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Soc. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 53 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Migrant organizations (MOs), as associations that are founded, managed, and led by people with migration biographies, have recently emerged as facilitators of social protection interventions. By emphasizing their role in facilitating the mobilization of and access to cultural capital as an important determinant of the protection and wellbeing of people with migration biographies, this article seeks to shed light on the barely debated issue of MOs in the field of social protection. Specifically, we study how MOs promote the formation and mobilization of skills and resources to be used in different fields. Our findings show that MOs facilitate various occasions for their members to generate migration-specific cultural capital, predominantly in the fields of education and language skills, ultimately increasing their opportunities in the labor market. View this paper
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Article
How Do Hospitality Workers Perceive Their Work Skills before and after the Lockdown Imposed by the COVID-19 Pandemic?
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120588 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 523
Abstract
The present research aims to compare hospitality workers’ confidence about the perceived need to improve their soft and hard skills during and after the lockdown period. With this purpose, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of workers from four- and five-star hotels [...] Read more.
The present research aims to compare hospitality workers’ confidence about the perceived need to improve their soft and hard skills during and after the lockdown period. With this purpose, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of workers from four- and five-star hotels located in the historic centre of Porto (Portugal). Data collection took place in two different time periods: April 2020 and April 2022. The findings evidence that workers are more confident of their skills but are also more aware of the need to develop them, particularly their soft skills. This is likely related to the context of remote work, which intensified the need to learn, and evidenced the necessity of skills such as teamwork and adaptation or flexibility, which showed the greatest increase in perceived need to improve. Despite such an increase, the competencies workers feel like they need to improve the most are still hard, i.e., linguistic and digital. Accordingly, those in which workers are the most confident are soft, i.e., teamwork, interpersonal relationships, and adaptation or flexibility, which is likely because those were the most developed during the pandemic. The findings provide useful insights for human resources management in the hospitality sector. The study points to good practices aiming to address the real development needs of hospitality workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Re)defining Entrepreneurship in a Post-pandemic Context)
Editorial
Introduction to Crises, (Im)mobilities and Young Life Trajectories
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120587 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 439
Abstract
This Special Issue on Crisis, (Im)mobilities and Young Life Trajectories examines the intersections of developmental trajectories and (im)mobility amidst crises, with a focus on ruptures, transitions, disruptions and continuities in the life course of children and young people who have been forced to [...] Read more.
This Special Issue on Crisis, (Im)mobilities and Young Life Trajectories examines the intersections of developmental trajectories and (im)mobility amidst crises, with a focus on ruptures, transitions, disruptions and continuities in the life course of children and young people who have been forced to move due to various man-made and natural crises [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crisis, (Im)mobilities and Young Life Trajectories)
Article
Policies in Need of a Problem? A Qualitative Study of Medical and Nonmedical Opioid Use among College Student-Athletes in the United States
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120586 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Concern around nonmedical opioid use (NUPO) among student-athletes in the United States abounds, yet research around NUPO in this population is mixed. While some studies have identified athletic participation and related injury as risk factors for NUPO, the balance of research has found [...] Read more.
Concern around nonmedical opioid use (NUPO) among student-athletes in the United States abounds, yet research around NUPO in this population is mixed. While some studies have identified athletic participation and related injury as risk factors for NUPO, the balance of research has found the inverse, or no association. This study represents the first qualitative inquiry into college student-athletes’ history of injury, medical and nonmedical opioid exposure, and pain management practices. Drawing on surveys (n = 280) and interviews (n = 30) with less-elite (i.e., non-NCAA Division I) athletes attending a large state university, our analyses documented little NUPO in this population, despite significant rates of injury and opioid prescription. Interview participants evinced little knowledge, but high fears, around opioid use, while describing potentially harmful levels of over-the-counter drug use. Overall, this study suggests the need for the development of broad, evidence-based curricula concerning pharmacological pain management within this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rethinking Sport and Social Issues)
Article
Migrant Organizations and Their Networks in the Co-Production of Social Protection
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120585 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 536
Abstract
In contributing to the social protection of migrants, migrant organizations (MOs) have become an important player in the German welfare landscape. Through their activities, they fulfill a set of social functions and integrate into a dense network of various partners characterized by different [...] Read more.
In contributing to the social protection of migrants, migrant organizations (MOs) have become an important player in the German welfare landscape. Through their activities, they fulfill a set of social functions and integrate into a dense network of various partners characterized by different dependencies and forms of cooperation but also potential conflict. Based on the results of a survey conducted in Germany’s Ruhr region between 2021 and 2022, this article examines the organizational characteristics and activities of 15 MOs and analyzes the nature of their networks. Two exemplary qualitative case studies, as well as a quantitative multilevel analysis, were carried out to assess how these organizations and their networks function in their co-production of social protection. Full article
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Article
Impact of COVID and the Emergence of Social Emotional Learning on Education Majors
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120584 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 517
Abstract
In March of 2020, institutions of higher education sent their students home and moved their classroom instruction online. While this prevented the spread of COVID, it caused students to face unique challenges impacting their social emotional needs and mental health. As college students [...] Read more.
In March of 2020, institutions of higher education sent their students home and moved their classroom instruction online. While this prevented the spread of COVID, it caused students to face unique challenges impacting their social emotional needs and mental health. As college students returned to campus, they had to learn to navigate a “new normal”. Social emotional needs and mental health continue to be affected, which can significantly impair student’s academic success and ultimately affect their future career and personal opportunities. This was particularly true for candidates enrolled in teacher preparation programs as they attempted to navigate the changing environments of both K-12 schools and higher education. Core components of teacher preparation programs are field experiences and student teaching. With the closure of schools and/or move to provide virtual instruction, clinical experiences for teacher candidates were impacted. The changing educational environments required teacher candidates to exhibit strong social emotional skills and to develop those skills in their K-12 students. A survey was conducted to examine perceptions of students majoring in education on their transition from high school to higher education and the impact of COVID on their academic performance and social and emotional well-being. Full article
Correction
Correction: Nahkur and Kutsar (2022). Family Type Differences in Children’s Satisfaction with People They Live with and Perceptions about Their (Step)parents’ Parenting Practices. Social Sciences 11: 223
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120583 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 265
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following changes to their paper (Nahkur and Kutsar 2022) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Editorial
Inclusive Research: Is the Road More or Less Well Travelled?
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120582 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 443
Abstract
The purpose of this Special Issue on inclusive research is to capture international insights into the following questions: “How far have we come [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive Research: Is the Road More or Less Well Travelled?)
Article
Social Factors Associated with Poverty in Households in Peru
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120581 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 753
Abstract
The objective of the research was to identify the determinants of poverty at the household level in Peru in 2020. The research design was descriptive and correlational, with a type of non-experimental research and quantitative approach, and considered the logit econometric model; the [...] Read more.
The objective of the research was to identify the determinants of poverty at the household level in Peru in 2020. The research design was descriptive and correlational, with a type of non-experimental research and quantitative approach, and considered the logit econometric model; the sources of information used correspond to the National Household Survey of the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, from which the variables that are considered determinants of poverty were extracted and managed. It was determined that the size of the household positively influences by 1.3%; the economic income of the head of household negatively influences by 0.000828%; the years of education of the head of household influences by 0.1%; homeownership influences by 0.9%; access to social programs of food and non-food aid influence by 0.9% and 0.6%, respectively; access to drinking water service, hygienic service and electric power service have a negative influence of 1.8%, 0.6% and 1.7%; all these factors are associated with the poverty of households in Peru. Therefore, the social determinants of poverty were household size, economic income, years of education, access to homeownership, access to a social food aid program, access to a social non-food aid program, access to drinking water services, access to hygienic services and access to electric power services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Article
The Interdisciplinary Approach to the Conceptualization of the Image of the Arctic and the North in the Mass Consciousness: An Example of Russian Students
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120580 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
The article is devoted to the integrated interdisciplinary study of multiple aspects of the conceptosphere of the Arctic and the North and its representation in the collective consciousness of Russian students. The purposes of this paper are to examine the current status of [...] Read more.
The article is devoted to the integrated interdisciplinary study of multiple aspects of the conceptosphere of the Arctic and the North and its representation in the collective consciousness of Russian students. The purposes of this paper are to examine the current status of the creation of an integrated paradigm of knowledge about the Arctic in humanities and the social sciences, and to draw conclusions about the emerging trends of understanding of the cultural and symbolic constants of the Arctic area. The respondents (students of Saint Petersburg Mining University) gave 2357 responses to the stimulus “the Arctic” in the course of the free associative experiment. The obtained associates were distributed into culturally significant thematic groups. The main thesis of this study is that the meaningfulness of the image of the Arctic and the North is in many respects determined by key ideas present in the collective consciousness, and by the life priorities and orientations of today’s young people. The idea of the extreme, severe conditions, and the danger of this region of the Earth dominates in minds of Russian students. Nevertheless, this land is rich in natural resources and is a unique platform for a wide range of research. A further tendency is identified in the formation of the image of the Arctic and the North in the mass media: new trends are affected by geopolitical factors, focusing on the pivotal role of the Arctic area as a territory of national interests. The creation of a “conflict image” of the Arctic region is counterproductive. In this regard, it is necessary to put into practice the concept of Arctic solidarity, in order to promote integration processes in the exploration of the circumpolar region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
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Article
The Relationship between Family Milieu and Music Education
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120579 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Our study aimed to map the family milieu of 21st-century music students. With the help of the applied social science methods, we studied what patterns facilitated children’s music education and whether there were objectively justifiable differences in the socioeconomic status of music students [...] Read more.
Our study aimed to map the family milieu of 21st-century music students. With the help of the applied social science methods, we studied what patterns facilitated children’s music education and whether there were objectively justifiable differences in the socioeconomic status of music students and non-musical students. In our survey, we used a quantitative method in the form of paper-based, self-administered questionnaires. We sampled eighth-grade students of elementary art schools in several county seats that had a long history of teaching (n = 270) and eighth-grade students in several elementary schools (n = 285) as a control group. We assumed that students learning music are children of families with higher cultural capital, mostly with backgrounds in music education, who consider extracurricular activities investments. We tested our hypothesis using SPSS program, the methods included logistic regression and cluster analysis. Our results prove the existence of differences in the socioeconomic status of music and non-music students. Full article
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Article
Influences of COVID-19 Work-Related Fears and Anhedonia on Resilience of Workers in the Health Sector during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120578 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Background: During the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers worked under stressful conditions, challenging their individual resilience. Therefore, we explored the bidirectional influence of resilience and the factors of COVID-19 work-related fears and anhedonia in Austrian healthcare workers. Methods: Healthcare workers in [...] Read more.
Background: During the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers worked under stressful conditions, challenging their individual resilience. Therefore, we explored the bidirectional influence of resilience and the factors of COVID-19 work-related fears and anhedonia in Austrian healthcare workers. Methods: Healthcare workers in Austria completed an online survey at two points in time. The first measurement started in winter 2020/2021 (t1), and a second measurement began approximately 1.5 years later (t2). One hundred and eight six individuals completed both surveys and were investigated in a longitudinal design. We applied the Resilience Scale, the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale, and a self-created questionnaire assessing COVID-19 work-related fears. We used a repeated measures analysis of variance and applied Pearson-Correlations as well as univariate and multivariate analyses of covariance. Results: Resilience was significantly correlated with COVID-19 work-related fears and anhedonia at both points in time in all participants. We found no significant differences for frontline vs. non-frontline workers at t1 and t2. Resilience decreased significantly over time. Limitations: Most subjects were examined cross-sectionally. Frontline workers were underrepresented in our sample. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of resilience in healthcare providers. Steps must be taken to maintain and promote resilience in healthcare workers. We suggest that the improvement of resilience, dealing with fears and uncertainty, and the ability to experience joy might have a beneficial influence on the respective other categories as well. Full article
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Article
Disparities in COVID-19 Impacts on Work Hours and Career Satisfaction by Gender and Race among Scientists in the US: An Online Survey Study
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120577 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 474
Abstract
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on work–life balance may be unequal between female and male scientists. Further information is needed regarding whether the working conditions and career satisfaction for women and racialized scientists are disproportionately affected by the pandemic. This online survey [...] Read more.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on work–life balance may be unequal between female and male scientists. Further information is needed regarding whether the working conditions and career satisfaction for women and racialized scientists are disproportionately affected by the pandemic. This online survey collected data from 1171 scientists in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM), and medicine (STEMM), public health, or other areas of science/engineering working in the US to examine potential disparities in changes in work hours and career satisfaction by gender and race/ethnicity. A significantly higher percentage of women reported increased work hours compared to men. Women, especially racialized women, experienced disproportionately higher increases in teaching and service than the other groups, which contributed to the increased total work hours for women. Satisfaction with the current career progress was lowest for racialized women compared to their counterparts. Our results indicate that the pandemic has inequitably affected allocation of workloads and career satisfaction by gender and race in scientific fields. Institutions of higher education and other research organizations should acknowledge the gender/race differences in science before and during the pandemic to better support the career development and achievement of all scientists, especially women and even more so racialized women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
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Article
Migrant Organizations and Social Protection in Germany: The Functions of MOs for Their Target Groups’ Social Protection Practices
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120576 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 461
Abstract
This article engages with the functions assumed by migrant organizations (MOs) in Germany in the context of the social protection of people with migration biographies. Based on document analyses and qualitative interviews with three groups of actors, we identify four functions through which [...] Read more.
This article engages with the functions assumed by migrant organizations (MOs) in Germany in the context of the social protection of people with migration biographies. Based on document analyses and qualitative interviews with three groups of actors, we identify four functions through which MOs contribute to their target groups’ social protection practices, and show how diverging perceptions toward these functions shape the current role of MOs in a changing welfare system. In addition to providing social services themselves (service function), they mediate with the welfare system (hinging function) and advocate for the interests of people with migration biographies in public and political discourse (advocacy function). Moreover, we demonstrate that these functions are shaped and complemented by a “homemaking” function, a form of informal protection based on mutual support, trust and understanding. In this article, the discussion of the specific ways in which these functions play a role for the social protection of people with migration biographies is based on joint analysis of three data sets. Thus, we juxtapose the viewpoints of MO representatives, their target groups and people associated with welfare state institutions and political administrations. In this way, we show how MOs use these various functions to actively engage with a changing welfare landscape, whereas welfare institutions and political administrations often perceive of the work undertaken by MOs rather as an ‘integration’-oriented prerequisite for their own social service provision. As a result, contrasting and sometimes competing perspectives challenge the role of MOs within the German welfare system, even though these organizations already fulfill key functions for their target groups’ social protection. Full article
Article
Constructing Territories of Deterritorialization–Reterritorialization in Clarice Lispector Novels
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120575 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 376
Abstract
The importance of geography and literature, as producers of knowledge for society, is undeniable. Both areas are structural pillars for the explanation of contemporary territorial phenomena. In this article, we intend to reflect on the importance of literature for understanding migration, focusing on [...] Read more.
The importance of geography and literature, as producers of knowledge for society, is undeniable. Both areas are structural pillars for the explanation of contemporary territorial phenomena. In this article, we intend to reflect on the importance of literature for understanding migration, focusing on the deterritorialization–reterritorialization process. Through geographic lenses, we will perform a content analysis of several fictional works by Clarice Lispector, who was hereself a migrant, in several moments of her life. We can consider that this writer’s contribution made a deep contribution to (re)think conceptual and theoretical frames in the geography of migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
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Article
A New Trend of Tourism in the Post-COVID-19 Era: Big Data Analysis of Online Tours in Korea
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120574 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 556
Abstract
In this study, big data analysis on Korea’s “online tour”, which emerged as an alternative to satisfy tourism needs after COVID-19, was conducted. After extracting keywords through text mining for 24,073 posts from the top three most frequently visited social media platforms, Naver, [...] Read more.
In this study, big data analysis on Korea’s “online tour”, which emerged as an alternative to satisfy tourism needs after COVID-19, was conducted. After extracting keywords through text mining for 24,073 posts from the top three most frequently visited social media platforms, Naver, Daum, and Google, to gather tour information in Korea, frequency analysis and TF-IDF analysis were run. In addition, network analyses, such as centrality and convergence of iteration correlation (CONCOR) analyses, were performed. The results showed: First, the sense of presence via local live streaming is crucial. It is vital to prepare a suitable video environment where tourists can immerse themselves in the tour. Second, the interaction between travel agencies, local guides, and tourists is important because it can expand tourists’ travel experiences. Third, the importance of online tour program content was revealed. It is necessary to increase the demand by designing various programs tailored to the audience. Fourth, new possibilities for local travel that had been neglected were uncovered. Fifth, the importance of online tourism production support was highlighted. The role of the government must be expanded to reinforce the digital capabilities of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to create jobs. Although the scope of this study is limited to Korea, it can definitely be used as a regional strategy. Full article
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Article
‘Finding My Own Way’: Mobilization of Cultural Capital through Migrant Organizations in Germany
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120573 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Migrant organizations (MOs), as associations that are founded, managed, and led by people with migration biographies, have recently emerged as facilitators of social protection interventions. This article is devoted to this barely debated issue of MOs in the field of social protection, by [...] Read more.
Migrant organizations (MOs), as associations that are founded, managed, and led by people with migration biographies, have recently emerged as facilitators of social protection interventions. This article is devoted to this barely debated issue of MOs in the field of social protection, by emphasizing their role in facilitating the mobilization and access to cultural capital as an important determinant of protection and wellbeing of people with migration biographies. Specifically, we study how MOs promote the formation and mobilization of skills and resources to be used in different fields, in particular in the education and labor markets. We find that MOs facilitate various occasions for their members to generate migration-specific cultural capital, predominantly in the field of education and language skills. MOs also promote the creation and institutionalization of cultural capital on the labor market. In addition, our results show that people with a migration background appreciate their participation in migrants’ organizations, because they allow them to pursue their own projects and find their own way through the different phases of migration and settlement, in often challenging environments. Full article
Article
Real-Time Military Security Index Calculation Model Using Big Data Analytics: The Case of South Korea
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120572 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 550
Abstract
The recent advent of the New Cold War and rapid changes in global situation are increasing the need for quick and accurate geopolitical risk measurement through quantitative analysis. This study intends to present a new military-security index, a method of measuring military-geopolitical risk [...] Read more.
The recent advent of the New Cold War and rapid changes in global situation are increasing the need for quick and accurate geopolitical risk measurement through quantitative analysis. This study intends to present a new military-security index, a method of measuring military-geopolitical risk using big data analysis. In this regard, South Korea, one of the countries with the highest level of geopolitical risk in the world, was analyzed and quantified by analyzing direct provocations and threats from neighboring countries. The data used include the results of quantifying provocation cases in neighboring countries according to time, frequency, and intensity, the results of analyzing news keywords related to military-security issues in neighboring countries, and real-time terrorism and cybersecurity-risk measurements. Based on this, a model that enables relatively accurate and timely analysis and prediction by indexing and time-series geopolitical risks is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Relations)
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Article
The Social Representations of Zoo Goers toward Crocodiles and Turtles: Structural Analysis and Implications for Conservation
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120571 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Zoos have changed dramatically over the last century and today attract millions of people worldwide, being places where visitors can closely watch wildlife and learn about the species on display. Although present at most zoos, reptiles are challenging animals in terms of visitor [...] Read more.
Zoos have changed dramatically over the last century and today attract millions of people worldwide, being places where visitors can closely watch wildlife and learn about the species on display. Although present at most zoos, reptiles are challenging animals in terms of visitor interest and engagement, as some species do not fit aesthetic standards from the human standpoint, have culturally negative perceptions or generate aversive emotions. By studying zoo visitors’ social representations of crocodiles and turtles, we aimed to detail their structures, as well as identifying their prototypical elements that help to understand their emotional and cognitive framing. The findings show the crocodile’s prototypical image as a big, fearsome predator with teeth as its main physical attribute. Male visitors showed a more emotional perception of this animal. The turtle’s prototypical image is a slow, hard-shelled ancestral sea animal with a neutral-to-positive set of traits, with no particular differences between genders. Our results shed a more detailed light on some of the social constructs that make up the mental images of these animals, which can help the zoological community direct communication toward a more fluent conversation between stakeholders toward conservation. Full article
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Article
Applying Work and Organizational Psychology in the Field of Labor Relations: Exploratory Study in Trade Unions in the Basque Country
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120570 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 713
Abstract
Historically, the relationship between work and organizational psychology and trade union organizations has been one of mutual indifference and neglect. The aim of this study is to explore whether trade union members’ social representations of organizational psychology affect their organizations’ engagement with this [...] Read more.
Historically, the relationship between work and organizational psychology and trade union organizations has been one of mutual indifference and neglect. The aim of this study is to explore whether trade union members’ social representations of organizational psychology affect their organizations’ engagement with this discipline, conditioning their ability to derive benefit from its findings. In a sample of 448 members of the four main trade unions of the Basque Autonomous Community in Spain, social representations of six concepts relating to Psychology or Trade Union Activity were explored using the free association technique. Forty-five categories were created and their frequency and percentages were calculated. In addition, the means of the categories shared by the representations of two different concepts were crossed and statistically tested. Although some associations were found between the representations of the two sets of concepts, most were non-significant. These results highlight that the structure of the representations of Psychology gives only a partial explanation for this lack of connection. The implications of the study and its limitations are discussed, and some recommendations for future research are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
Article
Emancipatory Urban Citizenship Regimes in Postpandemic Catalonia, Scotland, and Wales
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120569 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Wide tensions regarding the organization of nation-state power have been triggered over the last years in the UK and Spain. By contrast, in the UK, (i) the plebiscite on Scottish Independence has been characterized since 2014 so far by a regular hegemony of [...] Read more.
Wide tensions regarding the organization of nation-state power have been triggered over the last years in the UK and Spain. By contrast, in the UK, (i) the plebiscite on Scottish Independence has been characterized since 2014 so far by a regular hegemony of the SNP in Scotland, and (ii) more recently, distinct resilient responses to tackle COVID-19 have dramatically shifted perceptions about the potential constitutional arrangements in Wales partially opposing a state-centric vision of the UK. By contrast, the role played by the constitutionally illegal but socially constitutive referendum in Catalonia on 1 October 2017, remarkably provoked the re-emergence of the Spanish far-right narrative through the surge of the new political party called Vox. In both cases, the urban in Glasgow, Cardiff, and Barcelona has been shaping various oppositions to state-centric agendas, and such oppositions have shaped elections in the UK and Spain. This article sheds light on the distinct, emerging, and emancipatory urban citizenship regimes in Catalonia, Scotland, and Wales, particularly illustrating the roles that Barcelona, Glasgow, and Cardiff, respectively, are playing in articulating a counter-reaction by rescaling a state-centric vision. This article employs past elections’ evidence to illustrate such regimes amid postpandemic times in datafied states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elections and Political Campaigns in Times of Uncertainty)
Article
Are Civility Norms Morality Norms’ Little Sister? The Truth Value That Lay Thinking Associates with Civility and Morality Social Norms
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120568 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Previous research shows that civility norms, such as morality norms, are necessary navigational charts to orient an individual in social life. However, there are no studies that establish the extent to which people consider civility norms as objective facts in a similar way [...] Read more.
Previous research shows that civility norms, such as morality norms, are necessary navigational charts to orient an individual in social life. However, there are no studies that establish the extent to which people consider civility norms as objective facts in a similar way to how many moral norms are considered. This research examines the perceived objectivity of civility norms in contrast to morality norms. The results show, firstly, that immoral norms are perceived to be significantly more objective than moral norms, but the opposite occurs with civility norms. Second, there is a high correlation between what participants consider objective and what they believe the rest of their community considers objective. However, this correlation was greater for immoral behaviors than for moral behaviors, and the opposite occurred for civility behaviors. Finally, participants estimated that the percentage of people in their group who engage in uncivil behaviors is higher than those who engage in immoral behaviors. Full article
Article
Framing Food Transition: The Debate on Meat Production and Climate Change in Three European Countries
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120567 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The link between meat production and climate change has fostered increasing social debate in recent years. Livestock is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, among other global problems attached to the meat industry. However, this debate is often presented as one-dimensional, without [...] Read more.
The link between meat production and climate change has fostered increasing social debate in recent years. Livestock is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, among other global problems attached to the meat industry. However, this debate is often presented as one-dimensional, without a comprehensive approach. As the media plays a key role in shaping public perceptions of nutrition, this study aims to examine how the matter of food transition and climate change is addressed by three centre-left media outlets from Germany (Der Tagesspiegel), the United Kingdom (The Guardian) and Spain (El País). A search including the words *meat* and *climate change* in different languages, performed over one year (2021), resulted in a sample of available news items (N = 273). Using quantitative and qualitative methods, we analysed the coverage in terms of scope and use of frames. The results showed a scant number of news items combining climate change and meat consumption, though there were some differences indicating a greater awareness in the United Kingdom. Most of the news items from the three countries applied frames based on solutions from an environmental perspective. Media attention was discontinuous and sometimes determined by political debates, which made it difficult to reflect upon the underlying issues. Full article
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Review
Aside from Deterministic Prophecies, What Is Missing in the Contemporary Debate on Automation and the Future of Work? The Case of Automated Vehicles
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120566 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Debates around the future of work have (re-)emerged strongly as concerns about a new era of workplace automation grow from a plethora of narratives estimating the potential of machine substitution. This research aims to analyse how these perspectives dictate current discussions based on [...] Read more.
Debates around the future of work have (re-)emerged strongly as concerns about a new era of workplace automation grow from a plethora of narratives estimating the potential of machine substitution. This research aims to analyse how these perspectives dictate current discussions based on taken-for-granted assumptions about work. The analysis takes the lens of work psychology and delves into the case of automated vehicles (AVs), an oft-debated form of automation by its implications for the transport workforce. We explore how the debate is subdued to a deterministic “metrological universe”, overloading the present epoch with certainty about imaginaries of “driverless futures”. However, when we move our attention beyond the quantitative speculation of future employment and connect automation with the concrete socio-professional realities of transport workers, such imaginaries are deconstructed while key issues regarding the quality of work with AVs emerge. By arguing that such issues remain “forgotten” in dominant technological discussions, bipartite and tripartite actions towards decent work are gathered, considering the institutional constellation in road transport. As future research, we propose to challenge those governance models predicated on the language of AV acceptance, which ultimately places the responsibility of managing the uncertainties that AVs hold on the shoulders of transport workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Article
Complex Tasks, Delegation, and Flexibility: What Role for Engagement and Shared Leadership?
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120565 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Task complexity is one of the main factors studied by academics and is at the center of leaders’ concerns. It is related to delegation and flexibility, which are enhanced by workers’ engagement and depend on how leadership is shared. In this context, this [...] Read more.
Task complexity is one of the main factors studied by academics and is at the center of leaders’ concerns. It is related to delegation and flexibility, which are enhanced by workers’ engagement and depend on how leadership is shared. In this context, this research was carried out with the main objective of testing the serial mediating effect of engagement and shared leadership on the relationship between task complexity and flexibility and the relationship between task complexity and delegation. The sample for this study consists of 368 participants, all of whom work in organizations based in Portugal. The results indicate that task complexity is positively and significantly associated with engagement, shared leadership, flexibility, and delegation. Shared leadership has a positive and significant association with flexibility and delegation. The serial mediating effect of engagement and shared leadership on the relationship between task complexity and flexibility was confirmed. The serial mediating effect of engagement and shared leadership on the relationship between task complexity and delegation was not confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Article
The Role of Personal Identity Attributes in Transport Mode Choice: The Case Study of Thessaloniki, Greece
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120564 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 539
Abstract
People make numerous trips every day for a variety of purposes. Transport mode choice directly impacts travel time, congestion, and environmental conditions. It also depends on various economic, social, environmental, and personal related factors. This paper investigates the association between identity characteristics and [...] Read more.
People make numerous trips every day for a variety of purposes. Transport mode choice directly impacts travel time, congestion, and environmental conditions. It also depends on various economic, social, environmental, and personal related factors. This paper investigates the association between identity characteristics and transport mode choices in Thessaloniki, Greece. A customized questionnaire survey was carried out with 506 individuals in 2019 to collect data on nine self-declared personal statuses (affiliation with environment, place of residence, career, companionship, etc.) and trip frequencies of all available transport options in Thessaloniki. We ran latent class analyses to uncover three identity clusters. The Active individuals prefer public transport over private car, and they are mostly young, sporty, and with low incomes. Additionally, the Family-Oriented individuals are comparatively older, and they have greater access to private cars and higher incomes, while the Typical Urban population exhibits a slightly higher use of cars and public transport than the Active one. Trips on foot and by car (as passengers) are equally preferred by all latent classes’ populations. Our findings highlight the role of individuals’ identities in the development of travel behavior and may assist with the design of targeted policies and marketing strategies, which will facilitate sustainable urban mobility behaviors. Full article
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Article
Determinants of Refugee Children’s Social Integration: Evidence from Lebanon, Turkey, and Australia
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120563 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 650
Abstract
This paper investigates the determinants of refugee students’ social integration in Lebanon, Turkey, and Australia. This paper seeks to understand how legal status and the corresponding length of refugee asylum shape refugee children’s social integration. The three host countries offer refugees different legal [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the determinants of refugee students’ social integration in Lebanon, Turkey, and Australia. This paper seeks to understand how legal status and the corresponding length of refugee asylum shape refugee children’s social integration. The three host countries offer refugees different legal statuses ranging from short-term in Lebanon, medium-term in Turkey, and long-term in Australia. Therefore, our data collection covers a sample of 1298 middle school refugee students from all three countries. Our probit regression analysis sheds light on the importance of micro-level factors related to individual and household characteristics and meso-level factors related to school factors shaping refugee students’ social integration. The statistical dominance of meso-level factors indicates that the within-country differences are stronger than the between-country differences, yet it does not rule out the importance of macro policies that indirectly influence refugee students’ social integration by shaping provisions at the micro and meso levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Article
Queer Positionality and Researching University Lad Culture
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120562 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 624
Abstract
This paper reflects on my experiences as a queer researcher investigating the relationship between university lad culture and gender-related violence. Gender-related violence is analysed as a useful conceptual tool for considering lad culture, owing to the relationship between lad culture and sexual violence, [...] Read more.
This paper reflects on my experiences as a queer researcher investigating the relationship between university lad culture and gender-related violence. Gender-related violence is analysed as a useful conceptual tool for considering lad culture, owing to the relationship between lad culture and sexual violence, LGBT-phobia and the privileging of white, young, heterosexual men within lad culture. Using reflections from my doctoral case study research, in which I collected data from self-identified ‘lads’ (5 in-depth interviews), I will consider the challenges and benefits of my researcher position in relation the research methodology. Then, using a re-analysis of interviews, I will argue that my researcher position led to certain presentations of lad culture from my participants. Self-Identified Lad (SIL) participants presented themselves as distant from lad culture, showed queerness/hid homophobia within lad culture and were willing to discuss sexual violence. While the case study yielded only a small sample of SILs, a benefit of my researcher position is that this project was the first to conduct interviews with LGB lads and one female lad. My queer feminist position has therefore produced a unique insight into lads who identify with lad culture but discursively position themselves as fringe members. This contributes to theorisations of a laddish continuum, and allows us to consider why some self-identified lads are on the fringes, and what this tells us about lad culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
Article
Economic Impact on Health and Well-Being: Comparative Study of Israeli and Japanese University “Help” Profession Students
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120561 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Background: Deteriorating economic conditions caused by rising inflation and living expenses can have negative consequences for university students. This comparative study examined Israeli and Japanese “help” profession (e.g., medicine, nursing, social work, and psychology) students’ fear of such conditions and its impact on [...] Read more.
Background: Deteriorating economic conditions caused by rising inflation and living expenses can have negative consequences for university students. This comparative study examined Israeli and Japanese “help” profession (e.g., medicine, nursing, social work, and psychology) students’ fear of such conditions and its impact on their health and well-being. Methods: Data were collected from a cross-sectional sample of 848 university students from Israel and Japan (78.9% female, 20.4% male, and 0.7% other) during a 3-month period of economic decline in 2022. Reliable data-collection instruments and SPSS (version 25) were used for the study. Results: Overall, Japanese students evidenced a higher level of economic well-being than their Israeli counterparts. This finding may have been a result of the lower inflation and living costs in Japan. However, most survey respondents evidenced a fear of deteriorating economic conditions that was significantly associated with psycho-emotional behavior, including increased burnout, substance use, unhealthy food intake, weight gain, and resilience regardless of gender and religiosity. Conclusions: The study findings showed the impact of deteriorating economic conditions on the health and well-being of “help” profession students. These results are preliminary; however, they do serve as an early warning of the key challenges that may need to be considered and addressed for prevention and intervention purposes. Further research should be conducted in other countries and over different time periods to substantiate present findings. Full article
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Article
How Human Trafficking Fuels Erosion of Liberal Democracies—In Fiction and Fact, and from within and without
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120560 - 29 Nov 2022
Viewed by 649
Abstract
On the same day that the human trafficker Ms. Ghislaine Maxwell was sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment, many people closely watched the sixth hearing of the House Select Committee on the attack of the United States Capitol on 6 January 2021 (28 June [...] Read more.
On the same day that the human trafficker Ms. Ghislaine Maxwell was sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment, many people closely watched the sixth hearing of the House Select Committee on the attack of the United States Capitol on 6 January 2021 (28 June 2022). What, if anything, do these ostensibly varied crimes have in common? Seeking to answer this fundamental question, this article explores the usually under-researched connection between trafficking in persons and the documented decline of liberal democracies worldwide. Globally, democratic societies governed by the rule of law appear to be under assault, and therefore this article explores relevant examples of how human trafficking contributes to the erosion of liberal democracy, in fiction and fact, and from within and without. In other words, this article takes us from ‘Pizzagate’ to profits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Tackling Organized Crime and Human Trafficking)
Article
The Impact of Optimism and Internal Locus of Control on Workers’ Well-Being, A Multi-Group Model Analysis before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120559 - 29 Nov 2022
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The COVID-19 crisis led to changes in different areas of workers’ lives, as well as repercussions in stress management, social relationships, and perception of personal and professional growth. Considering this, well-being in the workplace is crucial to carrying out effective activities and performance, [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 crisis led to changes in different areas of workers’ lives, as well as repercussions in stress management, social relationships, and perception of personal and professional growth. Considering this, well-being in the workplace is crucial to carrying out effective activities and performance, and it is also essential to verifying the impact of the pandemic on the current situation of workers’ overall well-being. The study investigates the mediation of Personal Growth (PG) between two personal resources at work, Internal Locus (LOCI) and Optimism (OPT), on the Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI), an important multi-faceted indicator of well-being. This study was conducted on respondents performing professions (n = 666), both before (2019, n = 410) and during the pandemic (2020, n = 256). The relationships were tested simultaneously using a multi-group structural equation model (MPLUS7). The estimated model shows that personal resources at work increase PG (LOCI mostly during the pandemic; OPT mostly before the pandemic); OPT directly increases PHI; PG increases PHI (mostly before the pandemic); and personal resources increase through PG and PHI (LOCI more during the pandemic; OPT more before the pandemic). The study is cross-sectional, as it was not possible to compare the same workers over two years. The research offers ideas for activation of training programs, support and development of individual resources, and personal growth aimed at improving well-being and the work experience for workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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