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Open AccessArticle

Prevalence of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Oral Hygiene Practice of Kenyan Adolescents in Maasai Mara

1
Section for Paediatric Dentistry, Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Health, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark
2
Department of Periodontology, Community and Preventive Dentistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 34848, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
3
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 34848, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
4
Division for Oral Microbiology, Odontology, Umeå University, 901-87 Umeå, Sweden
5
Center for Oral Health in Rare Diseases, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
6
Molecular Periodontology, Odontology, Umeå University, 901-87 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angela H. Nobbs
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040488
Received: 23 March 2021 / Revised: 13 April 2021 / Accepted: 14 April 2021 / Published: 17 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Pathogens)
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is implicated in the etiology of periodontitis that affects adolescents. The monitoring and mapping of the geographic dissemination pattern of JP2 and non-JP2 genotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans are of interest. In Africa, the highly leukotoxic JP2 genotype is known to be prevalent, particularly in north-west Africa. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of JP2 and non-JP2 genotypes and investigate the oral hygiene practices among adolescents living in Maasai Mara, Kenya. A total of 284 adolescents (mean age: 15.0 yrs; SD 1.1) were interviewed regarding their age, gender, medical history, and oral hygiene practice, and the number of teeth present was recorded. One subgingival pooled plaque sample from all the first molars of each participant was analyzed by conventional PCR. The mean number of permanent teeth present was 27.9 (SD: 2.0; range: 22–32; 95% CI: 27.7–28.1). Sixteen (5.6%) and two (0.7%) adolescents were positive for non-JP2 and JP2 genotypes, respectively. For the vast majority of the adolescents, the use of a toothbrush (99.3%) and toothpaste (80.1%), as well as some kind of toothpick (>60.2%), were part of their oral hygiene practice, with dental floss (0.4%) and/or mouth rinses (0.4%) rarely being used. We have, for the first time, identified Kenyan adolescents colonized with the JP2 genotype. The prevalence of the JP2 genotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans is low, a possible indicator that it spreading through human migration from North and West Africa to East Africa is a rare occasion. View Full-Text
Keywords: JP2 genotype; dissemination; tooth brushing; leukotoxin; chewing stick JP2 genotype; dissemination; tooth brushing; leukotoxin; chewing stick
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MDPI and ACS Style

Haubek, D.; Mulli, T.; Kemoli, A.; Lindholm, M.; Gjørup, H.; Nørregaard, M.-L.M.; Johansson, A. Prevalence of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Oral Hygiene Practice of Kenyan Adolescents in Maasai Mara. Pathogens 2021, 10, 488. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040488

AMA Style

Haubek D, Mulli T, Kemoli A, Lindholm M, Gjørup H, Nørregaard M-LM, Johansson A. Prevalence of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Oral Hygiene Practice of Kenyan Adolescents in Maasai Mara. Pathogens. 2021; 10(4):488. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040488

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haubek, Dorte; Mulli, Tonnie; Kemoli, Arthur; Lindholm, Mark; Gjørup, Hans; Nørregaard, Marie-Louise M.; Johansson, Anders. 2021. "Prevalence of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Oral Hygiene Practice of Kenyan Adolescents in Maasai Mara" Pathogens 10, no. 4: 488. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040488

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