybrid strain, due to the presence of a set of genes typically characteristic of ExPEC. These genomic findings expand our knowledge about aEPEC heterogeneity allowing further studies concerning E. coli pathogenicity and may be a source for future comparative studies, virulence characteristics, and evolutionary biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Escherichia coli Infections in Humans and Animals)
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Article
Pathology of Urinary Bladder in Pearsonema spp. Infected Wildlife from Central Italy
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040474 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 626
Abstract
The genus Pearsonema, in the nematode family Capillariidae, includes several species that parasitize the urinary bladders of wild and domestic carnivores. The infection has been reported worldwide from several wildlife species, including canids, mustelids, and felids, but the pathological aspects have [...] Read more.
The genus Pearsonema, in the nematode family Capillariidae, includes several species that parasitize the urinary bladders of wild and domestic carnivores. The infection has been reported worldwide from several wildlife species, including canids, mustelids, and felids, but the pathological aspects have seldom been investigated. In order to assess the presence and severity of the lesions in Pearsonema-infected wildlife, we performed a parasitological and pathological examination of urinary bladders from 72 animals, belonging to the families Canidae (red fox Vulpes vulpes, n = 28, and wolf Canis lupus, n = 29) and Mustelidae (beech marten Martes foina, n = 3; pine marten Martes martes, n = 2; and European badger Meles meles, n = 10). A greater prevalence of infection for canids (64.91%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 52.52–77.30%) than for mustelids (13.33%) (p < 0.001) was recorded. The prevalence of infection in red foxes was 75.0% (95% CI, 58.96–91.04%), in accordance with other reports from European countries, supporting the role of this species as a reservoir for infection. Eosinophilic cystitis was observed in 34 out of the 72 examined animals (47.22%). The influence of Pearsonema sp. infection on the occurrence of eosinophilic cystitis was statistically significant in wolves (p < 0.01), which were also affected by more severe histological lesions compared to foxes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Pathology and Parasitic Diseases of Animals)
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Article
Cytomegalovirus Disease in Renal Transplanted Patients: Prevalence, Determining Factors, and Influence on Graft and Patients Outcomes
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040473 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1226
Abstract
The prevalence and the factors related to cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease (CMVd) during the 1st year of renal transplantation (RTx) and the relationship between CMVd and early and long-term graft and RTx-patient (RTx-p) survival were evaluated. In 505 RTx-p, followed up for 8(5–11) years, [...] Read more.
The prevalence and the factors related to cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease (CMVd) during the 1st year of renal transplantation (RTx) and the relationship between CMVd and early and long-term graft and RTx-patient (RTx-p) survival were evaluated. In 505 RTx-p, followed up for 8(5–11) years, data were recorded after 1-(T1) and 12-(T12) months of RTx. CMVd was defined either by CMV replication without clinical signs of disease (CMVr, 43%), or CMV replication with signs of disease (CMVs, 57%). During the 1st year of RTx, 45% of RTx-p had CMVd (CMVd+). CMVd+ patients were older than CMVd− patients. Female gender and Donor CMV-IgG+ (CMV IgG−D+)/recipient IgG- (CMV IgG−R-) status were more prevalent in CMVd+. At T1, CMVd+ had lower albumin, haemoglobin, and higher uric-acid and reactive C-protein than CMVd− and, at T1 and T12, received more steroids. Albumin-T1 was the unique factor in determining CMVd+, maintaining its significance also after the inclusion of IgG−D+/IgG−R− status to the model. CMVs had higher prevalence of CMV IgG-D+/IgG-R- than CMVr. CMVd, CMVr, and CMVs had no impact on graft loss (11% of RTx-p) and RTx-p death (8% of RTx-p). CMVd is highly prevalent during the 1st year of RTx. Albumin-T1 influences CMVd insurgence. CMVd did not impact on RTx and RTx-p loss. Full article
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Systematic Review
Skin Lesions in Feline Leishmaniosis: A Systematic Review
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040472 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1381
Abstract
Feline leishmaniosis (FeL) is increasingly reported throughout the world and skin lesions predominate in the clinical picture. There are, however, few evidence-based data on cutaneous feline leishmaniosis and directions are strongly needed for a better management of the disease. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Feline leishmaniosis (FeL) is increasingly reported throughout the world and skin lesions predominate in the clinical picture. There are, however, few evidence-based data on cutaneous feline leishmaniosis and directions are strongly needed for a better management of the disease. In this study, we systematically reviewed what is currently known about the clinical dermatological presentation of FeL through analysis of the literature and, further, by adding unpublished cases managed by Italian veterinary dermatologists. Sixty-six feline cases of cutaneous leishmaniosis published in 33 articles between 1990 and 2020 met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Six unpublished cases of cutaneous FeL managed by Italian dermatologists were also reviewed. The majority of cases were reported from South America, followed by Europe and North America. Nodules were the most frequently reported clinical signs and the presence of Leishmania in lesioned skin was assessed mainly by cytology. A total of six Leishmania species have been identified as being responsible for skin lesions. Coinfections by FIV or FeLV were reported in 12.1% and 9.1% of the cases, respectively. Clinical data including treatment have been analyzed and discussed to provide directives for proper management of the disease for which cats may also serve as domestic reservoirs for human infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Pathology and Parasitic Diseases of Animals)
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Article
Human Pleural Fluid and Human Serum Albumin Modulate the Behavior of a Hypervirulent and Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii Representative Strain
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040471 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen capable of causing serious infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Due to its antimicrobial drug resistance profile, A. baumannii is categorized as an urgent priority pathogen by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [...] Read more.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen capable of causing serious infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Due to its antimicrobial drug resistance profile, A. baumannii is categorized as an urgent priority pathogen by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States and a priority group 1 critical microorganism by the World Health Organization. Understanding how A. baumannii adapts to different host environments may provide critical insights into strategically targeting this pathogen with novel antimicrobial and biological therapeutics. Exposure to human fluids was previously shown to alter the gene expression profile of a highly drug-susceptible A. baumannii strain A118 leading to persistence and survival of this pathogen. Herein, we explore the impact of human pleural fluid (HPF) and human serum albumin (HSA) on the gene expression profile of a highly multi-drug-resistant strain of A. baumannii AB5075. Differential expression was observed for ~30 genes, whose products are involved in quorum sensing, quorum quenching, iron acquisition, fatty acid metabolism, biofilm formation, secretion systems, and type IV pilus formation. Phenotypic and further transcriptomic analysis using quantitative RT-PCR confirmed RNA-seq data and demonstrated a distinctive role of HSA as the molecule involved in A. baumannii’s response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Status of Acinetobacter Infections)
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Article
Transcriptome Analysis of Eggplant Root in Response to Root-Knot Nematode Infection
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040470 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 830
Abstract
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), which belongs to the Solanaceae family, is an important vegetable crop. However, its production is severely threatened by root-knot nematodes (RKNs) in many countries. Solanum torvum, a wild relative of eggplant, is employed worldwide as rootstock for [...] Read more.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), which belongs to the Solanaceae family, is an important vegetable crop. However, its production is severely threatened by root-knot nematodes (RKNs) in many countries. Solanum torvum, a wild relative of eggplant, is employed worldwide as rootstock for eggplant cultivation due to its resistance to soil-borne diseases such as RKNs. In this study, to identify the RKN defense mechanisms, the transcriptomic profiles of eggplant and Solanum torvum were compared. A total of 5360 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified for the response to RKN infection. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs are mainly involved in the processes of response to stimulus, protein phosphorylation, hormone signal transduction, and plant-pathogen interaction pathways. Many phytohormone-related genes and transcription factors (MYB, WRKY, and NAC) were differentially expressed at the four time points (ck, 7, 14, and 28 days post-infection). The abscisic acid signaling pathway might be involved in plant-nematode interactions. qRT-PCR validated the expression levels of some of the DEGs in eggplant. These findings demonstrate the nematode-induced expression profiles and provide some insights into the nematode resistance mechanism in eggplant. Full article
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Article
Phenelzine and Amoxapine Inhibit Tyramine and d-Glucuronic Acid Catabolism in Clinically Significant Salmonella in A Serotype-Independent Manner
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040469 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
Non-typhoidal Salmonella ingeniously scavenges energy for growth from tyramine (TYR) and d-glucuronic acid (DGA), both of which occur in the host as the metabolic byproducts of the gut microbial metabolism. A critical first step in energy scavenging from TYR and DGA in Salmonella [...] Read more.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella ingeniously scavenges energy for growth from tyramine (TYR) and d-glucuronic acid (DGA), both of which occur in the host as the metabolic byproducts of the gut microbial metabolism. A critical first step in energy scavenging from TYR and DGA in Salmonella involves TYR-oxidation via TYR-oxidoreductase and production of free-DGA via β-glucuronidase (GUS)-mediated hydrolysis of d-glucuronides (conjugated form of DGA), respectively. Here, we report that Salmonella utilizes TYR and DGA as sole sources of energy in a serotype-independent manner. Using colorimetric and radiometric approaches, we report that genes SEN2971, SEN3065, and SEN2426 encode TYR-oxidoreductases. Some Salmonella serotypes produce GUS, thus can also scavenge energy from d-glucuronides. We repurposed phenelzine (monoaminoxidase-inhibitor) and amoxapine (GUS-inhibitor) to inhibit the TYR-oxidoreductases and GUS encoded by Salmonella, respectively. We show that phenelzine significantly inhibits the growth of Salmonella by inhibiting TYR-oxidoreductases SEN2971, SEN3065, and SEN2426. Similarly, amoxapine significantly inhibits the growth of Salmonella by inhibiting GUS-mediated hydrolysis of d-glucuronides. Because TYR and DGA serve as potential energy sources for Salmonella growth in vivo, the data and the novel approaches used here provides a better understanding of the role of TYR and DGA in Salmonella pathogenesis and nutritional virulence. Full article
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