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Soc. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 1 (January 2022) – 30 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): No exploration of parenting in the 21st century would be complete without a look back at parenting practices, beliefs, and customs of the past. These practices are viewed through the lens of illustrations in literature on infant care printed in the United States from the early 20th century through the 1980s aimed at English language readers. During this period, as changing work and family structures removed traditional sources of information, parents increasingly turned to  scientific information and expert guidance. Parenting behaviors such as toilet training and infant feeding are traced over time through drawings and photos in parenting advice publications, with the conclusion that such parental advice was ideologically driven and often lacked a basis in empirical scientific knowledge of child development. View this paper
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Article
Competition within Cross-Functional Teams: A Structural Equation Model on Knowledge Hiding
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010030 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
The modern challenges of business success make the use of interdisciplinary cross-functional teamwork necessary to tackle social and economic issues alike. The study examines the role of knowledge hiding in within-team coopetition, taking into account its subsequent factors influencing team efficiency. For the [...] Read more.
The modern challenges of business success make the use of interdisciplinary cross-functional teamwork necessary to tackle social and economic issues alike. The study examines the role of knowledge hiding in within-team coopetition, taking into account its subsequent factors influencing team efficiency. For the investigation, a self-made model was applied that associates the personality of individuals, their role inside the organization and work-environmental aspects with the individual’s behavior as the antecedent of within-team competition. The objective of this study revolves around the question of which factors apply to the efficiency of cross-functional teams. The modern concept of interdisciplinary coopetition faces more difficulties than traditional teams regarding voluntary adoption in new environments. The model was empirically applied to a dataset of 129 participants working in cross-functional teams. Three hypotheses were drafted and statistically evaluated. The factor of knowledge hiding was evaluated as one of the crucial factors blocking the efficiency of team-based work, based on the results from the literature review. This was further fueled by antagonistic behavior and a competitive supervisor. The empirical findings further elaborate that individuals with a competitive supervisor tend to be more antagonistic and competitive themselves. Equally, a highly developed personality trait of antagonism correlates positively with knowledge hiding, thereby resulting in the limiting of team performance. Surprisingly, competitiveness among individuals is negatively correlated with knowledge hiding, indicating that different personality traits and different real-life situations react drastically differently towards competitive environments. The results close the research gap of a strategic necessity for supervisors and managers designing business organizations alike, namely, that an individually adapted and situationally aware leadership is indispensable for a successful cross-functional team approach, even more than in traditional team compositions. As for now, only the effects on personality in educational environments were discussed in previous research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Article
Inclusive Industry 4.0 in Europe—Japanese Lessons on Socially Responsible Industry 4.0
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010029 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 817
Abstract
This contribution addresses the puzzle of whether the anti-inclusive character of Industry 4.0 development can be tailored toward a socially more responsible path (smart automation). In doing so, the paper first underlines the crucial importance of a governance being capable of fostering inclusive [...] Read more.
This contribution addresses the puzzle of whether the anti-inclusive character of Industry 4.0 development can be tailored toward a socially more responsible path (smart automation). In doing so, the paper first underlines the crucial importance of a governance being capable of fostering inclusive growth by deciphering the nexus between flaring populism and non-inclusive growth. It then turns to the case of Japanese digitalization and Industry 4.0 development to show that adding a social innovation-dimension (smart automation) to Industry 4.0 is not impossible in supporting inclusive growth in Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
Article
Socioeconomic Status, Occupational Disease, and Psychological Well-Being: Evidence from People with Pneumoconiosis in China
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010028 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Background: Pneumoconiosis is one of the most prevalent occupational diseases in China. The present study aims to examine the status, needs, and challenges of people with pneumoconiosis from a socioeconomic perspective and to reveal the mechanisms by which the disease is linked to [...] Read more.
Background: Pneumoconiosis is one of the most prevalent occupational diseases in China. The present study aims to examine the status, needs, and challenges of people with pneumoconiosis from a socioeconomic perspective and to reveal the mechanisms by which the disease is linked to their psychological well-being. This study also examines the association of the social security subsidy to such mechanism. Methods: A questionnaire survey of 1134 respondents from seven cities or districts in China was conducted from 2014 to 2016. Generalized Structural Equation Modeling (GSEM) was employed to complete the analysis using Stata 16. Results: Respondents with poor socioeconomic status engaged longer in dusty work and had higher stages of pneumoconiosis, complications, and aggravation. These, in turn, were linked to their socioeconomic status due to high treatment expenditure and loss of the ability to work, which were negatively associated with their psychological well-being. Social security assistance and subsidies could help improve their socioeconomic status. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the mechanism of social factors linking to physical health and further to psychological well-being among people with pneumoconiosis. Social security assistance and subsidies should be urgently provided for them to improve their socioeconomic status and their psychological well-being. Full article
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Article
Linked Lives: Does Disability and Marital Quality Influence Risk of Marital Dissolution among Older Couples?
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010027 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
Using fourteen waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a longitudinal panel survey with respondents in the United States, this research explores whether marital quality—as measured by reports of enjoyment of time together—influences risk of divorce or separation when either [...] Read more.
Using fourteen waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a longitudinal panel survey with respondents in the United States, this research explores whether marital quality—as measured by reports of enjoyment of time together—influences risk of divorce or separation when either spouse acquires basic care disability. Discrete-time event history models with multiple competing events were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Respondents were followed until they experienced the focal event (i.e., divorce or separation) or right-hand censoring (i.e., a competing event or were still married at the end of observation). Disability among wives was predictive of divorce/separation in the main effects model. Low levels of marital quality (i.e., enjoy time together) were associated with marital dissolution. An interaction between marital quality and disability yielded a significant association among couples where at least one spouse acquired basic care disability. For couples who acquired disability, those who reported low enjoyment were more likely to divorce/separate than those with high enjoyment; however, the group with the highest predicted probability were couples with low enjoyment, but no acquired disability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Divorce and Life Course)
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Article
Transforming the Global Plastics Economy: The Role of Economic Policies in the Global Governance of Plastic Pollution
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010026 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
International policy discussions on plastic pollution are entering a new phase, with more than 100 governments calling for the launch of negotiations for a new global plastics agreement in 2022. This article aims to contribute to efforts to identify effective international policy levers [...] Read more.
International policy discussions on plastic pollution are entering a new phase, with more than 100 governments calling for the launch of negotiations for a new global plastics agreement in 2022. This article aims to contribute to efforts to identify effective international policy levers to address plastic pollution. It takes stock of the evolution of views and perceptions on this complex and multi-faceted topic—from concerns about marine pollution and waste management towards new strategic directions that involve the entire plastics life-cycle and include climate and health impacts associated with the proliferation of plastics. It also traces the progressive development of responses—from voluntary approaches involving multiple stakeholders to national and international approaches focused on regulation. The paper is informed by desk research, a literature review and participation by the authors in informal and formal global governance processes on plastic pollution, the environment and development in the United Nations and World Trade Organization between 2019 and 2021. It also draws on empirical findings from a novel and original database on the life-cycle of plastic trade created by the authors. The paper argues that the important focus on downstream dimensions of plastic pollution—and strategies to address them—needs to be complemented by a broad life-cycle and “upstream” perspective that addresses plastic pollution at its source. It highlights the political economy tensions and inconsistencies at hand, observing that while some countries are taking concerted efforts to reduce pollution (including through bans on certain kinds of plastic and plastic products); to promote more circular plastic economies; and to reduce the carbon footprint of plastics (as part of a wider effort to decarbonize their economies), trade and investment in the plastic industry continues to rise. The paper argues that to reduce plastic pollution, emerging global governance efforts must integrate international environmental law and cooperation with a complementary and enabling global framework that addresses the economic, financial, industrial and trade policies needed to drive the necessary transformation of the plastics sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Governance of Plastics)
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Article
The Subjective Well-Being of Children in Residential Care: Has It Changed in Recent Years?
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010025 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 734
Abstract
The subjective well-being of children in residential care is a relevant issue given the practical implications for improving the lives of these children who live in contexts of vulnerability. The question addressed in this respect was: “How does this well-being change over the [...] Read more.
The subjective well-being of children in residential care is a relevant issue given the practical implications for improving the lives of these children who live in contexts of vulnerability. The question addressed in this respect was: “How does this well-being change over the years”? Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the subjective well-being displayed by adolescents aged 11–14 in residential care in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain) in 2014 to that displayed by adolescents in residential care in 2020. To this end, 572 responses to a questionnaire adapted from the Children’s Worlds project (364 from 2014 and 208 from 2020) were analysed with respect to the life satisfaction items. In both 2014 and 2020, the questionnaires had the same wording, and data were disaggregated by gender. No significant differences in means were observed between most of the life satisfaction items in 2014 and 2020, with the exception of satisfaction with friends and classmates and the area where you live, with lower means for these items in 2020. There is a discussion of the possible influence of COVID-19 on these results, while the overall stability of these children’s subjective well-being over the years is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Child Protection Studies: Celebrating 10th Anniversary)
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Perspective
Happy Sustainability: A Future Quest for More Sustainable Universities
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010024 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
For decades, sustainability researchers have tenaciously insisted on transforming higher education institutions into more sustainable and inclusive campuses. Yet, as the 2030 agenda seems unlikely to be achieved, universities are struggling to meet the fourth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 4) before the 2030 [...] Read more.
For decades, sustainability researchers have tenaciously insisted on transforming higher education institutions into more sustainable and inclusive campuses. Yet, as the 2030 agenda seems unlikely to be achieved, universities are struggling to meet the fourth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 4) before the 2030 deadline. In addition, the post-COVID-19 era demands quality and inclusive education that entails care for students experiencing high stress levels. So far, most of the significant achievements are within the environmental or economic dimensions of sustainable development, but strengthening the social dimension is still one pending task. The importance of happiness to sustainability initiatives on campus, and beyond, deserves further research. To this end, this article offers insights into incorporating the sustainability–happiness nexus into sustainable universities to enhance the social dimension of sustainability. COVID-19 reminds sustainability academics and stakeholders that teaching technical and scientific knowledge is necessary to become more sustainable. Still, it is not sufficient to achieve the goals in the 2030 agenda. Providing inclusive and sustainable quality education will be reached when more sustainable universities consider happiness the ultimate goal of human development. Full article
Article
An Application of Natural Language Processing to Classify What Terrorists Say They Want
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010023 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Knowing what perpetrators want can inform strategies to achieve safe, secure, and sustainable societies. To help advance the body of knowledge in counterterrorism, this research applied natural language processing and machine learning techniques to a comprehensive database of terrorism events. A specially designed [...] Read more.
Knowing what perpetrators want can inform strategies to achieve safe, secure, and sustainable societies. To help advance the body of knowledge in counterterrorism, this research applied natural language processing and machine learning techniques to a comprehensive database of terrorism events. A specially designed empirical topic modeling technique provided a machine-aided human decision process to glean six categories of perpetrator aims from the motive text narrative. Subsequently, six different machine learning models validated the aim categories based on the accuracy of their association with a different narrative field, the event summary. The ROC-AUC scores of the classification ranged from 86% to 93%. The Extreme Gradient Boosting model provided the best predictive performance. The intelligence community can use the identified aim categories to help understand the incentive structure of terrorist groups and customize strategies for dealing with them. Full article
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Article
The Organization of Animal Protection Investigations and the Animal Harm Spectrum: Canadian Data, International Lessons
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010022 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 862
Abstract
This paper offers the first overview of the Canadian animal cruelty investigations landscape. First, the public and private sector organizations responsible for enforcement are explained, followed by examination of the implications of this patchwork for reporting suspected cruelty. Key statistical data are presented [...] Read more.
This paper offers the first overview of the Canadian animal cruelty investigations landscape. First, the public and private sector organizations responsible for enforcement are explained, followed by examination of the implications of this patchwork for reporting suspected cruelty. Key statistical data are presented about the types of issues and cases and investigator responses. Initial recommendations are then proposed, and the value of the animal harm spectrum is discussed, including how it can be mobilized to strengthen the operations of animal protection work and animal welfare policy across nations. Full article
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Editorial
Introduction to the Special Issue: Far from Colorblind. Reflections on Racialization in Contemporary Europe
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010021 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 930
Abstract
European history is to a significant extent also a history about racialization and racism. Since the colonizers of past centuries defined boundaries between “civilized” and “savages” by applying value standards in which the notions of race, ethnicity, culture, and religion were interwoven and [...] Read more.
European history is to a significant extent also a history about racialization and racism. Since the colonizers of past centuries defined boundaries between “civilized” and “savages” by applying value standards in which the notions of race, ethnicity, culture, and religion were interwoven and imposed on human beings perceived as fundamentally different from themselves, racialization became deeply inherent in how (white) Europeans viewed the world, themselves, and others. In this Special Issue, we assume that colonialist racialization constitutes the base of a persistent and often unreflective and indirect racism. Implicit value systems according to which white people are automatically considered as more competent, more desirable, preferable in general terms, and more “European” translate into patterns of everyday racism affecting the self-image and life chances of white and non-white Europeans. In this introductory article, which defines the conceptual framework for the special issue, we contest the idea of a “post-racial” condition and discuss the consequences of ethno-racial differentiation and stigmatization for racialized groups such as Black Europeans, European Roma, and non-white migrants in general. Finally, we argue for the need to further problematize and critically examine whiteness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racialized Citizenship in Superdiverse Europe)
Article
Chronic Kidney Disease of Uncertain Etiology in Sri Lanka: Curing between Medicine and Traditional Culture
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010020 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown origin (CKDu) has appeared across Sri Lanka’s North Central Province (NCP) since the 1990s as an epidemic, unexplained by conventional associated risk factors. During the past few decades, a large number of studies attempted to determine the unknown [...] Read more.
Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown origin (CKDu) has appeared across Sri Lanka’s North Central Province (NCP) since the 1990s as an epidemic, unexplained by conventional associated risk factors. During the past few decades, a large number of studies attempted to determine the unknown etiology of CKDu. Despite these investigations, no concrete conclusions were developed, though a number of contradictory hypotheses emerged. The present ethnographic study was carried out in two endemic areas, labelled as “CKDu hotspots”, and illuminates how curing takes place between biomedicine and traditional cultural practices. Our ethnographic study thoroughly scrutinized three decades of lived experience, lay-perceptions and local discourses on CKDu. We used a qualitative study design with a transcendental phenomenological approach and employed a mixture of ethnographic methods. Data collection techniques included participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Data was analysed by using an interpretive thematic analysis model. Findings revealed that lay people have constructed a popular discourse on CKDu, and we explored their views on the origin, etiology and prevalence of CKDu in their locality over the past few decades. Patients’ narratives revealed that there were currently a number of gaps in service delivery. These were mainly due to distant relationships between healthcare providers and CKDu patients. Lay people in affected communities were marginalized throughout the investigation process to determine the unknown etiology, their involvement marginalized to merely acting as objects for scientific instigation. The affected communities strongly believed that CKDu was a recent phenomenon resulting from the mismanagement of the natural environment due to social and lifestyle changes. These findings highlight local dynamics of healthcare seeking behaviours which demand complementary medicine system, particularly given the number of limitations in the biomedical system. Empirical evidence generated from this study suggests a conceptual shift to an ethno-medical model to address CKDu. Improving cultural competency and communication skills among healthcare providers in public health are crucial in order to apply a “bio-psychosocial perspective” in healthcare delivery system and bridging the gap between hospital and the community. Full article
Article
“There Are Stereotypes for Everything”: Multiracial Adolescents Navigating Racial Identity under White Supremacy
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010019 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 896
Abstract
Despite the enduring popular view that the rise in the multiracial population heralds our nation’s transformation into a post-racial society, Critical Multiracial Theory (MultiCrit) asserts that how multiracial identity status is constructed is inextricably tied to systems and ideologies that maintain the white [...] Read more.
Despite the enduring popular view that the rise in the multiracial population heralds our nation’s transformation into a post-racial society, Critical Multiracial Theory (MultiCrit) asserts that how multiracial identity status is constructed is inextricably tied to systems and ideologies that maintain the white supremacist status quo in the United States. MultiCrit, like much of the multiracial identity literature, focuses predominantly on the experiences of emerging adults; this means we know little about the experiences of multiracial adolescents, a peak period for identity development. The current paper uses MultiCrit to examine how a diverse sample of multiracial youth (n = 49; Mage = 15.5 years) negotiate racial identity development under white supremacy. Our qualitative interview analysis reveals: (a) the salience of socializing messages from others, (b) that such messages reinforce a (mono)racist societal structure via discrimination, stereotyping, and invalidation, and (c) that multiracial youth frequently resist (mono)racist assertions as they make sense of their own identities. Our results suggest that multiracial youth are attentive to the myriad ways that white supremacy constructs and constrains their identities, and thus underscores the need to bring a critical lens to the study of multiracial identity development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiracial Identities and Experiences in/under White Supremacy)
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Article
Know Your Safe Drinking Skills: Adaptation Strategies for the College Effect
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010018 - 08 Jan 2022
Viewed by 714
Abstract
Objective: The current study investigates the effects of an alcohol-prevention program delivered to college students in a formal classroom setting. Participants: The sample comprised 231 first-year college students who enrolled in a multisection “First Year Experience” course at a large northeastern university in [...] Read more.
Objective: The current study investigates the effects of an alcohol-prevention program delivered to college students in a formal classroom setting. Participants: The sample comprised 231 first-year college students who enrolled in a multisection “First Year Experience” course at a large northeastern university in the United States. Method: A naturalistic experiment was conducted, with a baseline evaluation at the beginning of the semester and a post-experiment evaluation near the end of the semester. Results: Social drinking attitudes, proximal drinking norm and the college effect are significant predictors of pre- and post-intervention episodic drinking frequency. The intervention reduced episodic drinking frequency as well as perceived distal and proximal drinking norms. It also increased drinking attitudes and did not change perceived efficacy or drinking-outcome expectancies. Conclusions: Practitioners could consider implementing a similar intervention to allow students to learn and practice safe drinking skills in the first year of their college life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Article
Understanding the Burden of Legal Financial Obligations on Indigent Washingtonians
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010017 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 544
Abstract
In criminal courts across the country, judges assess a variety of fines, fees and other legal financial obligations (LFOs) that many defendants struggle to pay. This paper examines the disproportionate burden that fine and fee assessment and collection practices impose on low-income, system-involved [...] Read more.
In criminal courts across the country, judges assess a variety of fines, fees and other legal financial obligations (LFOs) that many defendants struggle to pay. This paper examines the disproportionate burden that fine and fee assessment and collection practices impose on low-income, system-involved individuals, using administrative court data for criminal cases filed in Washington’s courts of limited jurisdiction between 2015 and 2020. The authors find that the majority of defendants do not or only partially pay their LFOs, but that these observations are more pronounced for indigent defendants. The authors also find that, of defendants who fully pay off their fines and fees, individuals with a public defender satisfy their debt after a greater number of days, as compared to individuals with private counsel. This is all in spite of public defender defendants generally being assessed smaller amounts in fines and fees at the outset. Additionally, the authors uncover that when defendants do pay off all of their fines and fees, they tend to do so on the day of assessment, with the likelihood of satisfying full payment generally decreasing as time goes on. These findings suggest that many people struggle with criminal justice debt, but that this problem disproportionately impacts indigent Washingtonians, subjecting them to a greater possibility of harm through the various methods of collections enforcement. Full article
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Article
Co-Occurrence of Online and Offline Victimization: A Latent Class Analysis in University Students
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010016 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Most people are exposed to risks both in the online and offline world. Several studies have provided definitions and measures of cybervictimization based on different theoretical approaches and most of them have focused on specific forms of cybercrime, depicting a limited portrayal of [...] Read more.
Most people are exposed to risks both in the online and offline world. Several studies have provided definitions and measures of cybervictimization based on different theoretical approaches and most of them have focused on specific forms of cybercrime, depicting a limited portrayal of victimization. The current study explored victimization configurations in a sample of 749 university undergraduates from Spain (61.6% women; M age = 26.9), utilizing latent class analyses to account for the nature and frequency of various types of online and offline victimization along their life span. Among them, 35.9% were victims of a cyberattack, 24.4% reported being victims of cyberfraud and 49% of property crime. The analysis uncovered two classes of cybervictims—consisting of economic cybervictimization (victims of economic cybercrimes only) and cyber-polyvictimization (victims of various types of cybercrimes)—and allowed us to compare them with a group of non-victims. Younger respondents (15 to 25 years old), conventional university students, women, people with lower incomes and LGBTQI+ individuals have a higher representation in the cyber-polyvictimization class. In addition, members of this class have suffered more offline victimization in all the areas analyzed. The present study has found co-occurrence between online and offline victimization, thus reinforcing the relevance of simultaneously studying both areas and the interaction between them. From this empirical ground, prevention strategies should not be focused merely on opportunity factors related to the online interactions and behavior of potential victims, without facing the deep human and social roots of victimization. Full article
Review
A Scoping Review of Colorism in Schools: Academic, Social, and Emotional Experiences of Students of Color
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010015 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Students of color experience academic, social, and emotional challenges due to colorism in schools. The purpose of this scoping review is to compare the experiences with colorism of students from varying racial backgrounds (African Americans, Native Americans, Asians, and Latin) in U.S. public [...] Read more.
Students of color experience academic, social, and emotional challenges due to colorism in schools. The purpose of this scoping review is to compare the experiences with colorism of students from varying racial backgrounds (African Americans, Native Americans, Asians, and Latin) in U.S. public schools. It is predicted that the understudied group of Latinx and indigenous students of color will uniquely experience colorism in academic settings when compared to African American and Asian students. A 30 article literature review utilizing search dates from 1990 to 2020 was conducted employing a scoping review framework. Themes emerged that include: the privileging of lighter skin and more Eurocentric features in academic outcomes, the complicated social status created for students of color experiencing colorism in schools, and the increased potential for emotional challenges as a result of colorism. This review highlights possible school reform efforts to affirm all skin tones, reduce colorist biases, and offer mediation to mitigate colorist experiences in the school environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
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Article
Women’s Entrepreneurship and Government Policy: Facilitating Access to Credit through a National Program in Chile
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010014 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 468
Abstract
In this paper, I evaluate the impact of a multidimensional national program implemented in Chile during the second term of President Bachelet to facilitate female entrepreneurs’ access to credit, reduce gender gaps in financial inclusion, and change patriarchal stereotypes. I construct a difference-in-difference [...] Read more.
In this paper, I evaluate the impact of a multidimensional national program implemented in Chile during the second term of President Bachelet to facilitate female entrepreneurs’ access to credit, reduce gender gaps in financial inclusion, and change patriarchal stereotypes. I construct a difference-in-difference estimate of the program. My findings indicate that the program has successfully met its principal aim: the loans granted to women have increased, reducing the gender gap in this dimension. In addition, evidence of heterogeneity by the economic sector has emerged. This evidence aligns with prior research that has emphasised that public policies should not be designed and implemented under the logic of "one type of program fits all". The program analysed in this study is an example of a national public policy that has improved female entrepreneurs’ access to funding, reduced gender gaps in a Latin American country, and potentially offered lessons to other Latin American and middle-income countries worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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Article
The Persistence of Racial Constructs in Spain: Bringing Race and Colorblindness into the Debate on Interculturalism
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010013 - 02 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
In this article, I argue that persisting racial constructs in Spain affect conceptions of national belonging and continue to shape and permeate contemporary discriminations. I begin by describing several recent political events that demonstrate the urgent need for a discussion about “race” and [...] Read more.
In this article, I argue that persisting racial constructs in Spain affect conceptions of national belonging and continue to shape and permeate contemporary discriminations. I begin by describing several recent political events that demonstrate the urgent need for a discussion about “race” and racialization in the country. Second, some conceptual foundations are provided concerning constructs of race and the corollary processes of racism and racialization. Third, I present data from various public surveys and also from ethnographic research conducted in Spain on mixedness and multiraciality to demonstrate that social constructs of race remain a significant boundary driving stigmatization and discrimination in Spain, where skin color and other perceived physical traits continue to be important markers for social interaction, perceived social belonging, and differential social treatment. Finally, I bring race into the debate on managing diversity, arguing that a post-racial approach—that is, race-neutral discourse and the adoption of colorblind public policies, both of which are characteristic of the interculturalist perspectives currently preferred by Spain as well as elsewhere in Europe—fails to confront the enduring effects of colonialism and the ongoing realities of structural racism. I conclude by emphasizing the importance of bringing race into national and regional policy discussions on how best to approach issues of diversity, equality, anti-discrimination, and social cohesion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racialized Citizenship in Superdiverse Europe)
Editorial
The End-Purpose of Teaching Social Sciences and the Curricular Inclusion of Social Problems
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010012 - 29 Dec 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
The most recent scientific literature on the treatment of social problems or controversial social questions in the social sciences classroom and their inclusion into curricula emphasizes the need to introduce students into large-scale social debates where different points of view exist, different interests [...] Read more.
The most recent scientific literature on the treatment of social problems or controversial social questions in the social sciences classroom and their inclusion into curricula emphasizes the need to introduce students into large-scale social debates where different points of view exist, different interests are at stake, and where it is desirable that they construct their own opinions in that respect from a critical and reasoned perspective [...] Full article
Review
Framing Studies Evolution in the Social Media Era. Digital Advancement and Reorientation of the Research Agenda
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010009 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Framing studies remain a powerful line of research in political communication. However, in recent years, coinciding with the emergence of social media, theoretical and operational advances have been detected, as well as a significant reorientation of its research agenda. The interaction between media [...] Read more.
Framing studies remain a powerful line of research in political communication. However, in recent years, coinciding with the emergence of social media, theoretical and operational advances have been detected, as well as a significant reorientation of its research agenda. The interaction between media and platforms such as Twitter or Facebook has built a clearly hybrid communicative environment and profoundly transformed the organization of public debate. This is the case, especially, with processes such as the setting of the public agenda or the construction of interpretive frames. Based on a systematic review of the international reference literature (2011–2021), this article analyses the influence of social media on the evolution of framing studies. Moreover, specifically, the beginning of a new stage of digital development is contextualized, and a triple research impact is explored. The main contributions of the text are that it (1) identifies advances in the theoretical and empirical organization of these studies; (2) explores its reorientation of content towards a greater balance between the analysis of media and political frames; and (3) reviews the recent experimental development of effects studies. Finally, the main challenges for future research in this field are detailed. Full article
Article
Every Picture Tells a Story: Parenting Advice Books Provide a Window on the Past
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010011 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 957
Abstract
This paper comprises a collection of illustrations, along with background information, analysis, and commentary, from “baby books”—advice books published in the United States for a parent audience from the 1890s to the 1980s. These publications, and especially their drawings and photos, provide a [...] Read more.
This paper comprises a collection of illustrations, along with background information, analysis, and commentary, from “baby books”—advice books published in the United States for a parent audience from the 1890s to the 1980s. These publications, and especially their drawings and photos, provide a window on past child rearing practices and beliefs. The paper provides historical background on parenting behaviors such as toilet training and infant feeding, then traces changes over time through drawings and photos that appeared in parenting advice publications. These publications grew in popularity as changing work and family structures removed traditional sources of information for parents, and scientific information and expert guidance took their place. Publications from a variety of sources, but especially the U.S. Children’s Bureau, are explored. A finding of note is that images of babies and their families, which in earlier publications were entirely white and middle class, became more diverse over time. The author concludes that published parental advice from professionals made for a fascinating study, was ideologically driven, and often lacked a basis in empirical scientific knowledge of child development, and therefore asserts that parents may regard such advice conditionally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
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Article
Meaningful Aging: A Relational Conceptualization, Intervention, and Its Impacts
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010010 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 908
Abstract
Having a meaningful life is one of the most important goals among older adults. This paper provided an overview of a programme of research and practice on meaningful aging among older Chinese adults. It firstly describes the process of developing and validating a [...] Read more.
Having a meaningful life is one of the most important goals among older adults. This paper provided an overview of a programme of research and practice on meaningful aging among older Chinese adults. It firstly describes the process of developing and validating a relational conceptualization of a meaningful life (i.e., spiritual well-being) among older Chinese adults from its conceptual roots, development, and validation process since 2009 through an academic–community collaboration. In brief, a meaningful life was attributed to five relationships centered on older adults: the relationship with self, relationship with family, relationship with friends, relationship with people other than family and friends, and relationship with the environment. Secondly, the paper explains a validated assessment tool (e.g., the Spirituality Scale for Chinese Elders, (SSCE)) that was developed accordingly. Evidence-based stratified interventions derived from the conceptualization and operationalization were then introduced including a professionally led group intervention protocol, a volunteer-partner intervention protocol, and a self-help-oriented intervention, which shared eight-session core contents. Good practices in applying various interventions among older adults with diversified backgrounds (e.g., health status, age, and gender) and various service settings (e.g., community, long-term care facilities, and home visits) were then synthesized. Thirdly, feedback from stakeholders is illustrated, and good practices are discussed. In conclusion, a culturally sensitive and meaningful aging framework is timely and impactful for the globally aging world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asian Perspectives on Active Aging: Meaning, Purpose and Hope)
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Article
Mother–Child Relationships in U.S. Latinx Families in Middle Childhood: Opportunities and Challenges in the 21st Century
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010008 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 904
Abstract
The 21st century has brought unique opportunities and challenges for parents, and this is particularly true for Latinx families, whose children comprise more than one-fourth of the school-age population in the U.S. today. Taking an ecological and strengths-based approach, the current study examined [...] Read more.
The 21st century has brought unique opportunities and challenges for parents, and this is particularly true for Latinx families, whose children comprise more than one-fourth of the school-age population in the U.S. today. Taking an ecological and strengths-based approach, the current study examined the role of mothers’ cultural assets (familism values, family cohesion) and challenges (economic hardship, ethnic–race-based discrimination) on children’s educational adjustment in middle childhood, as well as the indirect role of mother–child warmth and conflict in these associations. The sample included 173 Latinx mothers and their middle childhood offspring (i.e., 5th graders and younger sisters/brothers in the 1st through 4th grade). Mothers participated in home visits and phone interviews and teachers provided ratings of children’s educational adjustment (academic and socioemotional competence, aggressive/oppositional behaviors). Findings revealed family cohesion was indirectly linked to children’s educational adjustment via mother–child warmth and conflict, particularly for younger siblings. Discussion focuses on the culturally based strengths of Latinx families and highlights potential implications for family-based prevention in middle childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
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Article
How Social Identity Affects Entrepreneurs’ Desire for Control
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010007 - 23 Dec 2021
Viewed by 926
Abstract
In order to obtain a better understanding why some entrepreneurs retain more control over their venture than others, this article analyzes the relationship between the social identity of the entrepreneur and her/his desire for control. In fact, entrepreneurs face an important tradeoff between [...] Read more.
In order to obtain a better understanding why some entrepreneurs retain more control over their venture than others, this article analyzes the relationship between the social identity of the entrepreneur and her/his desire for control. In fact, entrepreneurs face an important tradeoff between attracting resources required to build company value and retaining decision-making control. Yet, we currently lack insight into whether and how entrepreneurs’ social motivations shape this trade-off. This study draws on social identity theory and a unique sample of 148 buyout entrepreneurs, as this setting confronts aspiring entrepreneurs directly with the value–control tradeoff. In our logistic regression, we find that entrepreneurs with a strong missionary identity, where venture creation revolves around advancing a cause, hold a higher desire for control. We do not observe a significant relationship between entrepreneurs having a Darwinian (driven by economic self-interest) or communitarian (driven by the concern for the community) identity and the desire to control their venture. When adding the moderating role of the portion of personal wealth the entrepreneur is willing to invest in her/his venture, the relationships between having a Darwinian or missionary social identity and the desire for control become significantly positive when the entrepreneur is looking to invest a larger portion of her/his wealth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Article
Providing an Authentic Voice? Understanding Migrant Homelessness through Critical Poetic Inquiry
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010006 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 875
Abstract
Ethical considerations in social research tend to focus on data collection rather than data interpretation and representation. The tendency of qualitative research to limit ethical concern to confidentiality and anonymity in the representation of data, combined with the academic convention of maintaining an [...] Read more.
Ethical considerations in social research tend to focus on data collection rather than data interpretation and representation. The tendency of qualitative research to limit ethical concern to confidentiality and anonymity in the representation of data, combined with the academic convention of maintaining an objective distance from the object of study, creates tensions for the reflexive researcher. On the one hand, they must meet academic expectations to communicate findings with demonstrable reliability and validity. At the same time, there are deontological obligations—to protect study participants (and groups they represent) from harm, to honour their contributions accurately and to report with integrity. This article argues for the use of poetic ‘re-presentation’, both as a form of inquiry and unique mode of data representation and as a means of obtaining a deeper understanding of the experience of migration and homelessness. By integrating insights from Critical Race Methodology, the article deploys the concept of ‘counter-storytelling’ through poetic inquiry. The article concludes that this approach enables a nuanced, insightful approach, allowing the authentic voice of migrant groups negotiating the complexities of homelessness to be clearly articulated and heard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
Article
Profiling Attached Residents in an Urban Community in the U.S.: An Empirical Study of Social–Landscape Interactions within a Park
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010005 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Community attachment has been studied predominantly in terms of the social dimensions of community life, which explains what makes residents feel connected to a locality. Following a more recent trend within the community attachment literature, this study examined the role of communities’ physical [...] Read more.
Community attachment has been studied predominantly in terms of the social dimensions of community life, which explains what makes residents feel connected to a locality. Following a more recent trend within the community attachment literature, this study examined the role of communities’ physical dimensions in fostering sentiments of rootedness and connections to communities. More specifically, the study sought to better understand the role that urban parks play in predicting community attachment using a discriminant analysis technique to profile attached residents. We selected Discovery Green Park in Houston, Texas, as the study site, where we administered 606 total surveys to park visitors inquiring about their interactions with the park itself, emotional connections to it, and social interactions within the park. We found that strongly attached residents tend to be older, have a greater reliance on the park service and programs, and have meaningful interactions with new people in the park and frequently visit the park in groups to socialize and relax. Additionally, those who are strongly attached to the community attribute greater symbolic meanings to Discovery Green and more strongly identify with the park. The profile of residents attached to the community, given their interactions with the park and its visitors, provides important knowledge to both park managers and community leaders; they can use this information to create conditions, fostering more strongly attached residents who tend to be active agents of positive change in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
Article
Gender Parity in Spain: Attainments and Remaining Challenges
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010004 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 989
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to study the progress made in Spain in terms of gender parity and the challenges still pending to be achieved in this regard. To attain this objective, first of all, the authors review the successive legal regulations [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to study the progress made in Spain in terms of gender parity and the challenges still pending to be achieved in this regard. To attain this objective, first of all, the authors review the successive legal regulations aimed at reaching gender equality that have been enacted in Spain. Furthermore, the considerations and findings made are based on the use of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. On the one hand, from a quantitative viewpoint, different statistical data provided mainly by the Spanish Statistics National Institute are analyzed. From these data, the authors prepare a set of tables and figures that allow them to show that, despite the undoubted legislative advances attained, clear gender inequalities continue in Spain. On the other hand, the authors base their assertions both on their participant observation and on a reinterpretation and reanalysis of the results of two previous qualitative researches. One of the most remarkable outcomes of the use of this qualitative methodology is the persistence in Spain of diverse signs of macho mentality. This persistence not only manifests itself among many men, it is also shared by a large number of women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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Article
Active Aging through Later Life and Afterlife Planning: Shūkatsu in a Super-Aged Japan
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010003 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
In Japan, the term shūkatsu—referred as the planning for later life and for the afterlife—has gained popularity due to high amount of mass media exposure in recent years. This paper examines shūkatsu from the active aging framework, contending that shūkatsu is an [...] Read more.
In Japan, the term shūkatsu—referred as the planning for later life and for the afterlife—has gained popularity due to high amount of mass media exposure in recent years. This paper examines shūkatsu from the active aging framework, contending that shūkatsu is an important activity that contributes to active aging, as the process of conscientious planning encourages older Japanese people to remain active. Data for this study were obtained from qualitative interviews that were conducted with 40 older middle-class Japanese citizens residing in Nagoya. Explored through a life course perspective, the study examined how salient factors, such as personal history, experiences, roles, anxieties, life-changing events, and cultural practices, have influenced older Japanese people in their shūkatsu decision-making process. In the process of understanding how the Japanese respond to changing family relationships and sociocultural transformations, the emphasis on living a “good old age” for better social, psychological, and physical well-being strongly reflects the agency to age actively. In a super-aged Japan, shūkatsu may be a vital strategy that not only ensures a better quality of life for the older population and their children, but it also contributes to individual’s sense of usefulness and satisfaction, as they are actively involved in the planning and management of their own later and afterlife choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asian Perspectives on Active Aging: Meaning, Purpose and Hope)
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Article
Sources of Meaningful Work for Blue-Collar Workers
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010002 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 974
Abstract
Research on the meaningfulness of work has increased in recent years, yet there is a limited body of qualitative studies on the topic. This article analyzes how the four basic psychological needs, namely autonomy, competence, relatedness, and beneficence, are articulated as sources of [...] Read more.
Research on the meaningfulness of work has increased in recent years, yet there is a limited body of qualitative studies on the topic. This article analyzes how the four basic psychological needs, namely autonomy, competence, relatedness, and beneficence, are articulated as sources of meaningful work by blue-collar workers. The research data consist of responses (N = 679) to one open-ended question in a survey and semi-structured interviews (N = 29) with blue-collar workers from property services and the manufacturing industry in Finland. The data were analyzed by theory-driven content analysis. The main findings are: first, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and beneficence appear as sources of meaningfulness in blue-collar work. Second, blue-collar workers see their work as autonomous and requiring diverse competences. Relatedness in blue-collar work entails having good relations with co-workers and striving to maintain those relationships. Beneficence is multilevel: helping clients, co-workers, organization and even the whole society through work. Organizations should develop organizational practices that may enhance the meaningfulness of work, such as opportunities to use and develop occupational skills. This article participates in the discussion about how satisfying these four basic psychological needs can be a source of meaningful work and offers a sociological-contextual perspective on the discussion about meaningfulness of work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
Article
In Pursuit of Development: Post-Migration Stressors among Kenyan Female Migrants in Austria
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11010001 - 21 Dec 2021
Viewed by 876
Abstract
The emphasis on migration for development obscures its diverse challenges. The migration development nexus is paradoxical, problematic, and controversial. Remittances have long gained wide interest. Migrants’ subjective experiences are important in understanding overall migration outcomes. International African female migration has increased and it [...] Read more.
The emphasis on migration for development obscures its diverse challenges. The migration development nexus is paradoxical, problematic, and controversial. Remittances have long gained wide interest. Migrants’ subjective experiences are important in understanding overall migration outcomes. International African female migration has increased and it is underexplored. This paper investigates the psychosocial stressors of migration based on the lived experiences of Kenyan female migrants in Austria. A sample of 6 female migrants was selected. Narrative data were recorded and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The findings showed that migration resulted in troubled relationships within the core and extended families. The economic dependency of family members in Kenya caused conflicts in interracial marriages. Acculturation led to alienation, family separation and isolation. Achieving economic goals proved challenging due to unpredictable effects in Austria. Failed expectations driven by stereotypes about Europe resulted in disillusionment and high expenses. Routine racism and Black female body objectification affected the mental health of the participants. This article contributes to knowledge on international African migration and gender-specific issues concerning African female migrants. The results will inform policymakers, academia, future migrants and mental health providers. Further research on the effects of migration on African migrants is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
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