Innovation and New Entrepreneurial Models—the Transformative Forces in the Era of Global Changes

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 63478

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Faculty of Management, Czestochowa University of Technology, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
2. College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, 2092 Johannesburg, South Africa
Interests: Industry 4.0; industrial policy; globalization; innovation and entrepreneurship
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Management, Czestochowa University of Technology, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: social entrepreneurship; innovation; networking; project management

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Guest Editor
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics, VŠB- Technical university of Ostrava, 708 00 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic
Interests: entrepreneurship; SMEs; globalization; innovation; competitiveness; Business Model

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Innovation has been playing a pivotal role in economic and social development since the Industrial Revolution. However, increasingly, the scholarly discussion is turning towards a critique of innovation as a practice disconnected from real social needs. Especially in the field of technological innovation, the question arises: does technology respond to real needs or like a snake eating its own tail?

Business models and entrepreneurship models, or business model innovation, have become a basic strategic tool for enterprises, but they have also become a lingua franca for describing contemporary business reality. Companies do not compete by access to resources but compete by business models. In a sense, the classical paradigms of economics have been challenged.

Looking at the phenomenon of globalisation, an entrepreneur can benefit from global supply chains but now global changes (due to politics and pandemic) make the situations upside down in entrepreneurial strategies often towards neolocalism, which means becoming more rooted in the local environment. Is this the beginning of an era of deglobalisation or just a temporary disturbance?

The aim of this Special Issue is to discuss in an innovative way, on the one hand, “old questions” and, on the other hand, new emerging topics. We are looking for innovative academic approaches and papers presenting theoretical and empirical research (qualitative and quantitative) addressing the following topics:

  • The phenomenon of globalization and deglobalization
  • The essence of cooperation and collaboration in times of crisis
  • Management focused on creating social values
  • Technological innovations–an impact on society
  • Social innovation–today and in the future
  • Entrepreneurship and crisis
  • Social entrepreneurship and ecological entrepreneurship
  • Evolution of business model innovation
  • The idea of hybrid organizations
  • Entrepreneurial behavior in time of unexpected crises

Extending the scope of the invitation to the Special Issue, we search for answers to the following questions:

  • What kind of innovation and what kind of entrepreneurial mindset do we need now and in the future?
  • Which rules of the game have been changed in view of globalisation/deglobalisation?
  • What are the risks of innovation outside of social control?
  • Where are business models evolving?
  • What is the role of social innovation and social business models?
  • What kind of innovation is important for crises: permanent like a climate crisis or unexpected situation like a pandemic?
  • Is innovation an expansion that threatens the social and ecological or economic balance?
  • Is innovation the best response to crises?

The set of questions is not closed; other points and approaches are possible and invited.

Prof. Dr. Beata Ślusarczyk
Dr. Aneta Pachura
Dr. Hana Štverková
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Business Model Innovation
  • entrepreneurship
  • innovation
  • social changes
  • globalization
  • deglobalization

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 316 KiB  
Article
Employee Readiness for Organizational Change in the SME Internalization Process: The Case of a Medium-Sized Construction Company
by Bojan Moric Milovanovic, Zoran Bubas and Matea Cvjetkovic
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030131 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6287
Abstract
A growing body of research, especially in the domain of psychology and business, is aimed at identifying the link between work-related factors and employee readiness to accept change. Moreover, change management is a topic that rapidly attracts the attention of the academic and [...] Read more.
A growing body of research, especially in the domain of psychology and business, is aimed at identifying the link between work-related factors and employee readiness to accept change. Moreover, change management is a topic that rapidly attracts the attention of the academic and business communities as well. Therefore, this study is conducted in order to identify the antecedents of the effective implementation of change(s) within a context of a medium-sized construction company that went through numerous changes during its lifetime. A total of 12 different hypotheses and sub-hypotheses was tested to better understand what factors affect employee readiness for change. A multiple regression analysis was used on a sample of 54 employees indicating that organizational commitment, career commitment, and job satisfaction positively affect employee readiness for organizational change. The research contributes to the fields of human resources, organizational psychology, management of small and medium-sized enterprises, and change management. Full article
16 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Cultural Intelligence, Conflict, and Transformational Leadership on Decision-Making Processes in Virtual Teams
by Vida Davidaviciene and Khaled Al Majzoub
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020064 - 8 Feb 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 9404
Abstract
The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) has resulted in several improvements in diverse aspects of the organizational structures, including the introduction of virtual teams (VTs). Organizations rely on VTs since they bring a lot of benefits, such as the enhancement [...] Read more.
The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) has resulted in several improvements in diverse aspects of the organizational structures, including the introduction of virtual teams (VTs). Organizations rely on VTs since they bring a lot of benefits, such as the enhancement of organizational performance. However, effective VTs cannot exist without the proper implementation of decision-making processes. There is a lack of scientific research that attempts to understand the factors affecting decision-making processes in VTs. Studies in this area have only been conducted in the United States and Europe. However, such research has not been conducted in the Middle East, where specific scientific solutions are still required to improve the performance of VTs. Therefore, this study is conducted in the Middle East to gain scientific knowledge on this region’s specificity. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the factors that affect VT decision-making processes. An online survey was used to collect data (Google forms) from companies in the IT industry in UAE, which are engaged in VTs. A literature review, survey methods, and structural equation modeling were used. The results showed that culture intelligence (CQ), transformational leadership (TL), and task conflict have a positive effect on VT decision-making processes, and relationship conflict has a negative impact on VT decision-making processes, which provides the management teams with a guideline on what to concentrate on in the measuring and enhancement of the effectiveness of VT decision making. Full article
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19 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
Higher Education Institutions as Partners in Growing Innovation of Local Economy
by Marcin Lis
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(8), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10080316 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3193
Abstract
Higher education institutions (HEIs) are constantly evolving how they operate and their areas of academic interest. What remains unchanged is the fact that the raison d’être of a university is to fulfill the role of a citadel of knowledge to its environment. The [...] Read more.
Higher education institutions (HEIs) are constantly evolving how they operate and their areas of academic interest. What remains unchanged is the fact that the raison d’être of a university is to fulfill the role of a citadel of knowledge to its environment. The aim of this paper is to show the relationship between HEIs and entities that have an impact on the growth of the local economy, in particular the possibilities of shaping local partnerships for innovation. The paper thus outlines the nature of individual sectors, the special role played by local governments, and the activities of universities related to innovation in the economy, based on the results of two collaborative studies co-sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education and teams of researchers at the WSB University in Dąbrowa Górnicza. One of the projects was under the framework of the DIALOG program of 2019–2020 and the other used the framework of the Regional Excellence Initiative program of 2019–2022. The main part of this study was based on a survey of representatives of local governments; the survey was oriented towards identifying the opinions of local managers on the current and postulated roles of universities in the development of the local economy. The results presented in this study indicate, among other things, a significant differentiation of expectations concerning the cooperation of entities in the process of local development based on innovation and changes in the areas of this cooperation. Full article
13 pages, 6392 KiB  
Article
Social Bottom-Up Approaches in Post-COVID-19 Scenario: The AGOGHÈ Project
by Francesco Vincenzo Ferraro, Federica de Ruggiero, Simonetta Marino and Giuseppe Ferraro
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070274 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3628
Abstract
The AGOGHÈ Project aims to produce innovative and entrepreneurial models following the global socioeconomic changes caused by COVID-19. Its objectives include (i) generating awareness, education and social skills through dedicated ethical workstations and workgroups; (ii) developing a novel figure called “Social Trainer” who [...] Read more.
The AGOGHÈ Project aims to produce innovative and entrepreneurial models following the global socioeconomic changes caused by COVID-19. Its objectives include (i) generating awareness, education and social skills through dedicated ethical workstations and workgroups; (ii) developing a novel figure called “Social Trainer” who represents a professional opportunity for young graduates, able to discuss, explain and guide others through the maze of active citizenship rules. The project was developed in the Quartieri Spagnoli of Naples (Italy). The current manuscript reports preliminary data from the local community collected between November and December 2020. Results provide an insight into the neighbourhood, where the lockdown produced an increment in school dropouts and irreparable economic damage. In conclusion, the approach proposed with the AGOGHÈ Project, fully described here, is predicted to be beneficial in increasing social, cultural and economic aspects in the local area and in facilitating a dialogue between people, stakeholders and governments engaging in novel resolutions for post-COVID-19 crises. Full article
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14 pages, 1289 KiB  
Article
Employee Preparedness for Industry 4.0 in Logistic Sector: A Cross-National Study between Poland and Malaysia
by Beata Ślusarczyk, Robert Jeyakumar Nathan and Paula Pypłacz
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070258 - 7 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4050
Abstract
Today we are witnessing a paradigm shift when it comes to the industry. There are chances that Industry 4.0 does not only involve major changes in production and business solutions, but also the ability of many enterprises (mainly production companies) to come closer [...] Read more.
Today we are witnessing a paradigm shift when it comes to the industry. There are chances that Industry 4.0 does not only involve major changes in production and business solutions, but also the ability of many enterprises (mainly production companies) to come closer to developed economies. This article highlights the aspect of creating new business models that integrate organizations around Industry 4.0 solutions and create new value for the client and internal client. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between the implementation of selected Industry 4.0 technologies as well as the knowledge and preparation of employees for changes caused by new solutions, e.g., in the area of the automation and robotization of industry or data and information management. The questionnaire research was conducted among 80 logistics companies in Poland and 80 in Malaysia. Based on the obtained data, a statistical analysis was conducted of the relationships between the above-mentioned variables. The analysis concerned: the employees’ knowledge of the Industry 4.0 paradigm, preparing employees for challenges and the implementation of Industry 4.0 technology. The correlation analysis showed the existence of a statistical relationship between the analysed variables. The analysis of quantitative data showed differences between Poland and Malaysia in terms of employee preparation, their knowledge of Industry 4.0 and activities related to the implementation of specific IR4.0 technologies. The presented analysis relates to one of the analysed areas, therefore it is a contribution to further considerations and comparisons. Full article
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24 pages, 1686 KiB  
Article
Readiness of Polish Industrial Enterprises for the Industry 4.0 Revolution
by Marcin Lis, Bartosz Jeżyna, Ewa Szkudlarek and Szymon Szumiał
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060214 - 7 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3525
Abstract
Implementing solutions related to Industry 4.0 is a challenge for Polish industrial enterprises, regardless of size or affiliation to a larger, international organisation. The aim of this article is to examine the awareness, readiness and ability of these enterprises to meet this challenge. [...] Read more.
Implementing solutions related to Industry 4.0 is a challenge for Polish industrial enterprises, regardless of size or affiliation to a larger, international organisation. The aim of this article is to examine the awareness, readiness and ability of these enterprises to meet this challenge. This study was conducted on a group of 60 randomly selected representatives of companies operating in Poland. A structured interview consisting of 32 questions, carried out using the English computer-assisted web interview (CAWI) method, was used to collect the data. Statistical differences between companies employing up to 249 people and companies employing at least 250 people were verified by the use of the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. Latent variables were also extracted, and the comparison was conducted using the independent samples from a Student’s t-test. Regardless of the differences in responses between companies employing up to 249 employees and those employing 250 or more, the results showed an insufficient level of knowledge of technological solutions as well as a lack of awareness about supporting business development by means of specialised technology providers. Even though little awareness of the importance of Industry 4.0 solutions was identified, identifying key determinants for raising awareness of these solutions among companies operating in Poland may become not only the basis of further scientific research but also of a vital catalogue of activities that can be used to disseminate knowledge in this area. Both paths are extremely important for Polish enterprises. Practical implementation of Industry 4.0 measures particularly entails additional support for small and medium-sized enterprises (hereinafter SME) investment in technological, financial and human resources. Full article
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14 pages, 911 KiB  
Article
Modelling of Cross-Organisational Cooperation for Social Entrepreneurship
by Aneta Pachura
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060201 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3197
Abstract
Objectives: The objective of the study is to advance the conceptualisation of social entrepreneurship and report the results of empirical research related to the identification of the architecture of the model of interorganisational collaboration for the growth of social entrepreneurship potential at [...] Read more.
Objectives: The objective of the study is to advance the conceptualisation of social entrepreneurship and report the results of empirical research related to the identification of the architecture of the model of interorganisational collaboration for the growth of social entrepreneurship potential at the local level. Research Design and Methods: The research presented in the article is based on a case study performed on an example of the Polish institutional landscape. Multidimensional empirical research methodology was applied in the form of participant observation, analysis of focus group results and business modelling techniques. The literature review contains an analysis of reports from the area of social economy and related fields. Findings: The result of the conducted research is the discovery of primary dimensions of effective interorganisational cooperation in the form of an analogue-representational model. Implication/Recommendations: In the process of strengthening the potential of social entrepreneurship, the cooperation of actors from different organisational fields is a key factor. An appropriate level of social capital is an essential requirement for effective cooperation. Contribution/Value Added: The developed model of cooperation for social entrepreneurship is based on an initiative that is unique and innovative on a national scale and is the result of empirical research. It also seems that the approach presented may be universal and could be extrapolated to other regions and cultural contexts. Article Classification: Research article. Full article
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16 pages, 448 KiB  
Article
Opening the “Black Box” of University Entrepreneurial Intention in the Era of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Sofia Gomes, Marlene Sousa, Tânia Santos, José Oliveira, Márcio Oliveira and João M. Lopes
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10050181 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4909
Abstract
This research aims to study the determinants of entrepreneurial intention in academia and compare the outcomes from two different moments, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, a quantitative methodology was used, whereby a questionnaire was given to higher education students [...] Read more.
This research aims to study the determinants of entrepreneurial intention in academia and compare the outcomes from two different moments, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, a quantitative methodology was used, whereby a questionnaire was given to higher education students in these two chronological moments. From the obtained results, it was possible to ascertain that, given the motivational dimension, the attitude towards behavior and perceived behavioral control are having a positive impact on entrepreneurial intentions during the pandemic and that subjective norms have a negative impact on entrepreneurial intentions. This relationship of influences is unchanged, either before or during the pandemic. Regarding the environmental dimension, both of the variables under analysis are having a negative impact on entrepreneurial intention during the pandemic period, which corresponds to an aggravation or loss of positive influences when compared to the context before the pandemic, and the next assessment had a positive impact on entrepreneurial intentions. On the theoretical contributions, the findings are very important, as they strengthen the literature on entrepreneurial intentions, and in specific contexts of social and economic instability. As for practical contributions, this research suggests actions to agents with an important intervention role in the community, one of these agents is Higher Education Institutions, which play a determining role by creating a positive environment to support their students’ entrepreneurial intent. This research is original, as far as we are informed, and it is the first to study entrepreneurial intention in academia during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Portuguese context. Moreover, we suggest that the obtained results should be succeeded by further studies to confirm the evolutionary trends now identified on the subject under analysis. Full article
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12 pages, 409 KiB  
Article
Unveiling the Crucial Factors of Women Entrepreneurship in the 21st Century
by Sanjeev S. Ingalagi, Nishad Nawaz, Habeeb Ur Rahiman, A. Hariharasudan and Vanishree Hundekar
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(5), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10050153 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5995
Abstract
In the present era, women-owned firms are one of India’s fastest increasing entrepreneurial communities in the form of women entrepreneurs. The objective of the study is to identify the factors that influence women’s entrepreneurial orientation and firms’ performance. The research study discusses the [...] Read more.
In the present era, women-owned firms are one of India’s fastest increasing entrepreneurial communities in the form of women entrepreneurs. The objective of the study is to identify the factors that influence women’s entrepreneurial orientation and firms’ performance. The research study discusses the influencing factors and their effect on firms’ performance and satisfaction in this regard. The proposed framework and hypotheses have been tested using data gathered from boutiques, beauty parlors, carpet manufacturers, and retail shops in Karnataka, India. Data analysis was done using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate techniques. In Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), paths were created for evaluating the cause-and-effect relationship between different factors viz., social, psychological, financial, and resource factors and entrepreneurial performance and satisfaction. Seven relationships were significant, while two relationships were insignificant in this structural equation. The key finding of the paper is that all factors have a significant impact on the firm’s performance. The implications of research results for researchers and practitioners are discussed, and suggestions have also been made. Full article
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15 pages, 754 KiB  
Article
Green Entrepreneurial Orientation and Green Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
by Chaiyawit Muangmee, Zdzisława Dacko-Pikiewicz, Nusanee Meekaewkunchorn, Nuttapon Kassakorn and Bilal Khalid
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10040136 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 98 | Viewed by 8912
Abstract
Since environmental issues are becoming an integral part of business performances, policymakers and managers have started recognizing the importance of green innovation towards sustainable business performances. The role of the automotive parts industry is crucial in minimizing environmental degradation and promoting sustainable development. [...] Read more.
Since environmental issues are becoming an integral part of business performances, policymakers and managers have started recognizing the importance of green innovation towards sustainable business performances. The role of the automotive parts industry is crucial in minimizing environmental degradation and promoting sustainable development. Yet few studies have focused on the connection between green entrepreneurial orientation and green innovation that may affect small and medium enterprise (SME) business performance. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the influence of green entrepreneurial orientation on green innovations, and its effects on sustainable business performances in the automotive parts industry in Thailand. The sample consists of 226 SMEs in the automotive parts industry in Thailand. The partial least square method (PLS-SEM) has been used for the analysis of data. The results of the study show that green innovations have the strongest influence on economic and environmental performances. This study contributes to resource-based view theory by incorporating green innovation as a strategic competency of SMEs’ performance. Further, green entrepreneurial orientation and green innovation can assist SME managers in understanding the factors leading to sustainable performance of businesses. Full article
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13 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Increasing the Efficiency of Enterprises in Tourism Sector Using Innovative Management Methods and Tools
by Peter Gallo, Ján Dobrovič, Veronika Čabinová, Petra Pártlová, Jarmila Straková and Bohuslava Mihalčová
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10040132 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3572
Abstract
The paper deals with the issue of increasing the efficiency of business management using modern management methods and tools in tourism enterprises. The basis of the paper form hypotheses focused on the use of the concept of Balanced Scorecard, controlling, benchmarking, and talent [...] Read more.
The paper deals with the issue of increasing the efficiency of business management using modern management methods and tools in tourism enterprises. The basis of the paper form hypotheses focused on the use of the concept of Balanced Scorecard, controlling, benchmarking, and talent management within the tourism enterprises. Based on the p-value (0.576) in the case of first hypothesis, we can confirm that there is no statistically significant relationship between the openness of hotels to change, innovation, and the willingness to introduce controlling into management. The p-value (0.004) achieved in the case of the second hypothesis confirmed a statistically significant relationship between the hotel classification category and the use of the modern methods in plan design. In the third hypothesis, we examined whether hotels focusing on the sales maximization tend to use their capital for modernization. Based on the validity of the inequality p-value (0.080), we confirm that there is no statistically significant relationship between the pricing approach and the use of capital. Searching strategic tool in management of a business in tourism is still an actual issue. Businesses are especially managed by financial indicators, but modern methods show the growing significance of non-financial indicators. Full article
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27 pages, 401 KiB  
Article
Entrepreneurship, Sport, Sustainability and Integration: A Business Model in the Low-Season Tourism Sector
by Ricardo Reier Forradellas, Sergio Luis Náñez Alonso, Javier Jorge-Vazquez, Miguel Ángel Echarte Fernández and Nicolas Vidal Miró
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10040117 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4141
Abstract
The global tourism reality is changing, and not only because of the COVID-19 pandemic. This reality is especially representative in countries such as Spain, which are highly dependent on the income generated by the tourism sector. In these destinations, it is necessary to [...] Read more.
The global tourism reality is changing, and not only because of the COVID-19 pandemic. This reality is especially representative in countries such as Spain, which are highly dependent on the income generated by the tourism sector. In these destinations, it is necessary to seek innovation and specialization in the sector in order to achieve new business models. This need is even more pressing in destinations overcrowded by the sun and beach effect, as is the case of Mallorca. The proposed work combines the concepts of sports tourism with the development of a wealth-generating business model that will contribute to promoting a tourism that is sustainable, environmentally friendly and deseasonalized. On the other hand, the proposed work will contribute to promoting integration and equality in the participation of women in sports through the development of a model based on the promotion of women’s football. Using the methodology of case analysis, the results of all the approaches outlined are provided, and we obtained a wealth-generation model that is easily replicable and sustainable over time. This work provides a solution to the combination of a sustainable business model that links responsible tourism, the promotion of women’s sport and the generation of wealth. Full article
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