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Soc. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 58 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Previous scholarly literature has documented a pronounced increase in the prevalence of prejudice-denoting terms in American news media content. Some have referred to this shift in journalistic discourse and related public opinion trends signaling increasing perceptions of prejudice severity in US society as The Great Awokening. This work analyzes whether the trend of increasing prevalence of prejudice themes in American news media outlets replicates in the news media ecosystem of a Spanish-speaking country. We report that within the studied time period, the frequency of terms that denote specific prejudice types related to gender, ethnicity, and sexual and religious orientation has also substantially increased across popular Spanish newspapers. View this paper
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Article
A 21st Century Take on Racial-Ethnic Socialization: Patterns of Competency and Content among Diverse Parents of Color
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020088 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 831
Abstract
Racial-ethnic socialization is a process where parents pass beliefs and behaviors to their children, including critical reflections on race and racism. Currently, it is not well known across racial/ethnic groups in the U.S how parents’ socialization competency (confidence, skills, and stress surrounding the [...] Read more.
Racial-ethnic socialization is a process where parents pass beliefs and behaviors to their children, including critical reflections on race and racism. Currently, it is not well known across racial/ethnic groups in the U.S how parents’ socialization competency (confidence, skills, and stress surrounding the delivery of racial-ethnic socialization) coalesces with the frequency with which they deliver different types of socialization messages (socialization content). The current study utilizes latent profile analysis to examine racial-ethnic socialization content and competency patterns among 203 Black, 194 Latinx, and 188 Asian American parents (n = 585, Mage = 44.46, SD = 9.14, 59.70% mothers) with children 10–18 years old (Mage = 14.30, SD = 2.49, 50.3% female). Furthermore, we relate profiles to sociodemographic and relevant factors posited to impact socialization competency and content delivery, namely, discrimination and critical consciousness dimensions (reflection, motivation, action). We observed three parental profiles: Less Prepared Stressed Low Frequency (LPSLF; n = 285), Prepared Low Stress Frequent (PLSF; n = 204), and Prepared Stressed Frequent (PSF; n = 96) socializers. Profile differences emerged on parental and youth sociodemographic factors, lifetime discrimination exposure, and each parental critical consciousness dimension. This study lays a foundation for the combined study of racial-ethnic socialization competence and content in diverse groups, a practice crucial to understanding 21st century parenting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
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Article
Multiracial Race Self-Labeling Decisions: The Influence of Gender, Social Class, and Political Party Affiliation
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020087 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 880
Abstract
The growing prominence of the multiracial population in the United States is prompting new questions about the importance of social identities on race self-labeling decisions. I review and expand on a growing body of research on this population that focuses on identifying and [...] Read more.
The growing prominence of the multiracial population in the United States is prompting new questions about the importance of social identities on race self-labeling decisions. I review and expand on a growing body of research on this population that focuses on identifying and describing nonracial categories important to shaping racial identities. Specifically, I utilized a national survey of U.S. adults administered by the Pew Research Center to investigate how social identities defined by nonracial categories such as gender, social class, and political party affiliation impact the race self-labels of multiracial people. In addition, I consider factors of racial identity, discrimination, and social pressure and their potential influence on race self-labeling decisions. The findings indicate that gender, social class, and political party affiliation are potential predictors of race self-labeling decisions of multiracial people. After adding the factors of racial identity, discrimination, and social pressure, the results remain significant. In addition, the results for social class and political party affiliation reinforce the actuality that a pervasive racial hierarchy and social stratification system, situated in the context of White supremacy, is embedded within U.S. society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiracial Identities and Experiences in/under White Supremacy)
Article
A Dialectic of Race Discourses: The Presence/Absence of Mixed Race at the State, Institution, and Civil Society and Voluntary and Community Sector Levels in the United Kingdom
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020086 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 846
Abstract
For the twenty years that mixed race has been on the United Kingdom (UK) censuses, the main story of mixed race in the UK remains one notable for its nominal presence and widespread absence in national discourses on race and ethnicity, racialisation, and [...] Read more.
For the twenty years that mixed race has been on the United Kingdom (UK) censuses, the main story of mixed race in the UK remains one notable for its nominal presence and widespread absence in national discourses on race and ethnicity, racialisation, and racisms. The article explores reasons for this through connecting the continued presence/absence of mixed race in public discursive spheres to the role that White supremacy continues to play at systemic, structural, and institutional levels within UK society. As technologies of White supremacy, the article argues that continued marginalisation of mixed race has a direct connection to systemic, structural, and institutional aspects of race, racialisation, and racisms. Using three case studies, the article will use race-critical analyses to examine the ways that mixed race is present and—more often—absent at three societal levels: the state, institution, and civil society and voluntary and community sector. The paper will conclude by exploring key broad consequences for the persistent and common presence/absence of mixed race within race and racisms discourses as a technology of political power. Working in tandem, the paper exposes that presence/absence continues to affect mixed race people—and all racialised people—living in and under White supremacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiracial Identities and Experiences in/under White Supremacy)
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Article
Subsidy Reform and the Transformation of Social Contracts: The Cases of Egypt, Iran and Morocco
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020085 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
After independence, subsidies have been a cornerstone of the social contracts in the Middle East and North Africa. Governments spent heavily to reduce poverty and strengthen their legitimacy. Yet, subsidies became financially unsustainable and donors pressed for reforms. This article assesses reform processes [...] Read more.
After independence, subsidies have been a cornerstone of the social contracts in the Middle East and North Africa. Governments spent heavily to reduce poverty and strengthen their legitimacy. Yet, subsidies became financially unsustainable and donors pressed for reforms. This article assesses reform processes in Morocco, Egypt and Iran between 2010 and 2017, thus before sanctions against Iran were further tightened and before the COVID-19 pandemic. We show that even though the three countries had similar approaches to subsidisation, they have used distinct strategies to reduce subsidies and minimise social unrest—with the effect that their respective social contracts developed differently. Morocco tried to preserve its social contract as much as possible; it removed most subsidies, explained the need for reform, engaged in societal dialogue and implemented some compensatory measures, preserving most of its prevailing social contract. Egypt, in contrast, dismantled subsidy schemes more radically, without systematic information and consultation campaigns and offered limited compensation. By using repression and a narrative of collective security, the government transformed the social contract from a provision to a protection pact. Iran replaced subsidies with a more cost-efficient and egalitarian quasi-universal cash transfer scheme, paving the way to a more inclusive social contract. We conclude that the approach that governments used to reform subsidies transformed social contracts in fundamentally different ways and we hypothesize on the degree of intentionality of these differences. Full article
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Article
[Black] Teachers Resisting Damaged-Centered Research: Community Listening Exchanges as a Reciprocal Research Tool in a Gentrifying City
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020084 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Gentrification impacts many cities across the nation. Affordable housing task forces and legislation meant to address housing inequities are becoming more common, yet the authentic experiences of those affected are often unacknowledged. Absent from the discussion of gentrification are the voices of those [...] Read more.
Gentrification impacts many cities across the nation. Affordable housing task forces and legislation meant to address housing inequities are becoming more common, yet the authentic experiences of those affected are often unacknowledged. Absent from the discussion of gentrification are the voices of those deeply impacted, some who are at the center of the work to maintain communities: Black teachers, Black students, and Black families. In many school districts, teachers do not have the opportunity to address the systemic issues that impact their students and communities. Still, it is impossible to ignore the ways societal injustice seeps into the classroom. This article discusses our work as a teacher participatory action research collective exploring the intersection of housing and educational displacement in a rapidly gentrifying community in Southwest Atlanta, Georgia. We highlight our roles as community-centered educators and detail how we intentionally and thoughtfully worked to create a reciprocal space to engage communities in Community Listening Exchanges. We present Community Listening Exchanges as a justice-centered innovation to community-engaged research and scholarship. Our critical and collaborative approach to generating and analyzing data allowed us to uncover how housing and educational displacement relies on deficit narratives to justify the removal of marginalized people. We offer CLEs as a reciprocal research tool that deviates from traditional qualitative research and resists anti-Black, damage-centered narratives. Full article
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Article
Women Construction Workers in Bangladesh: Health, Wellbeing, and Domestic Abuse during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020083 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 769
Abstract
This article draws on in-depth research conducted during the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic with a group of 35 women who work as construction labourers in Sylhet, northern Bangladesh. We particularly focus on these women’s narratives of economic crisis, domestic abuse, [...] Read more.
This article draws on in-depth research conducted during the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic with a group of 35 women who work as construction labourers in Sylhet, northern Bangladesh. We particularly focus on these women’s narratives of economic crisis, domestic abuse, coercive control and intimate relations during the pandemic. Here, we consider the ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic between 2020 and 2021 particularly affected this group of women participants as they employed survival strategies to support their families through a time of extreme economic and social crisis. A key issue they raised was the negative impact the pandemic has had on their health and wellbeing, particularly exacerbated by an increase in experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV), more commonly termed domestic abuse or domestic violence in the local context. The violence they faced was not necessarily a new experience for many of these women, but it was intensified by pressures brought to bear on interpersonal relations within their household as a result of lack of access to incomes, rising levels of poverty, and the stresses placed on families trying to survive in a time of extreme socio-economic and health insecurity. Full article
Article
Gender Dynamics in a Masculine Professional Context: The Case of the Portuguese Air Force
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020082 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 699
Abstract
This article aims to understand the experiences of women working in the Portuguese Air Force, a traditionally male professional environment, and the perspectives of their male counterparts on the subject, considering women’s minority status and symbolic gender asymmetries in the military. This study [...] Read more.
This article aims to understand the experiences of women working in the Portuguese Air Force, a traditionally male professional environment, and the perspectives of their male counterparts on the subject, considering women’s minority status and symbolic gender asymmetries in the military. This study draws on 16 semi-structured interviews with Air Force personnel, evenly split by gender. Findings reveal four main themes that convey awareness that the Air Force is still a masculine world, perceptions of gender dynamics in the Air Force, barriers to equality, and strategies to address the situation. Although gender equality is formally in place in the Air Force, women continue to face obstacles that hinder their career advancement and ensure that their professional experiences differ from those of their male counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
Article
Political Participation of Young Voters: Tracing Direct and Indirect Effects of Social Media and Political Orientations
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020081 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 901
Abstract
Political participation in Pakistan was expected to rise because of the enormous democratic potential of social media; nevertheless, a drop has been observed following an initial increase. This scenario encourages investigation of the decisive factors that might draw disengaged citizens into participatory politics. [...] Read more.
Political participation in Pakistan was expected to rise because of the enormous democratic potential of social media; nevertheless, a drop has been observed following an initial increase. This scenario encourages investigation of the decisive factors that might draw disengaged citizens into participatory politics. Therefore, this study illustrates the results of a Pakistani sample (n = 410) regarding the role of social media in influencing political participation in online and offline platforms. Five variables were examined using partial least squares (PLS) to see how they influenced online and offline political participation. The OSOR model of communication mediation was used for this purpose. Its implications were extended by simultaneously incorporating three outcome orientations—political expression, political efficacy, and partisanship—as mediators. In addition, we included political interest as an antecedent orientation and social media use as stimuli. Online and offline political participation were placed under response as endogenous variables. Our findings acknowledged nine direct and five indirect correlations out of ten direct and six indirect relationships. Political efficacy neither influenced offline political participation nor proved to be a mediator between social media use and offline political participation. We conclude with study implications, limitations, and recommendations for future scholars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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Article
Existential Meaning-Making Coping in Iran: A Qualitative Study among Patients with Cancer
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020080 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
This article is written on the basis of a study on meaning-making coping in Iran. The study is a part of an international project in 10 countries with different religious and cultural backgrounds. This article aims to discuss the secular existential meaning-making coping [...] Read more.
This article is written on the basis of a study on meaning-making coping in Iran. The study is a part of an international project in 10 countries with different religious and cultural backgrounds. This article aims to discuss the secular existential meaning-making coping methods employed by Iranian cancer patients. Interviews were conducted with 27 participants with various kinds of cancer. Nine secular existential meaning-making coping strategies emerged from the analyses of the qualitative interviews. These coping methods are as follows: Ignoring the illness, Distraction, Altruism, Encounter with others, Nature, Discourse of the self, Visualization, Positive solitude, and Positive thinking and transformational orientation. It seems that, using these strategies, our sample of Iranian cancer patients/survivors have been denying/ignoring their illness, and/or empowering themselves. We discuss the results, considering the potential influence of cultural elements, including Iranian Islam, Persian mysticism, and Persian literature, on the selection of the coping strategies. The study contributes to our understanding of coping via elucidating how seriously ill individuals in Iran try to manage the challenges caused by a health crisis. Full article
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Article
Satisfaction with the Police: Perceptions and Related Variables from an Urban Community Sample
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020079 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 587
Abstract
This quantitative, correlational, and transversal study was performed with a sample of 482 participants from an urban community at the Historic Centre of Porto (HCP). Participants answered to an enquiry designed to collect information about (dis)satisfaction with the police and its performance, with [...] Read more.
This quantitative, correlational, and transversal study was performed with a sample of 482 participants from an urban community at the Historic Centre of Porto (HCP). Participants answered to an enquiry designed to collect information about (dis)satisfaction with the police and its performance, with sociodemographic, victimisation, criminal, environmental, social control, and community variables as potential predictors. Findings revealed that the community was mainly satisfied with the police in its efforts to guarantee security, and there was no relationship between those variables, and sociodemographic and some community variables (e.g., years at the HCP, willingness to collaborate in security measures, and strength of attachment to HCP). On the other hand, there were relationships of (dis)satisfaction with the police and being the victim of crime, and some criminal and environmental variables (e.g., perception of increased criminality, conditions promoting crime, and incivilities). Regression analyses found that the perception of increased criminality and the need to adopt improvement measures were significant predictors of dissatisfaction with the police. This study promotes further discussion on factors that can be improved to increase satisfaction with the police and the connection of community–institutions to promote community security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
Article
Family Structure and Maternal Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-National Comparison of Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020078 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between family structure and maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Family structures that involve transitions across life’s course, such as divorce, can alter access to resources [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between family structure and maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Family structures that involve transitions across life’s course, such as divorce, can alter access to resources and introduce new stressors into family systems. Using the stress process model, we examine the links between family structure, stress, resources, and MDS. Using nationally representative data from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States and cross-sectional models for each country, we find that family structure may influence MDS differently in the UK than it does in Australia or, especially, the US. Specifically, mothers in the UK who either enter or leave a marriage after the birth of their child experience increased levels of MDS compared with mothers who do not experience a similar transition. These findings demonstrate that the effects of family structure transitions across life’s course may vary according to the country context as well as to the mother’s access to resources and exposure to stress. Considering that the effects of family structure transitions are not universal, this indicates that greater attention should be paid to the country contexts families exist in and the effects that public policies and social safety nets can have on MDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Divorce and Life Course)
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Article
Policy Advocacy and NGOs Assisting Immigrants: Legitimacy, Accountability and the Perceived Attitude of the Majority
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020077 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 647
Abstract
The article addresses the involvement of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) assisting immigrants in policy advocacy (PA) connecting the perspectives of political science and social work. In a context in which many politicians and a major part of society opposes immigration, it examines how NGOs [...] Read more.
The article addresses the involvement of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) assisting immigrants in policy advocacy (PA) connecting the perspectives of political science and social work. In a context in which many politicians and a major part of society opposes immigration, it examines how NGOs perceive their legitimacy and accountability concerning their attempts to influence policymaking. It also studies how the attitude of the society towards these NGOs affects their work. The analysis builds on the multimethod research combining qualitative and quantitative approaches carried out among Czech NGOs. Among the key findings is that, when talking about legitimacy, NGOs’ representatives refer mainly to themselves and their own vision of society. This is however a manifestation of internalized external legitimacy sources such as democratic principles and existing laws, together with experience and direct contact with clients, as well as moral obligations. As for accountability, despite many people identify these NGOs as irresponsible welcomers, in fact most of them feel accountable primarily to society (in particular its weakest parts), then to immigrants and finally to themselves. The negative attitude of the majority toward these NGOs clearly affects their PA activities, e.g., their access to authorities, the raised topics and applied tools or types of arguments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
Article
Political Fragility and the Timing of Conflict Mediation
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020076 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 638
Abstract
In recent years, much of the public discourse regarding conflict in the Middle East has pondered the possibility of military intervention, but far less attention has been paid to the optimal mechanisms for conflict mediation. There remains considerable confusion in the study of [...] Read more.
In recent years, much of the public discourse regarding conflict in the Middle East has pondered the possibility of military intervention, but far less attention has been paid to the optimal mechanisms for conflict mediation. There remains considerable confusion in the study of conflict resolution about how to locate the right time, or ‘ripe moment’ for this type of third-party involvement. This is a crucial area of policy relevant research. When attempting to model ripeness, most of the literature has relied on expected utility models of decision-making and found that crucial but nebulous factors that are important in the MENA region, such as conflicting parties’ psychology, religious and political beliefs, as well as grievances compounded over time, cannot easily be incorporated into the framework. This paper offers a plausibility probe to highlight the potential of an augmented approach. Using Poliheuristic (PH) Theory that reflects the non-compensatory nature of political risk, it creates a litmus test for third-party mediation based not on what conflicting parties aim to achieve, but what outcomes and processes they must avoid. The result is a relatively simple identification of ‘bad’ timing, as well as theory-informed mechanisms designed to help practitioners generate better conditions for mediation. This probe contributes to our understanding of the relationship between political fragility and conflict in the MENA region by indicating how political fragility might be conceptualized as a process that can be mapped and perhaps interrupted. Full article
Review
A Review on Digitalization of CSR during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: Opportunities and Challenges
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020072 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a global problem since first appearing in 2020. Not only does it heavily affect the health sector, but it also spreads to other sectors such as social, economic, and education. Studies have shown that many global companies, including [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a global problem since first appearing in 2020. Not only does it heavily affect the health sector, but it also spreads to other sectors such as social, economic, and education. Studies have shown that many global companies, including those based in Indonesia, contribute to the global pandemic mitigation by implementing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programs. So far, the implementation of CSR is mainly focused on providing food, medicines, and vitamins, as well as medical facilities and equipment. On the other hand, other reviewed studies showed that the pandemic has transformed the CSR implementation from offline to online, also known as CSR digitalization. The limitation in mobility and strict social distancing rules by the government have resulted in this emergence of CSR digitalization initiatives. Although CSR digitalization is still relatively rare, several technology companies have started implementing it. CSR digitalization practices aim to empower micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSME) to master digital competencies and increase their economic condition affected by the pandemic. Companies implementing CSR digitalization reported a more efficient and effective CSR implementation. This article can potentially introduce a new paradigm to the industry players on the importance of CSR digitalization and future opportunities due to the changes in the behavior of society post-pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Article
Adolescent Positivity and Future Orientation, Parental Psychological Control, and Young Adult Internalising Behaviours during COVID-19 in Nine Countries
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020075 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many young adults’ lives educationally, economically, and personally. This study investigated associations between COVID-19-related disruption and perception of increases in internalising symptoms among young adults and whether these associations were moderated by earlier measures of adolescent positivity and future [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many young adults’ lives educationally, economically, and personally. This study investigated associations between COVID-19-related disruption and perception of increases in internalising symptoms among young adults and whether these associations were moderated by earlier measures of adolescent positivity and future orientation and parental psychological control. Participants included 1329 adolescents at Time 1, and 810 of those participants as young adults (M age = 20, 50.4% female) at Time 2 from 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Drawing from a larger longitudinal study of adolescent risk taking and young adult competence, this study controlled for earlier levels of internalising symptoms during adolescence in examining these associations. Higher levels of adolescent positivity and future orientation as well as parent psychological control during late adolescence helped protect young adults from sharper perceived increases in anxiety and depression during the first nine months of widespread pandemic lockdowns in all nine countries. Findings are discussed in terms of how families in the 21st century can foster greater resilience during and after adolescence when faced with community-wide stressors, and the results provide new information about how psychological control may play a protective role during times of significant community-wide threats to personal health and welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
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Article
Assessing Gender Bias in Particle Physics and Social Science Recommendations for Academic Jobs
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020074 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
We investigated gender bias in letters of recommendation as a possible cause of the under-representation of women in Experimental Particle Physics (EPP), where about 15% of faculty are female—well below the 60% level in psychology and sociology. We analyzed 2206 letters in EPP [...] Read more.
We investigated gender bias in letters of recommendation as a possible cause of the under-representation of women in Experimental Particle Physics (EPP), where about 15% of faculty are female—well below the 60% level in psychology and sociology. We analyzed 2206 letters in EPP and these two social sciences using standard lexical measures as well as two new measures: author status and an open-ended search for gendered language. In contrast to former studies, women were not depicted as more communal, less agentic, or less standout. Lexical measures revealed few gender differences in either discipline. The open-ended analysis revealed disparities favoring women in social science and men in EPP. However, female EPP candidates were characterized as “brilliant” in nearly three times as many letters as were men. Full article
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Article
The Influence of COVID-19 on Women’s Perceptions of Work-Family Conflict in Singapore
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020073 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 974
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has facilitated a shift in working arrangements. Work from home may blur work and family boundaries, with potential deleterious influence on Work-Family conflict levels. This is especially so for women, who have traditionally been associated with a greater share of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has facilitated a shift in working arrangements. Work from home may blur work and family boundaries, with potential deleterious influence on Work-Family conflict levels. This is especially so for women, who have traditionally been associated with a greater share of homecare and family duties. Using a sample of 754 married, working mothers in Singapore, this study seeks to examine the conflicting roles of women in Singapore during COVID-19 and their consequences on Work-Family conflict. Results show that the negative impacts of COVID-19 increased Work-Family conflict levels. Additionally, factors such as work occupational commitment, work role overload, parental demands, and family support are found to be key predictors for Work-Family conflict during COVID-19. Implications are then discussed, and the findings can inform companies and governmental institutions on strategies to reduce Work-Family conflict levels. Full article
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Article
Co-Education/Co-Research Partnership: A Critical Approach to Co-Learning between Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative and Tufts University
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020071 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Community–university partnerships that purport to promote the public good are often fraught with institutional and cultural challenges that can contribute to the injustices they seek to address. This paper describes how one partnership has been navigating these tensions through a critical approach to [...] Read more.
Community–university partnerships that purport to promote the public good are often fraught with institutional and cultural challenges that can contribute to the injustices they seek to address. This paper describes how one partnership has been navigating these tensions through a critical approach to power. The Co-Education/Co-Research (CORE) partnership has been built over the last decade between Tufts University and Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative, a community organizing and planning group in Boston. We have been co-producing knowledge and action to further community control over development, and we have found that institutional shifts, such as co-governance and the equitable sharing of funding, are leading to longer term impacts for the community partner and breaking down the boundaries between university and community. However, using a relational view of power, we have also found that some of our everyday practices can subtly maintain and reinforce inequities, such as valuing academic knowledge over that of community residents and practitioners. Addressing these cultural and ideological challenges requires critical and reflexive practice. It is messy relational work that requires a lot of communication and trust and, most of all, time and long-term commitment. Full article
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Article
“White People Still Come Out on Top”: The Persistence of White Supremacy in Shaping Coloured South Africans’ Perceptions of Racial Hierarchy and Experiences of Racism in Post-Apartheid South Africa
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020070 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
White supremacy shaped both the formation of the South African racial state and the formation of racial groups, including the creation of the Coloured category as mixed and liminal between White and Black. There are, however, debates about the continuing legacy of white [...] Read more.
White supremacy shaped both the formation of the South African racial state and the formation of racial groups, including the creation of the Coloured category as mixed and liminal between White and Black. There are, however, debates about the continuing legacy of white supremacy in post-apartheid, contemporary South Africa. This paper joins others in the important task of delineating racial hierarchies within contemporary South African society to help reveal the form of oppression, and the accompanying underlying assumptions and ideologies, such as white supremacy, that allows racial difference and deprivation to remain. In this paper, I analyze semi-structured interview data from 50 “Coloured” adults in order to explore their understanding of white supremacy, the racial hierarchy, and contemporary racism. I find that white supremacy negatively impacts Coloureds’ lived experiences through shaping their experiences of structural and interpersonal discrimination from White South Africans. In addition, Coloured South Africans understand the legacy of white supremacy in shaping contemporary racial hierarchies such that White South Africans “still come out on top.” However, I argue that, at the same time, white supremacy also “colours” or hinders some Coloured respondents’ perceptions of their remaining relative privilege in post-apartheid South Africa. This project contributes by revealing a more complete story about the pervasiveness of contemporary hegemonic, global white supremacy that impacts all aspects of the racial hierarchy, including those mixed or in the middle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiracial Identities and Experiences in/under White Supremacy)
Article
Social Media and Political Communication of Youth Political Organisations in Slovakia, Czechia and European Level: A Cross-Case Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020069 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 618
Abstract
This is an exploratory cross-case analysis of political communication strategies of selected youth political organizations on the social network Facebook. The main objectives of this paper are to capture the topics and frequency of posting of Youth Political Organization on Facebook. Secondary, the [...] Read more.
This is an exploratory cross-case analysis of political communication strategies of selected youth political organizations on the social network Facebook. The main objectives of this paper are to capture the topics and frequency of posting of Youth Political Organization on Facebook. Secondary, the study aims to capture the analytical approach categories/objectives: themes and actors. It focuses on the 3-month period from December 2020 to February 2021. Relevant youth political organizations in Slovakia and the Czech Republic are compared with youth political organizations operating at the European level. The organizations either belong directly to the kin political party or have the status of a supporting organization. At the European level, they are also affiliated to a European political party or are a supporting organization of a European political party. The data source is the official profiles of youth political organizations on the social network Facebook. Data processing is based on content analysis of published posts. Content analysis focuses on topics, the frequency of topics, the occurrence of keywords in the overall set of posts, and identifying attitudes to topics. The obtained data are evaluated by descriptive statistics. The presentation of the data is supplemented by tables, including graphical processing using the Voyant Tools text analysis tool. Key findings indicate that COVID-19 pandemic is the most communicated topic both on national and European level. Czech and Slovak cases seek to gain support or create conflict based on selected topics, while European level forms an area of cooperation among organizations. Full article
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Article
How Anthropocene Might Save the World: Metamorphosis
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020068 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2418
Abstract
The Anthropocene has created a new cartography. It moves between the rejection of scientific disciplines, overcoming dualism and a change of coordinates with which to interpret the world. The Anthropocene unites two fields of knowledge: geology and anthropology. The “Axial Age” divides daily [...] Read more.
The Anthropocene has created a new cartography. It moves between the rejection of scientific disciplines, overcoming dualism and a change of coordinates with which to interpret the world. The Anthropocene unites two fields of knowledge: geology and anthropology. The “Axial Age” divides daily practices (the World of life) and the objective view of nature (the World of science). The Anthropocene” by Paul J. Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer has two distinct parts; the first establishes “a period of time”, and the second establishes an “epistemic tool”. This paper is intended to illustrate the epistemological dimension of the Anthropocene. Eduard Suess, Antonio Stopani, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Vladimir Vernadsky, etc., anticipated the concept of the Anthropocene a century ago. The hypothesis of the earth as a “living organism” is inspired by the Goethean Science or Naturwissenschaft of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. It reinforces the character of “rupture” that the Anthropocene has. The Gaia Hypothesis, which is built from elements of Earth science systems, sees the pressing need for a global system and to overcome the barriers between disciplines. The Anthropocene allows both ancient quarrels and the roots of philosophical thought to be reviewed. The metamorphosis linked to the Anthropocene represents the interplay between “collapse” and “awakening”. Focus on the objectivity of the “primary effects”—the “public bads”—leads to the imminent ecological apocalypse. If we focus on “secondary effects”, we observe the metamorphosis of “public bads” into “public goods”. The “good” hides behind the “evil”. We are not at the end of Civilization; we are before new beginnings, new rules, new structures. The Anthropocene could save the world thanks to the metamorphosis of our consciousness of the world. Full article
Article
Approach Developed According to Sustainable Development Goals and Challenges for Future Professionals in Social Intervention
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020067 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 594
Abstract
In 2015, the United Nations and various countries committed to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The 17 goals revolve around 3 main axes: eradicating poverty, protecting the planet, and ensuring peace and prosperity for all people by 2030. These goals are integrated so [...] Read more.
In 2015, the United Nations and various countries committed to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The 17 goals revolve around 3 main axes: eradicating poverty, protecting the planet, and ensuring peace and prosperity for all people by 2030. These goals are integrated so that interventions in one area inevitably affect the others. Undoubtedly, this application involves developing competencies related to Prejudice, conflict resolution, and empowerment. Our research aims to analyse the knowledge and competency of university students undergoing specific training to facilitate the application of UNESCO’s objectives in their work performance, while incorporating human rights as a basis for all future actions. A total of 241 students from the University of Salamanca participated. The average age of the sample was 21.13 years; 76.8% were female, and 23.2% were male (22.41 ± 7.17 years old). The data collection protocol included questions related to knowledge of the Sustainable Development Goals and involving SDGs in their personal life and future profession, which were assessed using the empowerment Scale, the Conflictalk Scale, and the Subtle and Overt Bias Scale. Significant differences were found between SDGs knowledge and involvement with academic courses. There was a direct relationship between this knowledge and involvement with the control, esteem, and activism dimensions of the Empowerment Scale, cooperative from the Conflictalk Scale, and positive emotions had inverse relationships with threat–rejection, and traditional values from the prejudice scale. Our study found that students who are more engaged with the SDGs resolve conflicts cooperatively, foster community activism, and experience positive emotions, whereas students with aggressive conflict resolution are more Prejudiced. Full article
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Article
Challenging “Citizen Science”: Liminal Status Students and Community-Engaged Research
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020066 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 633
Abstract
The problematic term “citizen science” continues to circulate in scholarly circles and points to challenges with how researchers may conceptualize who takes part in community-engaged inquiry. Emerging from experiences with a research team intentionally comprised of students who are undocumented, political asylees, and [...] Read more.
The problematic term “citizen science” continues to circulate in scholarly circles and points to challenges with how researchers may conceptualize who takes part in community-engaged inquiry. Emerging from experiences with a research team intentionally comprised of students who are undocumented, political asylees, and those belonging to mixed status families, we seek to center how immigration status can inform justice-oriented research processes. By focusing on students experiencing liminal status, we note both the structural barriers they face as well as their agency. Through a critical reflexive process, we outline four key tensions that address skills, authenticity, inclusivity, and possibilities relevant to mixed status teams conducting community-engaged research. By exploring how citizenship status impacts research at epistemological and applied levels, we arrive at more inclusive and just possibilities for community-engaged research. Full article
Article
The Past, Present and Future Direction of Government-Supported Active Aging Initiatives in Japan: A Work in Progress
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020065 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
Active aging programs are seen as an important strategy for the long-term sustainability of Japan given population aging and fertility decline trends. This paper reviews Japan’s commitment to active aging initiatives since the 1960s with a focus on the development of senior clubs, [...] Read more.
Active aging programs are seen as an important strategy for the long-term sustainability of Japan given population aging and fertility decline trends. This paper reviews Japan’s commitment to active aging initiatives since the 1960s with a focus on the development of senior clubs, welfare centers for the elderly and senior colleges. The changing patterns of their popularity are discussed in relation to the increased options available today and the changes taking place in the family structure with both a macro historical review and a case study to demonstrate how programs have been implemented with national and local funding support. A description of the U.S. experience is used to demonstrate the comparative level of commitment that Japan has made to support healthy aging. The recrafting of the active aging motif as shogai gen’eki, with its emphasis on continued employment, may suggest a redirection of the preferred role of Japan’s older adults in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asian Perspectives on Active Aging: Meaning, Purpose and Hope)
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Article
The Effect of Cultural Intelligence, Conflict, and Transformational Leadership on Decision-Making Processes in Virtual Teams
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020064 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 920
Abstract
The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) has resulted in several improvements in diverse aspects of the organizational structures, including the introduction of virtual teams (VTs). Organizations rely on VTs since they bring a lot of benefits, such as the enhancement [...] Read more.
The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) has resulted in several improvements in diverse aspects of the organizational structures, including the introduction of virtual teams (VTs). Organizations rely on VTs since they bring a lot of benefits, such as the enhancement of organizational performance. However, effective VTs cannot exist without the proper implementation of decision-making processes. There is a lack of scientific research that attempts to understand the factors affecting decision-making processes in VTs. Studies in this area have only been conducted in the United States and Europe. However, such research has not been conducted in the Middle East, where specific scientific solutions are still required to improve the performance of VTs. Therefore, this study is conducted in the Middle East to gain scientific knowledge on this region’s specificity. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the factors that affect VT decision-making processes. An online survey was used to collect data (Google forms) from companies in the IT industry in UAE, which are engaged in VTs. A literature review, survey methods, and structural equation modeling were used. The results showed that culture intelligence (CQ), transformational leadership (TL), and task conflict have a positive effect on VT decision-making processes, and relationship conflict has a negative impact on VT decision-making processes, which provides the management teams with a guideline on what to concentrate on in the measuring and enhancement of the effectiveness of VT decision making. Full article
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Article
Barriers to Innovations and Innovative Performance of Companies: A Study from Ecuador
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020063 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 575
Abstract
This research aimed to examine the relationship between the barriers to the development of innovation and innovative performance. This is a quantitative, not experimental, cross-sectional research, and the National Survey of Innovation Activities of Ecuador is used. Bivariate Probit regression was used to [...] Read more.
This research aimed to examine the relationship between the barriers to the development of innovation and innovative performance. This is a quantitative, not experimental, cross-sectional research, and the National Survey of Innovation Activities of Ecuador is used. Bivariate Probit regression was used to process the data. The results show empirical evidence that Ecuadorian companies have a great number of barriers to innovation. The main barriers to product innovation and process innovation are as follows: lack of company funds, high costs of innovation, and lack of qualified personnel in the company and the country. In addition product innovation is affected by the lack of market information, and process innovation is affected by the lack of financing from external sources, lack of information on technology, and a market dominated by established companies. The research has theoretical implications because it contributes empirical evidence on the relationship between innovation barriers and innovative performance in developing countries where evidence is scarce. The research has practical implications because it serves as a basis for forming public policies. Business managers and administrators can improve innovative performance by minimizing the impact of the main barriers to innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
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Article
Olympic Education in France: A Legacy Issue or the Promotion of a Model in Crisis?
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020062 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 585
Abstract
Both the promoters of Olympism and the organisers of the Olympic Games regularly employ the term legacy. In this context, the use of education as a tool constitutes an important stake. We have analysed the position of French actors in education with regard [...] Read more.
Both the promoters of Olympism and the organisers of the Olympic Games regularly employ the term legacy. In this context, the use of education as a tool constitutes an important stake. We have analysed the position of French actors in education with regard to Olympism and the measures implemented. In this respect, we have studied, on the one hand, the texts of the IOC and OCOGs from the 1960s to those concerning Paris 2024, in order to identify the concepts of education. On the other hand, we have focused on the professional texts of Physical Education and Sport (PES) teachers. Finally, in order to complete this analysis, we have examined the contents of projects labelled as part of the “Olympic Class” scheme, designed as one of the main channels for rolling out Olympic education in schools. This study has made it possible to identify the ways in which PES teachers engage in and take ownership of the concept of Olympic education, sometimes to the point of validating its ideological foundations or transforming them. Our study thus ponders the means used to make Olympism a universal subject and demonstrates that, far from offering real pedagogical treatment of Olympic facts, current practices aim rather to form generations of spectators attached to Olympism and guarantee the success of future Olympiads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Article
Comparing and Predicting Inconsistency on Positive and Negative Life Experiences Reports: Which Variables Matter?
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020061 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Most studies about life experiences and their long-term impact have relied on retrospective assessments and cross-sectional designs. However, there are concerns about the inconsistency of reports, which have been addressed in a limited scope. This study aimed to compare differences on inconsistency between [...] Read more.
Most studies about life experiences and their long-term impact have relied on retrospective assessments and cross-sectional designs. However, there are concerns about the inconsistency of reports, which have been addressed in a limited scope. This study aimed to compare differences on inconsistency between positive and negative experiences to describe potential patterns and to identify sociodemographic, experiences-related and design-related predictors of inconsistency. Adults from community (N = 171) reported their life experiences twice, through self-report or interview. An overall trend of overreporting was found for positive and negative experiences. Additionally, inconsistency on positive experiences was higher than on negative although both variables were correlated. Regarding predictors of inconsistency, the model explained greater variance for negative experiences than for the positive ones. Nevertheless, most variables did not predict inconsistency, with few exceptions: impact for positive experiences, total of experiences for negative experiences, and time interval was marginally significant for both. Available data comparing inconsistency on positive and negative experiences as well as associated predictors are incipient. Overall, it seems that we know more about variables not involved in inconsistency than those that matter. Due to its relevancy, this issue should be further examined. Full article
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Article
Empowering Workers and Learners through a Combined Participatory Action Research and Research Justice Approach
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020060 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 585
Abstract
The UCLA Labor Center used a combined participatory action research and research justice approach to study the challenges faced by workers and learners. Workers and learners are students who work while studying throughout their college careers. This research project has been carried out [...] Read more.
The UCLA Labor Center used a combined participatory action research and research justice approach to study the challenges faced by workers and learners. Workers and learners are students who work while studying throughout their college careers. This research project has been carried out with the assistance of undergraduate students and college partners. We outline in detail the process we undertook to involve more than 500 students, beginning with the study design and ending with the dissemination of study results. We discuss the ways in which we, as researchers, were able to intentionally engage participants and honor their knowledge throughout the research process in order to advance policy reforms. This work entails of incorporating tenets of participatory action research (PAR) and Research Justice (RJ) to build the capacity of partners to produce knowledge. To this end, the work involves participants in every step of the knowledge lifecycle so that research across varying disciplines can impact education and employment policies that improve conditions for workers and learners in workplaces and universities and colleges. Full article
Review
Flooding, Food Security and the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria: An Assemblage and Systems Thinking Approach
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020059 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Food is connected to sustainable development goals in numerous ways, as food security is key to achieving sustainable development. The world is currently not on track to achieve the set sustainable development goals (SDGs). In Nigeria, flooding is a recurrent disaster and constitutes [...] Read more.
Food is connected to sustainable development goals in numerous ways, as food security is key to achieving sustainable development. The world is currently not on track to achieve the set sustainable development goals (SDGs). In Nigeria, flooding is a recurrent disaster and constitutes a setback to success with the SDGs and sustainable development. Flooding disasters are a threat to food security due to their impact on the food system. This study is an integrative review that explores the link between Nigeria’s flooding, food security, and the SDGs. It adopts an assemblage and systems thinking approach to analyze the impact of flooding on all components of food security. It finds that, despite the impact of flooding on food security, it is not recognized as a threat by policymakers, as evidenced by the lack of mention of disasters in the current Nigeria Agriculture Promotion Policy (APP). Attention is drawn to this oversight in this work by highlighting the interconnections between flooding, food security, and sustainable development. Recommendations on flood mitigation and adaptive practices that can alleviate the negative impact of flooding on food security to enhance the success rate of the SDGs are proffered. This work contributes to the literature by showcasing the impact of flooding on food security and its connection to sustainable development, which is an area that has not received adequate attention in research. The assemblage and system thinking approach adopted brings novelty and allows for a succinct understanding of how flooding impacts all four aspects of food security. This paper serves as the first time the problem has been explored in this manner. Full article
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