Special Issue "Immune Response in Parasite Infections"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Abhay Satoskar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology, the Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Interests: parasitic diseases; leishmaniasis; immunology; vaccines
Dr. Hira L Nakhasi
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Division of Emerging Transfusion and Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Research and Review, US-Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA
Interests: leishmaniasis; immunology; vaccines; diagnostics
Prof. Dr. Shinjiro Hamano
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
Interests: schistosomiasis; amebiasis, leishmaniasis

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Infections caused by parasites are a significant global health issue. While these diseases are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in resource poor countries, they are also becoming endemic in developed countries. Although progress has been made in discovery of anti-parasitic drugs for certain parasites, there is an unmet need for new treatments and vaccines for all parasitic diseases, particularly NTDs. This Special Issue will focus on the immunology of parasitic diseases. The scope of this issue will include reviews and original manuscripts describing the latest basic and translational discoveries in the areas of host-parasite interaction, host invasion and immune evasion, mechanisms of host innate and acquired immunity, parasite persistence, mechanisms of immunopathology, vaccines, therapies and immune-diagnostics for parasitic diseases. Better understanding of the mechanisms of immunity and host-parasite interaction should aid in developing novel treatments and vaccines for these diseases.

Prof. Dr. Abhay Satoskar
Dr. Hira L Nakhasi
Prof. Dr. Shinjiro Hamano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • parasites
  • immunity
  • immune evasion
  • vaccine
  • innate immunity
  • acquired immunity
  • host-parasite interaction
  • immune-diagnostics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Proteomic Analysis of Leishmania donovani Membrane Components Reveals the Role of Activated Protein C Kinase in Host-Parasite Interaction
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091194 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), mainly caused by the Leishmania donovani parasitic infection, constitutes a potentially fatal disease, for which treatment is primarily dependent on chemotherapy. The emergence of a resistant parasite towards current antileishmanial agents and increasing reports of relapses are the major concerns. [...] Read more.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), mainly caused by the Leishmania donovani parasitic infection, constitutes a potentially fatal disease, for which treatment is primarily dependent on chemotherapy. The emergence of a resistant parasite towards current antileishmanial agents and increasing reports of relapses are the major concerns. Detailed research on the molecular interaction at the host-parasite interface may provide the identification of the parasite and the host-related factors operating during disease development. Genomic and proteomic studies highlighted several essential secretory and cytosolic proteins that play vital roles during Leishmania pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify membrane proteins from the Leishmania donovani parasite and the host macrophage that interact with each other using 2-DE/MALDI-TOF/MS. We identified membrane proteins including activated protein C kinase, peroxidoxin, small myristoylated protein 1 (SMP-1), and cytochrome C oxidase from the parasite, while identifying filamin A interacting protein 1(FILIP1) and β-actin from macrophages. We further investigated parasite replication and persistence within macrophages following the macrophage-amastigote model in the presence or absence of withaferin (WA), an inhibitor of activated C kinase. WA significantly reduced Leishmania donovani replication within host macrophages. This study sheds light on the important interacting proteins for parasite proliferation and virulence, and the establishment of infection within host cells, which can be targeted further to develop a strategy for chemotherapeutic intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Response in Parasite Infections)
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Article
Biflavones from Platonia insignis Mart. Flowers Promote In Vitro Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects against Internalized Amastigote Forms of Leishmania amazonensis
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091166 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide, making the search essential for more accessible treatments. The species Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae) has been extensively studied and has gained prominence for its pharmacological potential. The objective of this work was [...] Read more.
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide, making the search essential for more accessible treatments. The species Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae) has been extensively studied and has gained prominence for its pharmacological potential. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antileishmania activity, cytotoxic effect and activation patterns of macrophages of hydroalcoholic extract (EHPi), ethyl acetate fractions (FAcOEt) and morelloflavone/volkensiflavone mixture (MB) from P. insignis flowers. EHPi, FAcOEt and MB demonstrated concentration-dependent antileishmania activity, with inhibition of parasite growth in all analyzed concentrations. EHPi exhibited maximum effect at 800 μg/mL, while FAcOEt and MB reduced the growth of the parasite by 94.62% at 800 μg/mL. EHPi, FAcOEt and MB showed low cytotoxic effects for macrophages at 81.78, 159.67 and 134.28 μg/mL, respectively. EHPi (11.25 µg/mL), FAcOEt (11.25 and 22.5 µg/mL) and MB (22.5 µg/mL) characterized the increase in lysosomal activity, suggesting a possible modulating effect. These findings open for the application of flowers from a P. insignis flowers and biflavones mixture thereof in the promising treatment of leishmaniasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Response in Parasite Infections)
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Article
TREM1 rs2234237 (Thr25Ser) Polymorphism in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania guyanensis: A Case-Control Study in the State of Amazonas, Brazil
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040498 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Background: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania parasites. A Th1 immune response is necessary in the acute phase to control the pathogen. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 is a potent amplifier of inflammation. Our aim is to identify [...] Read more.
Background: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania parasites. A Th1 immune response is necessary in the acute phase to control the pathogen. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 is a potent amplifier of inflammation. Our aim is to identify whether the TREM1 variant rs2234237 A/T (Thr25Ser) is associated with the disease development of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Leishmania guyanensis-infected individuals. The effects of the rs2234237 genotypes on plasma cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1 and TNF-α are also investigated. Methods: 838 patients with CL and 818 healthy controls (HCs) living in the same endemic areas were genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Plasma cytokines were assayed in 400 patients with CL and 400 HCs using the BioPlex assay. Results: The genotypes’ and alleles’ frequencies were similar in both patients with CL (AA = 618, 74%; AT = 202, 24%; TT = 18, 2%) and in HCs (AA = 580, 71%; AT = 220, 27%; TT = 18, 2%). Rs2234237 showed a modest effect on plasma IL-10 that disappeared when correction of the p-value was applied. Plasma IL-10 by rs2234237 genotypes were (mean ± SEM; AA = 2.91 pg/mL ± 0.14; AT = 2.35 pg/mL ± 0.12; TT = 3.14 pg/mL ± 0.56; p = 0.05). Conclusion: The TREM1 rs2234237 (Thr25Ser) seems to have no influence on the susceptibility or resistance to L. guyanensis infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Response in Parasite Infections)
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Review

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Review
Salivarian Trypanosomes Have Adopted Intricate Host-Pathogen Interaction Mechanisms That Ensure Survival in Plain Sight of the Adaptive Immune System
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060679 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular parasites affecting humans, livestock and game animals. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are human infective sub-species of T. brucei causing human African trypanosomiasis (HAT—sleeping sickness). The related T. b. brucei parasite lacks the resistance to survive in [...] Read more.
Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular parasites affecting humans, livestock and game animals. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense are human infective sub-species of T. brucei causing human African trypanosomiasis (HAT—sleeping sickness). The related T. b. brucei parasite lacks the resistance to survive in human serum, and only inflicts animal infections. Animal trypanosomiasis (AT) is not restricted to Africa, but is present on all continents. T. congolense and T. vivax are the most widespread pathogenic trypanosomes in sub-Saharan Africa. Through mechanical transmission, T. vivax has also been introduced into South America. T. evansi is a unique animal trypanosome that is found in vast territories around the world and can cause atypical human trypanosomiasis (aHT). All salivarian trypanosomes are well adapted to survival inside the host’s immune system. This is not a hostile environment for these parasites, but the place where they thrive. Here we provide an overview of the latest insights into the host-parasite interaction and the unique survival strategies that allow trypanosomes to outsmart the immune system. In addition, we review new developments in treatment and diagnosis as well as the issues that have hampered the development of field-applicable anti-trypanosome vaccines for the implementation of sustainable disease control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Response in Parasite Infections)
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