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Soc. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
New Solutions in Sustainable Commuting—The Attitudes and Experience of European Stakeholders and Experts in Switzerland
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070220
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
New technologies and services can support sustainable mobility if they are successfully integrated into the given mobility system. Decision-makers play a decisive role as ‘enablers’ for such commodities. To find out how a transformation towards sustainable commuting can be forced by implementing innovative [...] Read more.
New technologies and services can support sustainable mobility if they are successfully integrated into the given mobility system. Decision-makers play a decisive role as ‘enablers’ for such commodities. To find out how a transformation towards sustainable commuting can be forced by implementing innovative solutions like carsharing, Mobility as a Service, or autonomous vehicles, relevant stakeholders were identified for three European case studies. Their perspectives and openness towards trends and new solutions were researched in an online survey. In addition, five expert interviews and two workshops in Switzerland deepened the understanding of how new mobility services could be incorporated into companies through mobility management. Results reflect a strong distinction of stakeholders by their national borders and responsibilities. As new mobility technologies and solutions require collaboration, the acts of supporting strong cross-border and cross-disciplinary cooperation, as well as developing joint interests and work processes beyond traditional ones, are suggested as important starting points. The study reveals a high openness of important stakeholders towards new mobility services and discusses the experience of experts in company mobility management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
Also the Urban Poor Live in Gated Communities: A Bangkok Case Study
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070219
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Gated communities, one of those originally Western developments, have suddenly been found in cities in the Global South. “Gated communities”, often defined on the basis of their physical form, have been criticized for disconnecting residents from their neighbors outside the gates and reducing [...] Read more.
Gated communities, one of those originally Western developments, have suddenly been found in cities in the Global South. “Gated communities”, often defined on the basis of their physical form, have been criticized for disconnecting residents from their neighbors outside the gates and reducing social encounters between them. Focusing on cities in the Global South, a large body of research on social encounters between the residents of gated communities and others outside has used case studies of the middle class living in gated communities versus the poor living outside in slums, squats, or public housing. The assumption that gated communities are regarded as enclosed residential spaces exclusively for the middle class, while the poor are found solely in “informal” settlements, may have an effect of stigmatizing the poor and deepening class divisions. It is rare to find studies that take into account the possibility that there also exist gated communities in which the poor are residents. This article examines who the residents of gated communities are, and at the same time analyzes the extent to which people living in gated communities socialize with others living outside. Based on the results of qualitative research in Bangkok, Thailand, in particular, the article critically studies enclosed high-rise housing estates and shows the following: Walls and security measures have become standard features in new residential developments; not only the upper classes, but also the poor live in gated communities; the amenities which gated communities provide are available to outsiders as well; and residents living in gated communities do not isolate themselves inside the walls but seek contact and socialize with outsiders. This article argues that the Western concept of “gated communities” needs to be tested and contextualized in the study of cities in the Global South. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
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Open AccessArticle
Climate Change Migration and Displacement: Learning from Past Relocations in the Pacific
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070218
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
It has been projected that the single greatest impact of environmental changes will be on human migration and displacement. Migration has been extensively discussed and documented as an adaptation strategy in response to environmental changes, and more recently, to climate change. However, forced [...] Read more.
It has been projected that the single greatest impact of environmental changes will be on human migration and displacement. Migration has been extensively discussed and documented as an adaptation strategy in response to environmental changes, and more recently, to climate change. However, forced relocation will lead to the displacement of people, and although much has been written about it, very little has been documented from the Pacific Islands perspective, especially by communities that were forced to relocate as a result of colonialism and those that have been forced to migrate today as a result of climate change impacts. Using the Gilbertese resettlement from the Phoenix Islands to the Solomon Islands, in particular, Wagina Island in the 1960s as a case study of forced relocation and displacement of Pacific Islands people during the colonial period, this paper aims to underline some of the important lessons that can be learned from this historical case to inform the present and future challenges of climate change migration and displacement. Without dismissing migration as a coping strategy, the paper argues that the forced relocation of people from their home islands as a result of climate change will lead to displacement. It accentuates that in the case of Pacific Islands, forced relocation will lead to displacement if they are forced to leave their land because of their deep relationship and attachment to it. The paper also emphasizes the need to acknowledge and honor Pacific Islands’ voices and perceptions in discourses on climate change migration and displacement at national, regional and international forums. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Keeping Lily Safe: An Autoethnographic Exploration of Human–Animal Attachment during Adversity
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070217
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
This article is an autoethnographic examination of my experiences as a pet owner during a particularly challenging time in my life. Beginning with a summary of a critical incident, it shows the way in which fears for the safety of my pet cat, [...] Read more.
This article is an autoethnographic examination of my experiences as a pet owner during a particularly challenging time in my life. Beginning with a summary of a critical incident, it shows the way in which fears for the safety of my pet cat, Lily, and my relationship with her impacted my health, wellbeing and identity. Depicting self-knowledge as partial, local and culturally located, I deconstruct the relationship I had with Lily in relation to the particular set of circumstances in which it was situated. I was seen by my doctor and prescribed a course of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) during this period, and so, my account draws on my medical records, CBT notes and my CBT thought diary in an attempt to understand how and why my anxiety was manifested in my concern for Lily. The article calls for cognitive behaviour therapists to carefully evaluate external stressors before fears are dismissed irrational and reformulated as alternative thoughts. This article also demonstrates that familiesare diverse, and there are many ways of ‘doing family’. For many heterosexual and same-sex couples, pets give stability to a partnership and elevate it to family status, if only within the privacy of the home. Human–animal attachments can be comparable to human–human attachments, and where attachments to pets are as strong as those toward humans, fear of harm can be devastating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue We Are Best Friends: Animals in Society)
Open AccessArticle
Tourism-Based Circular Economy in Salento (South Italy): A SWOT-ANP Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070216
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
This paper is aimed at eliciting, by means of a multi-level perspective, potential drivers and barriers of the tourism industry in order to generate valuable information for policy makers to improve policy strategies for an effective transition towards sustainability. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities [...] Read more.
This paper is aimed at eliciting, by means of a multi-level perspective, potential drivers and barriers of the tourism industry in order to generate valuable information for policy makers to improve policy strategies for an effective transition towards sustainability. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats–Analytic Network Process (SWOT-ANP) framework was employed to explore the potential development of a second-generation biorefinery in Salento (a touristic area located in the southeast of Italy in Apulia Region) able to integrate waste management, renewable energy and bio-products production based on resource circularity in the tourism industry. Results indicate that survey participants recognized a higher level of priority for the pressures coming from the overall external setting involving values, dominant practices, rules and technologies (landscape and regime) over the internal tourism industry dynamics (niche). Results also show that the top five ranked factors are mainly pertaining to weaknesses (excessive bureaucracy and lack of technology and infrastructure) and threats (social acceptability and lack of long-term planning by governments), which can concretely jeopardize the transition towards a greater sustainability in the investigated area. The analysis presented constitutes a valuable model for agenda setting in order to find adequate policy actions to promote the transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adopting Circular Economy Current Practices and Future Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
A Qualitative Investigation of Young Footballers’ Perceptions Regarding Developmental Experiences
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070215
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
This study examined perceptions of Greek young football players regarding sport-related developmental experiences using a model of PYD through sport based on results from a qualitative study as a theoretical framework. Twenty one young football athletes (aged 12–15) gave semi-structured interviews. The young [...] Read more.
This study examined perceptions of Greek young football players regarding sport-related developmental experiences using a model of PYD through sport based on results from a qualitative study as a theoretical framework. Twenty one young football athletes (aged 12–15) gave semi-structured interviews. The young athletes identified both positive and negative developmental experiences related to the behaviors of coaches, parents and peers. They did not report any explicit teaching of life-skills. However, young footballers identified their life-skills development by implicit processes. Nevertheless, their understanding of life-skills was rather simplistic. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Not a Security Issue: How Policy Experts De-Politicize the Climate Change–Migration Nexus
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070214
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 30 June 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
Policy experts play an important role in coping with the climate change–human migration nexus. They offer expert solutions to decision makers, and thus, they contribute to de-politicizing the issue. The aim of this paper is to find out how different policy experts envision [...] Read more.
Policy experts play an important role in coping with the climate change–human migration nexus. They offer expert solutions to decision makers, and thus, they contribute to de-politicizing the issue. The aim of this paper is to find out how different policy experts envision the climate change–human migration nexus. The Netherlands has been nominated as the seat of a Global Center of Excellence for climate Adaptation and aims to become a Global Center of Excellence in the water safety and security domain. Policy experts were selected based on a structured nominee process. We conducted semistructured interviews with policy experts and analyzed policy expert documentation. Interview transcripts and documents were examined via a coding frame. Unlike policymakers who link climate change and conflict, policy experts stress the economic and political factors of migration in which climate change issues happen. The major difference between the view of policymakers and policy experts on the link between climate change and human migration emerges from the frame of the climate refugee. In the context of the climate change–human migration nexus, policy experts act as a countervailing power that prevents the political exploitation of the nexus into a security issue. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Concept of Family Farming in the Portuguese Political Discourse
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070213
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Although several countries have outlined national and multi-criteria definitions, family farming is not well defined in most countries including Portugal, making it difficult to assess its real importance as well as the reasons underlying the design and the success/failure of particular policies. The [...] Read more.
Although several countries have outlined national and multi-criteria definitions, family farming is not well defined in most countries including Portugal, making it difficult to assess its real importance as well as the reasons underlying the design and the success/failure of particular policies. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the framing of family farming in the Portuguese political discourse by applying content analysis to a range of national policies and planning documents. The results show little reference to family farming in political documents and a conceptualization of family farming made in antagonism to professional or entrepreneurial farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Open AccessArticle
Integration in the Shadow of Austerity—Refugees in Newcastle upon Tyne
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070212
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
Newcastle upon Tyne, a post-industrial city in the North East of England, has long been committed to hosting refugees. Although the city has suffered drastic cuts in government funding and faces high levels of deprivation, Newcastle declared itself a city of sanctuary and [...] Read more.
Newcastle upon Tyne, a post-industrial city in the North East of England, has long been committed to hosting refugees. Although the city has suffered drastic cuts in government funding and faces high levels of deprivation, Newcastle declared itself a city of sanctuary and participates in several dispersal schemes for asylum seekers and refugees. This paper shows how political support as well as the self-motivating ambition to be a city of sanctuary are driving forces behind the city’s commitment to hosting refugees. This study then proceeds to explore the integration experiences of refugees in Newcastle, with a focus on housing, employment and the relations between refugees and local residents. While an overall positive picture emerges across these areas, language barriers, the refusal to accept refugees’ previous qualifications and experiences of racism remain major obstacles to integration. Moreover, the gulf in funding and support between resettled refugees and former asylum seekers greatly aggravates the latter’s access to housing and employment and contributes to a lower feeling of safety among this group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration and Resettlement of Refugees and Forced Migrants)
Open AccessArticle
Formal Education of Asylum Seeker Children in Belgrade, Serbia: Expanded Meaning of Social Inclusion
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070211
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 6 July 2019
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Abstract
Formal education of asylum seeker children in Serbia officially started in September 2017, when the consequences of European border regime became more obvious. In spite of the official attitude that Serbia is a transit country, there was a pressure to improve integration policies [...] Read more.
Formal education of asylum seeker children in Serbia officially started in September 2017, when the consequences of European border regime became more obvious. In spite of the official attitude that Serbia is a transit country, there was a pressure to improve integration policies regarding migration, since a lot of people wanting to seek asylum in European Union have remained in Serbia for months. Educational inclusion is the aspect of asylum seekers’ integration in which the most resources and effort was invested. In this article, I try to define the notions of social and educational inclusion in relation to integration policies of asylum seekers coming from different cultural backgrounds and in relation to existing educational inclusion policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration and Resettlement of Refugees and Forced Migrants)
Open AccessArticle
The Asylum Seekers in Non-Metropolitan Areas in France: Between Temporary Integration and Leading to Autonomy. The Case of the Ambertois Territory
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070210
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
This article focuses on the integration process of people seeking asylum in non-metropolitan areas in France. It conceptualizes the reception of asylum seekers involving two interrelated approaches: the utilitarian approach and the humanitarian approach. This article is based on surveys, participatory and sensitive [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the integration process of people seeking asylum in non-metropolitan areas in France. It conceptualizes the reception of asylum seekers involving two interrelated approaches: the utilitarian approach and the humanitarian approach. This article is based on surveys, participatory and sensitive cartography, and participant observation conducted in the Ambertois territory between 2017 and 2018. I find the Ambertois territory can be considered a “fragile space,” particularly in terms of demographics, with difficulties in maintaining public services. These difficulties are risks for asylum seekers, and are impacting the urban space. These risks are intensified by the national and regional level policies like the recent reform of the asylum and immigration act on the one hand, and the suffering they experienced throughout their migratory journey on the other. Faced with these risks, local synergies, which facilitate the integration of asylum seekers, are emerging from local actors. This integration is temporary and is considered by local actors as leading to the autonomy of asylum seekers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration and Resettlement of Refugees and Forced Migrants)
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Open AccessArticle
How Job Sharing Can Lead to More Women Achieving Senior Leadership Roles in Higher Education: A UK Study
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070209
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
This article explores the opportunity that job sharing offers as a way of encouraging more women into senior management roles in the higher education sector. There is a scarcity of female leadership representation in the higher education context, in particular a lack of [...] Read more.
This article explores the opportunity that job sharing offers as a way of encouraging more women into senior management roles in the higher education sector. There is a scarcity of female leadership representation in the higher education context, in particular a lack of female leadership pipeline. The article examines the underlying influences that limit the representation of women in leadership roles. To address these contextual limitations the process of job sharing is offered as a possible solution for harnessing the skills and talents of women in leadership positions in higher education and enabling the development of a leadership pipeline. To illustrate how such job sharing could occur the article provides a detailed vignette of a job share between two senior women leaders within a single UK university context and the positive impact this had on the organisation, the individuals and their leadership development. This article seeks to make a contribution by exploring how leadership job sharing can occur and sets out some recommendations for the adoption, negotiation and establishment of job share structures in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women and Leadership in Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle
Embracing Sustainability in Shipping: Assessing Industry’s Adaptations Incited by the, Newly, Introduced ‘triple bottom line’ Approach to Sustainable Maritime Development
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070208
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
Increasing environmental, social and economic problems, born by unceasing economic growth, have transformed our approach to the development concept. The 1980s saw the appearance of the sustainable development term and, during the 1990s, sustainability notion was implicitly framed as an integrated concept, frequently, [...] Read more.
Increasing environmental, social and economic problems, born by unceasing economic growth, have transformed our approach to the development concept. The 1980s saw the appearance of the sustainable development term and, during the 1990s, sustainability notion was implicitly framed as an integrated concept, frequently, termed as the ‘triple bottom line’ approach. Among several initiatives and efforts to balance our economic and societal pursuits with environmental challenges the, lately, introduced United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) refer to a remarkable evolution, which came to strengthen and establish sustainability conception as an integrated social, economic and environmental triptych. International shipping, as the major carrier of world trade and significant contributor to environmental degradation has, definitely, a vital role to play in facilitating the UN’s sustainability venture. Although there is a great amount of legislative instruments, codes and guidance to address sustainability in shipping, though, limited research has been devoted to identify how the tanker and dry bulk maritime sector has responded to such recent cohesive attitude to sustainable maritime development. Through a quantitative research approach this empirical study aimed to investigate maritime industry’s insights and attitudes in relation to the, newly, introduced triple bottom line approach to global sustainable development. Research data were collected via a questionnaire survey conducted to 50 tanker and/or dry bulk shipping companies. Pearson’s chi-square test of independence and Spearman’s correlation coefficient measures were utilized to test our three formulated hypotheses. Findings highlighted increasing awareness and adaptation of the maritime sector to the triple bottom line approach and, subsequent, sustainability absorption under the auspices of a corporate social responsibility (CSR) business model. Introduction of sustainable development in an integrated manner appears to have influenced the extent that statutory maritime regulations occupy to the formulation of marine safety management systems. To sum up, the integrated management system model turned out to be the most rated tactic to manage sustainability and, as such, a conceptual CSR framework was proposed to facilitate such an objective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Changes in Inequality for Millennium Development Goals among Countries: Lessons for the Sustainable Development Goals
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070207
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
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Abstract
In 2000, the United Nations adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a set of eight global development goals to be achieved between 2000 and 2015. We estimated the Lorenz Curve and Gini Index for determining any changes in inequality at the global level [...] Read more.
In 2000, the United Nations adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a set of eight global development goals to be achieved between 2000 and 2015. We estimated the Lorenz Curve and Gini Index for determining any changes in inequality at the global level with countries as a unit of analysis for eight development indicators (proportion of population undernourished, school enrollment rates, the percentage of women in parliament, infant mortality rates, maternal mortality rates, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) rates, access to improved water sources, and access to a cellular device), representing one MDG each. All of the selected indicators improved on average between 2000 and 2015. An average improvement in an indicator does not necessarily imply a decrease in inequality. For instance, the average infant mortality rate decreased from 39.17 deaths per 1000 births in 2000 to 23.40 in 2015, but the Gini Index remained almost stable over the same period, suggesting no reduction in inequality among countries. For other indicators, inequality among countries decreased at varying rates. A significant data gap existed across countries. For example, only 91 countries had data on primary school enrollment rates in 2000 and 2015. We emphasize developing a global data collection and analysis protocol for measuring the impacts of global development programs, especially in reducing inequality across social, economic, and environmental indicators. This study will feed into currently enacted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for ensuring more inclusive and equitable growth worldwide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Feminist Documentary Cinema as a Diffraction Apparatus: A Diffractive Reading of the Spanish Films, Cuidado, resbala and Yes, We Fuck!
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070206
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
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Abstract
Following Karen Barad’s diffractive methodology, we encounter feminist documentary cinema as a diffraction apparatus: that is, as technologies that make part of the world intelligible to another part of the world in specific ways, by means of intra-actions between human and non-human agencies [...] Read more.
Following Karen Barad’s diffractive methodology, we encounter feminist documentary cinema as a diffraction apparatus: that is, as technologies that make part of the world intelligible to another part of the world in specific ways, by means of intra-actions between human and non-human agencies and objects of observation. We propose three analytical tools: materiality, emotionality, and performativity. In this article, we analyse two Spanish documentary films that render visible the potential of feminist documentary cinema for building alliances from and against precarity: Cuidado, resbala and Yes, We Fuck! Reading the insights and patterns raised in each case study through one another (i.e., diffractively), we discuss the intra-actions by which each of these films participates in co-creating the real. We end up describing three possible effects of feminist material-discursive practices in documentary cinema. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Solidarity Economy, Social Enterprise, and Innovation Discourses: Understanding Hybrid Forms in Postcolonial Colombia
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070205
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
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Abstract
Dominant conceptions of solidarity economy, social enterprise, and innovation (SSEI) remain poorly positioned for understanding the diverse models emerging across the global South. The purpose of this paper is to examine the power relations between the global North and South in the production [...] Read more.
Dominant conceptions of solidarity economy, social enterprise, and innovation (SSEI) remain poorly positioned for understanding the diverse models emerging across the global South. The purpose of this paper is to examine the power relations between the global North and South in the production and dissemination of SSEI knowledge, highlighting the importance of recognizing alternative discourses in the global South. This contextual analysis is developed through consideration of the construction of the hybrid SSEI model in Colombia, drawing upon postcolonial theory and using Nicholls’ framework on the legitimacy of SSEI discourses. This paper offers the first application of postcolonial theory to the analysis of SSEI in the global South. This research has demonstrated that the construction of the SSEI sector in Colombia is a reflection of the dynamic interplay of the hybrids, as it incorporates the hero entrepreneur and business-like discourses within the traditional community discourse, which indeed is a combination of domestic (indigenous collective practices) and colonizer influences (e.g., cooperatives, associations). This paper also identifies the current tensions that have emerged from such hybridity within the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Open AccessEditorial
Women and Leadership in Higher Education: Special Issue Editorial
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070204
Received: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
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Abstract
This Special Issue focuses on women and leadership in higher education (HE) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women and Leadership in Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle
Support Needs and Expectations of People Living with Dementia and Their Informal Carers in Everyday Life: A European Study
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070203
Received: 11 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 30 June 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe the needs and expectations of support within everyday life among community-dwelling people living well with an early stage dementia and their informal carers. The study employed a qualitative design. Data were collected in 2018, via [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to describe the needs and expectations of support within everyday life among community-dwelling people living well with an early stage dementia and their informal carers. The study employed a qualitative design. Data were collected in 2018, via four focus group interviews with, in total, 17 people with dementia and 21 informal carers, transcribed and analyzed with manifest content analysis. Needs and expectations of support among persons with dementia were expressed as the importance of “Participation in my own care,” “Attitude of the informal carers,” and “Trusting relationships with informal carers.” Informal carers’ needs and expectations of support were expressed as the importance of “Formal care and services,” “Getting out of a carer mindset,” and “Family context.” The findings from this study highlighted that persons with dementia were well aware of their cognitive impairments and tried to maintain their independence, with both formal and informal care to help remain “being themselves.” Health professionals should acknowledge persons with dementia and informal carers’ well-being, and acknowledge the importance of their needs together with an understanding of the importance of continuity of frontline carers to building trusting relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Innovative Systems under Industry 4.0 Conditions
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070202
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 23 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
The world is at the threshold of the fourth industrial revolution, which has already begun. It requires enterprises and even sectors to move toward Industry 4.0. Innovative systems (IS) play an important role in this process. In the article, the innovative systems in [...] Read more.
The world is at the threshold of the fourth industrial revolution, which has already begun. It requires enterprises and even sectors to move toward Industry 4.0. Innovative systems (IS) play an important role in this process. In the article, the innovative systems in Industry 4.0 are considered to be complex systems whose components have a lot of tasks; in particular, to produce innovative policy; to provide the subjects of innovative activity with the necessary resources; to participate directly in the process of creation, commercialization, and the practical use of new knowledge; to implement integration approaches between these processes, etc. The complexity of the innovation system leads to the development of modern approaches to their modeling, as a tool for further designing, creating, and modifying real innovative systems of different levels of organization under the conditions of Industry 4.0. In the simulation of IS under the conditions of Industry 4.0, the description of the subsystems by a number of sets is proposed. The model is described by the graph of relationships, including the abstract level of the hierarchical model of IS, its elements, indicators and their values, functions, actions and operations, their states and efficiency, and the tree of goals. In order to make optimal solutions, using the mathematical apparatus of the theory of Markov chains to study the dynamic and static characteristics of the states of the IS is proposed. This approach can be widely used in the simulation, designing, development, and rebuilding of IS at different levels of an organization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle
Performing Borders: Queer and Trans Experiences at the Canadian Border
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070201
Received: 21 April 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
Biometric security and screening systems have revolutionized border crossings. As bodies move across the physical space of the borderland, the border moves through them, scanning and cataloguing and scrutinizing bodies for irregularity. While such technologies have been scrutinized, they have largely been so [...] Read more.
Biometric security and screening systems have revolutionized border crossings. As bodies move across the physical space of the borderland, the border moves through them, scanning and cataloguing and scrutinizing bodies for irregularity. While such technologies have been scrutinized, they have largely been so through heteronormative and cisnormative lenses that fail to recognize the vastly different experiences of nonbinary, nonconforming, transgender, and queer border crossers. This paper examines the implications of what we argue is the individualization of the border, and the effects of biometric security screenings for people whose bodies do not conform to heteronormative and cisnormative standards. We argue that border securitization increasingly equates body differences to narratives of threat and risk, which endangers nonbinary, trans, and queer border crossers, and places their safe passage at risk. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Who Is Eligible for Telework? Exploring the Fast-Growing Acceptance of and Ability to Telework in Sweden, 2005–2006 to 2011–2014
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070200
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
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Abstract
The share of Swedish employees eligible for telework, that is, when work tasks and contractual agreement allow, increased from 22% in 2005–2006 to 35% in 2011–2014. This article explores this fast diffusion of telework eligibility. Micro data from representative national surveys are used [...] Read more.
The share of Swedish employees eligible for telework, that is, when work tasks and contractual agreement allow, increased from 22% in 2005–2006 to 35% in 2011–2014. This article explores this fast diffusion of telework eligibility. Micro data from representative national surveys are used to examine how increasing opportunities for telework have spread among different groups of employees and different parts of the labour market and to examine the factors that increase or decrease the probability of being eligible for telework. We find significant increases in telework eligibility in almost all categories of workers and all labour market sectors. However, employees are clearly grouped into those achieving rapid gains in telework eligibility and those achieving such gains much more slowly. Telework continues to be primarily available to high-status segments of the labour market. Information and communication technology and technical solutions increasingly appear to be key factors enabling telework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
Open AccessArticle
“I’m a Poler, and Proud of It”: South Korean Women’s Managed Experiences in a Stigmatized Serious Leisure Activity
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070199
Received: 26 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
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Abstract
The primary purpose of this study is to explore the experiences of South Korean women “doing serious leisure” in what is widely known as a stigmatized activity, pole dance. It seeks to understand the experiences of South Korean women participating in pole dance [...] Read more.
The primary purpose of this study is to explore the experiences of South Korean women “doing serious leisure” in what is widely known as a stigmatized activity, pole dance. It seeks to understand the experiences of South Korean women participating in pole dance and to investigate the strategies that are used to cope with the stigma that is experienced during participation. A qualitative research method was applied with an “insider” approach to collecting data. Data were collected through participation observations and in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that South Korean pole participants construct unstigmatized identities through their engagement in pole with its social stereotypes and stigma. Participants’ identities have been firmly embedded as “pole dancers”, “pole athletes”, or “polers”, which they do not feel the need to elucidate to those who are not active members. Their identities are surrounded and intertwined with their rationalized reason for participating in pole dance as serious leisure, along with their individual dedication which manifests their commitment by entering competitions and upgrading their pole skills. Participants and the pole dance community create a social atmosphere where their participation is not taken with stigma but rather with serious dedication to form their own interpretation of pole dance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Border and Migration Controls and Migrant Precarity in the Context of Climate Change
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(7), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8070198
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
Climate change impacts natural and human systems, including migration patterns. But isolating climate change as the driver of migration oversimplifies a complex and multicausal phenomenon. This article brings together the literature on global migration and displacement, environmental migration, vulnerability and precarity, and borders [...] Read more.
Climate change impacts natural and human systems, including migration patterns. But isolating climate change as the driver of migration oversimplifies a complex and multicausal phenomenon. This article brings together the literature on global migration and displacement, environmental migration, vulnerability and precarity, and borders and migration governance to examine the ways in which climate-induced migrants experience precarity in transit. Specifically, it assesses the literature on the ways in which states create or amplify precarity in multiple ways: through the use of categories, by externalizing borders, and through investments in border infrastructures. Overall, the paper suggests that given the shift from governance regimes purportedly based on protection and facilitation to regimes based on security, deterrence, and enforcement, borders are complicit in producing and amplifying the vulnerability of migrants. The phenomenon of climate migration is particularly explicative in demonstrating how these regimes, which categorize individuals based on why they move, are and will continue to be unable to manage future migration flows. Full article
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