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Article

Adolescent Positivity and Future Orientation, Parental Psychological Control, and Young Adult Internalising Behaviours during COVID-19 in Nine Countries

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Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
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Institute for Psychotherapy, Medical School Berlin, 14197 Berlin, Germany
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Department of Psychology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
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Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London W1T 7NF, UK
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Department of Psychology, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City 1008, Philippines
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Department of Special Education, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13110, Jordan
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Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80127 Naples, Italy
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Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20810, USA
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UNICEF, New York, NY 10001, USA
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Institute for Fiscal Studies, London WC2R 2PP, UK
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Department of Psychology, University of Macau, Macau 999078, China
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Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002, USA
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Department of Psychology, Università di Roma La Sapienza, 00017 Rome, Italy
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Centre for Child and Youth Studies, University West, 46131 Trollhättan, Sweden
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Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
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Global Health Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan 215300, China
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Department of Psychology, Maseno University, Maseno 879-6112, Kenya
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Peace Culture Foundation, Chiang Mai 50000, Thailand
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Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19019, USA
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Department of Psychology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22230, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Psychology, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Medellín 050001, Colombia
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Department of Psychology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50000, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christy Buchanan, Terese Glatz and Nigel Parton
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020075
Received: 27 October 2021 / Revised: 31 January 2022 / Accepted: 3 February 2022 / Published: 14 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted many young adults’ lives educationally, economically, and personally. This study investigated associations between COVID-19-related disruption and perception of increases in internalising symptoms among young adults and whether these associations were moderated by earlier measures of adolescent positivity and future orientation and parental psychological control. Participants included 1329 adolescents at Time 1, and 810 of those participants as young adults (M age = 20, 50.4% female) at Time 2 from 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Drawing from a larger longitudinal study of adolescent risk taking and young adult competence, this study controlled for earlier levels of internalising symptoms during adolescence in examining these associations. Higher levels of adolescent positivity and future orientation as well as parent psychological control during late adolescence helped protect young adults from sharper perceived increases in anxiety and depression during the first nine months of widespread pandemic lockdowns in all nine countries. Findings are discussed in terms of how families in the 21st century can foster greater resilience during and after adolescence when faced with community-wide stressors, and the results provide new information about how psychological control may play a protective role during times of significant community-wide threats to personal health and welfare. View Full-Text
Keywords: parenting; COVID-19; 21st century; adolescence; internalising parenting; COVID-19; 21st century; adolescence; internalising
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MDPI and ACS Style

Skinner, A.T.; Çiftçi, L.; Jones, S.; Klotz, E.; Ondrušková, T.; Lansford, J.E.; Alampay, L.P.; Al-Hassan, S.M.; Bacchini, D.; Bornstein, M.H.; Chang, L.; Deater-Deckard, K.; Di Giunta, L.; Dodge, K.A.; Gurdal, S.; Liu, Q.; Long, Q.; Oburu, P.; Pastorelli, C.; Sorbring, E.; Tapanya, S.; Steinberg, L.; Uribe Tirado, L.M.; Yotanyamaneewong, S. Adolescent Positivity and Future Orientation, Parental Psychological Control, and Young Adult Internalising Behaviours during COVID-19 in Nine Countries. Soc. Sci. 2022, 11, 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020075

AMA Style

Skinner AT, Çiftçi L, Jones S, Klotz E, Ondrušková T, Lansford JE, Alampay LP, Al-Hassan SM, Bacchini D, Bornstein MH, Chang L, Deater-Deckard K, Di Giunta L, Dodge KA, Gurdal S, Liu Q, Long Q, Oburu P, Pastorelli C, Sorbring E, Tapanya S, Steinberg L, Uribe Tirado LM, Yotanyamaneewong S. Adolescent Positivity and Future Orientation, Parental Psychological Control, and Young Adult Internalising Behaviours during COVID-19 in Nine Countries. Social Sciences. 2022; 11(2):75. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020075

Chicago/Turabian Style

Skinner, Ann T., Leyla Çiftçi, Sierra Jones, Eva Klotz, Tamara Ondrušková, Jennifer E. Lansford, Liane P. Alampay, Suha M. Al-Hassan, Dario Bacchini, Marc H. Bornstein, Lei Chang, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Laura Di Giunta, Kenneth A. Dodge, Sevtap Gurdal, Qin Liu, Qian Long, Paul Oburu, Concetta Pastorelli, Emma Sorbring, Sombat Tapanya, Laurence Steinberg, Liliana M. Uribe Tirado, and Saengduean Yotanyamaneewong. 2022. "Adolescent Positivity and Future Orientation, Parental Psychological Control, and Young Adult Internalising Behaviours during COVID-19 in Nine Countries" Social Sciences 11, no. 2: 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020075

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