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Soc. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2021) – 52 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study was the first to address how the responsivity principle of the risk–need–responsivity model is of value in child protection. This principle states that treatment must be tailored to the individual characteristics of clients to optimize its effectiveness. A systematic review of responsivity factors in forensic care was performed, after which the clinical relevance of each factor (e.g., treatment motivation, psychological problems, and practical barriers to treatment) in child protection was examined in interviews with clinical professionals. The professionals also provided suggestions on how treatment can be tailored to each of these factors. The results of this study support child protection practitioners in personalizing treatment, by highlighting what responsivity factors that may interfere with treatment success can be identified and addressed in clinical practice. View [...] Read more.
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Article
Increased Prevalence, Predictors, and In-Group Differences of Forced Sex and Physical Dating Violence among Trans/Gender Diverse Youth
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060236 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Forced sex and dating violence are too common among young people and rates are higher for young transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals. However, the TGD youth population has differential experiences across gender, race, age, sexual orientation, and other identity factors. This study, [...] Read more.
Forced sex and dating violence are too common among young people and rates are higher for young transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals. However, the TGD youth population has differential experiences across gender, race, age, sexual orientation, and other identity factors. This study, using data from the 2015 Healthy Kids Colorado Survey, explores these differential within-group experiences of forced sex and dating violence. Findings indicate that sexual minorities who are also TGD are 2.45–3.73 times more likely to experience forced sex and physical dating violence than their TGD heterosexual peers. Individuals who are transfeminine (4.49 times), transmasculine (2.52 times), and nonbinary (3.86 times) are more likely to experience forced sex, as well as physical dating violence (transfeminine (4.01 times), transmasculine (2.91 times), and nonbinary (4.77 times)), as compared to those individuals questioning their gender. Black individuals (3.93 times) and Multiracial individuals (2.39 times) are more likely to experience dating violence than their White counterparts. Age was related to increased experience of forced sex, with individuals being 1.34 times more likely to have experienced this per year increase of age. These findings indicate the need for more trans-inclusive youth programing around sexual violence and dating violence, as well as taking a more intersectional and personalized approach to prevention work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
Article
“You Know Baseball? 3 Strikes”: Understanding Racial Disparity with Mixed Methods for Probation Review Hearings
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060235 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Prior literature on judicial decision-making post-sentencing is relatively scarce, yet with the growth of problem-solving courts and offenders placed on probation, judges are responsible for overseeing compliance of offenders beyond traditional decision-making points. More recently, scholars have called for more nuanced methods of [...] Read more.
Prior literature on judicial decision-making post-sentencing is relatively scarce, yet with the growth of problem-solving courts and offenders placed on probation, judges are responsible for overseeing compliance of offenders beyond traditional decision-making points. More recently, scholars have called for more nuanced methods of examining judicial decision-making, disparity, and attribution than traditional quantitative methods. This study examines the factors that influence judicial sanctioning of probationers for non-compliance in a domestic violence court. The following research questions are examined: Which factors predict whether a probationer is sanctioned for non-compliance? What are the discourses utilized to frame these violations? Are there differences in discourses utilized based upon a probationer’s race? This study combines participant observation of probation review hearings with agency records for a mixed-methods examination of which factors influence the decision to sanction non-compliant probationers, and whether differences emerge based on race. The sample included 350 cases of probation review hearings with 100 cases selected for critical discourse analysis. Results demonstrated that drug use, missed treatment sessions, gender, race, and family status influenced sanctioning decisions. Qualitative results demonstrated that judges evaluate probationers based upon contextual information, which at times relies on racial discourses of drug use and responsibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racial and Ethnic Issues in the Criminal Justice System)
Article
Predictive Policing and Crime Control in The United States of America and Europe: Trends in a Decade of Research and the Future of Predictive Policing
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060234 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 857
Abstract
There has been a significant focus on predictive policing systems, as law enforcement agents embrace modern technology to forecast criminal activity. Most developed nations have implemented predictive policing, albeit with mixed reactions over its effectiveness. Whilst at its inception, predictive policing involved simple [...] Read more.
There has been a significant focus on predictive policing systems, as law enforcement agents embrace modern technology to forecast criminal activity. Most developed nations have implemented predictive policing, albeit with mixed reactions over its effectiveness. Whilst at its inception, predictive policing involved simple heuristics and algorithms, it has increased in sophistication in the ever-changing technological environment. This paper, which is based on a literature survey, examines predictive policing over the last decade (2010 to 2020). The paper examines how various nations have implemented predictive policing and also documents the impediments to predictive policing. The paper reveals that despite the adoption of predictive software applications such as PredPol, Risk Terrain Modelling, HunchLab, PreMap, PRECOBS, Crime Anticipation System, and Azevea, there are several impediments that have militated against the effectiveness of predictive policing, and these include low predictive accuracy, limited scope of crimes that can be predicted, high cost of predictive policing software, flawed data input, and the biased nature of some predictive software applications. Despite these challenges, the paper reveals that there is consensus by the majority of the researchers on the importance of predictive algorithms on the policing landscape. Full article
Article
Learning in the Anthropocene
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060233 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 693
Abstract
While the precautionary principle may have offered a sound basis for managing environmental risk in the Holocene, the depth and width of the Anthropocene have made precaution increasingly untenable. Not only have many ecosystems already been damaged beyond natural recovery, achieving a sustainable [...] Read more.
While the precautionary principle may have offered a sound basis for managing environmental risk in the Holocene, the depth and width of the Anthropocene have made precaution increasingly untenable. Not only have many ecosystems already been damaged beyond natural recovery, achieving a sustainable long-term global trajectory now seem to require ever greater measures of proactionary risk-taking, in particular in relation to the growing need for climate engineering. At the same time, different optical illusions, arising from temporary emissions reductions due to the COVID-19 epidemic and the local deployment of seemingly “green” small-scale renewable energy sources, tend to obscure worsening global trends and reinforce political disinterest in developing high-energy technologies that would be more compatible with universal human development and worldwide ecological restoration. Yet, given the lack of feedback between the global and the local level, not to mention the role of culture and values in shaping perceptions of “sustainability”, the necessary learning may end up being both epistemologically and politically difficult. This paper explores the problem of finding indicators suitable for measuring progress towards meaningful climate action and the restoration of an ecologically vibrant planet. It is suggested that such indicators are essentially political as they reflect, not only different assessments of technological feasibility, but orientations towards the Enlightenment project. Full article
Article
Challenging the Fundamental Premise of White Supremacy: DNA Documents the Jewish Origins of the New England Colony
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060232 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 681
Abstract
The English Puritans of New England are a foundational element in the current racist ideology of White Supremacy. Depicted in history books as stalwart British Protestants who braved bitter winters and Native predations to establish a “City on the Hill”—a beacon to the [...] Read more.
The English Puritans of New England are a foundational element in the current racist ideology of White Supremacy. Depicted in history books as stalwart British Protestants who braved bitter winters and Native predations to establish a “City on the Hill”—a beacon to the world of freedom and liberty—the Puritans became ideals in the American consciousness. But what if this is a misrepresentation, created largely in the mid and late 1800s to serve as a political barrier against Catholic, East European, Jewish, and Asian immigrants who threatened the “American way of life”? The present research uses genealogical DNA data collected from descendants of the New England settlers to demonstrate that these original “Yankees” were of Jewish ancestry. The WASP origination of New England is shown to be a false narrative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
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Article
The Long Shadow of Peers: Adolescent Networks and Young Adult Mental Health
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060231 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Connections with peers play an important role in adolescent mental health, but their lasting impact is unclear. This study examines whether structural status and support in adolescent networks predict depressive symptoms years later. Using data from the PROSPER Peers study (n = [...] Read more.
Connections with peers play an important role in adolescent mental health, but their lasting impact is unclear. This study examines whether structural status and support in adolescent networks predict depressive symptoms years later. Using data from the PROSPER Peers study (n = 1017), I find that the persistent effects of networks differ based on the mental health of teens and their friends. Structures of status and support relate to young adult mental health only for individuals who experience depressive symptoms as teens. Among depressive adolescents, popularity predicts lower subsequent depressive symptoms, while high prestige predicts higher depressive symptoms in young adulthood. Embeddedness among depressed friends also predicts higher young adult depressive symptoms. Overall, findings suggest relationships with peers can set the stage for mental health for adolescents who experience depressive symptoms or have depressive friends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Ties and Health Outcomes)
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Article
Police Stop and Frisk and the Impact of Race: A Focal Concerns Theory Approach
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060230 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 680
Abstract
The findings of this study outline the racial differences in stop and frisk decisions by Illinois officers in consent searches and those based upon reasonable suspicion within the context of the elements of focal concerns theory. The analysis for this study was performed [...] Read more.
The findings of this study outline the racial differences in stop and frisk decisions by Illinois officers in consent searches and those based upon reasonable suspicion within the context of the elements of focal concerns theory. The analysis for this study was performed using propensity score matching (PSM) and allowed the researchers to create a quasi-experimental design to examine the race of the citizen and police decision making. According to our analysis of official Illinois law enforcement data, Black citizens, particularly males, were less likely to give their consent to a stop and frisk search. Black male citizens were also more likely to be stopped and searched due to an assessment of reasonable suspicion by the officer. Elements of focal concerns theory were also factors in pedestrian stops under conditions of consent and reasonable suspicion. Citizens judged as blameworthy were more likely to be stopped and frisked under conditions of consent and reasonable suspicion. The effect of a verbal threat and the officer’s prior knowledge about the citizen had even more significant impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racial and Ethnic Issues in the Criminal Justice System)
Article
Message Sidedness Effects in Advertising: The Role of Yin-Yang Balancing Theory
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060229 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Past research has shown mixed results regarding the persuasiveness of two-sided messages. Various underlying constructs were suggested to explain the differences in results. This study draws on the Yin-Yang Balancing (YYB) theory and the construct of tolerance for contradiction (i.e., the tolerance for [...] Read more.
Past research has shown mixed results regarding the persuasiveness of two-sided messages. Various underlying constructs were suggested to explain the differences in results. This study draws on the Yin-Yang Balancing (YYB) theory and the construct of tolerance for contradiction (i.e., the tolerance for inconsistency and resolution among contrasts) to explain differences in the effectiveness of two-sided ads. The study consisted of a cross-cultural survey involving Easterners, who hold typically higher tolerance for contradiction, with Westerners characterized by a lower tolerance for contradiction. A series of analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to explore the difference between both groups on key variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) tested the proposed conceptual model as a whole and for both groups, highlighting key cross-cultural differences. Additionally, the PROCESS macro was used to test the mediation effects posited in the model. The findings showed that although the tolerance for contradiction does not directly impact purchase intentions, it exerts both direct and indirect effects on purchase intentions through credibility and attitudes for Easterners but not for Westerners. The findings offer important theoretical and managerial implications: Two-sided ads are more effective to consumers with a higher tolerance for contradiction (e.g., Easterners) versus consumers with a lower tolerance for contradiction (e.g., Westerners). Full article
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Article
Transitions of Student Military Veterans into Engineering Education
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060228 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 762
Abstract
As student veterans transition to four-year institutions from the military, they navigate pathways that are often neither linear nor easy. Using Turner’s theory of liminality, we examine student veterans’ perspectives of the transition from military to civilian life. Interviewees include 60 student veterans [...] Read more.
As student veterans transition to four-year institutions from the military, they navigate pathways that are often neither linear nor easy. Using Turner’s theory of liminality, we examine student veterans’ perspectives of the transition from military to civilian life. Interviewees include 60 student veterans from all military branches from four universities in the USA. Student veterans describe successes and challenges as they matriculate into engineering education as transfer students. Analyses of qualitative data yield original findings about the importance of mentors and student veteran networks for fostering student veterans’ educational interests and in promoting their persistence. This study uses a framework of liminality to highlight the bridge between prior military position and a forthcoming reentry into society with a new professional identity as an engineer. In describing their studies, student veterans greatly valued military-learned skills, such as patience, discipline, and technical skills, that give them an advantage in their engineering studies. These findings will be relevant to researchers studying transitions in general and researchers investigating veterans or other populations experiencing transitions. University leaders, including student affairs administrators, faculty members, and others who serve the student veteran community will also benefit from the results. Full article
Article
Introducing Twitter Daily Estimates of Residents and Non-Residents at the County Level
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060227 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
The study of migrations and mobility has historically been severely limited by the absence of reliable data or the temporal sparsity of available data. Using geospatial digital trace data, the study of population movements can be much more precisely and dynamically measured. Our [...] Read more.
The study of migrations and mobility has historically been severely limited by the absence of reliable data or the temporal sparsity of available data. Using geospatial digital trace data, the study of population movements can be much more precisely and dynamically measured. Our research seeks to develop a near real-time (one-day lag) Twitter census that gives a more temporally granular picture of local and non-local population at the county level. Internal validation reveals over 80% accuracy when compared with users’ self-reported home location. External validation results suggest these stocks correlate with available statistics of residents/non-residents at the county level and can accurately reflect regular (seasonal tourism) and non-regular events such as the Great American Solar Eclipse of 2017. The findings demonstrate that Twitter holds the potential to introduce the dynamic component often lacking in population estimates. This study could potentially benefit various fields such as demography, tourism, emergency management, and public health and create new opportunities for large-scale mobility analyses. Full article
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Article
Coronavirus and Immigration Detention in Europe: The Short Summer of Abolitionism?
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060226 - 12 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
In managing the coronavirus pandemic, national authorities worldwide have implemented significant re-bordering measures. This has even affected regions that had dismantled bordering practices decades ago, e.g., EU areas that lifted internal borders in 1993. In some national cases, these new arrangements had unexpected [...] Read more.
In managing the coronavirus pandemic, national authorities worldwide have implemented significant re-bordering measures. This has even affected regions that had dismantled bordering practices decades ago, e.g., EU areas that lifted internal borders in 1993. In some national cases, these new arrangements had unexpected consequences in the field of immigration enforcement. A number of European jurisdictions released significant percentages of their immigration detention populations in spring 2020. The Spanish administration even decreed a moratorium on immigration detention and closed down all detention facilities from mid-spring to late summer 2020. The paper scrutinises these unprecedented changes by examining the variety of migration enforcement agendas adopted by European countries and the specific forces contributing to the prominent detention decline witnessed in the first months of the pandemic. Drawing on the Spanish case, the paper reflects on the potential impact of this promising precedent on the gradual consolidation of social and racial justice-based migration policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crimmigration in the Age of COVID-19)
Editorial
“The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same”: Research on Gang-Related Violence in the 21st Century—Introduction to Special Issue
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060225 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 805
Abstract
The goal of this Special Issue is to examine the diverse nature of gang-related violence in modern life by providing insights into the growing complexities to better direct public policy solutions in the 21st Century [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Gang-Related Violence in the 21st Century)
Article
Economic Poverty: Does the Break-Up of Families Matter?
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060224 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 839
Abstract
In this paper we investigate the relationship between family structure and poverty for European countries using Eurostat and OECD data. In particular, we focus on the change in living arrangements, with the traditional type of household—couple with children—being partially replaced by single and [...] Read more.
In this paper we investigate the relationship between family structure and poverty for European countries using Eurostat and OECD data. In particular, we focus on the change in living arrangements, with the traditional type of household—couple with children—being partially replaced by single and extended families. The results of our econometric analysis show that the decline in the traditional family type affects individual poverty: the marriage rate and the share of couples, both with and without children, are inversely related to poverty; the divorce rate, the shares of extended families and singles with children are, instead, positively related to poverty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Family Well-Being)
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Article
Perceptions of Bullying amongst Spanish Preschool and Primary Schoolchildren with the Use of Comic Strips: Practical and Theoretical Implications
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060223 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 891
Abstract
Bullying research among preschoolers and the early grades of primary school is still scarce. With the aid of a set of cartoons representing prototypical bullying scenes, we interview 120 schoolchildren (50% girls) from kindergarten to third grade (age range: 5.44–9.58) from three mainstream [...] Read more.
Bullying research among preschoolers and the early grades of primary school is still scarce. With the aid of a set of cartoons representing prototypical bullying scenes, we interview 120 schoolchildren (50% girls) from kindergarten to third grade (age range: 5.44–9.58) from three mainstream public schools located in the eastern Community of Madrid, in order to analyse their perceptions regarding this phenomenon. Results show that 94.2% (n = 113) of schoolchildren are able to recognize when a partner is victimized. Nevertheless, significant differences were found by grade (p = 0.017), with kindergarteners giving more responses classified as one-off aggressions. Most students (n = 102) empathize with the victims´ emotions and condemn the bullies’ behavior, regardless of their gender (p = 0.637) or grade (p = 0.578). A total of 53.9% (n = 64) of students think these bullying situations are partly caused by previous conflicts; girls are inclined to think this more often than boys (p = 0.003). Furthermore, 53.8% (n = 64) of the students would request help from their schoolteachers if they were bullied, with no statistically significant differences by gender (p = 0.254) or by grade (p = 0.133). These results serve as a rationale to develop bullying prevention programs from a very early school age to provide information regarding its causation and coping strategies, among others. Full article
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Article
Living in Ethnic Areas or Not? Residential Preference of Decimal Generation Immigrants among Asian Indians, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, Filipinos, and Vietnamese
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060222 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 776
Abstract
The present study examines the spatial assimilation patterns of immigrants who arrived as children. The main objective is to predict the likelihood of living in ethnic areas for decimal generation immigrants (1.25, 1.5, and 1.75) among Asian Indians, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, Filipinos, and [...] Read more.
The present study examines the spatial assimilation patterns of immigrants who arrived as children. The main objective is to predict the likelihood of living in ethnic areas for decimal generation immigrants (1.25, 1.5, and 1.75) among Asian Indians, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, Filipinos, and Vietnamese. Using 2013–2017 5-Year ACS Estimates and IPUMS, it applies the measure of local spatial clustering (the Local Moran’s I statistic) to identify ethnic areas and the logistic regression model to assess the effects of immigrant generational status, cultural, and socioeconomic assimilation on the probability of living in ethnic areas. The findings show that the 1.25 and 1.5 decimal generation immigrants of Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, and Koreans demonstrate higher propensities of living in ethnic areas compared to the first generation of each ethnic group, respectively. Meanwhile, their Asian Indians and Vietnamese counterparts show spatial assimilation. Regardless of generational effects, English language ability positively relates to the probability of living in nonethnic areas, whereas economic assimilation indicators reveal mixed results. We found substantial evidence for resurgent ethnicity theory and some support of spatial assimilation model, indicating the ethnic disparity in spatial assimilation patterns among Asian immigrants. Our paper highlights the nonlinear assimilation patterns among Asian decimal generations. Results suggest that, for Asian immigrants in the U.S., age-at-arrival and ethnicity are both significant predictors of residential preference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
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Article
Antidiscrimination Meets Integration Policies: Exploring New Diversity-Related Challenges in Europe
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060221 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 911
Abstract
Contemporary European societies are increasingly diverse. Migration both within and to Europe has contributed over the past decades to the rise of new religious, racial, ethnic, social, cultural and economic inequality. Such transformations have raised questions about the (multi-level) governance of diversity in [...] Read more.
Contemporary European societies are increasingly diverse. Migration both within and to Europe has contributed over the past decades to the rise of new religious, racial, ethnic, social, cultural and economic inequality. Such transformations have raised questions about the (multi-level) governance of diversity in Europe, thus determining new challenges for both scholars and policy-makers. Whilst the debate around diversity stemming from migration has become a major topic in urban studies, political science and sociology in Europe, Critical Race Studies and Intersectionality have become central in US approaches to understanding inequality and social injustice. Among the fields where ‘managing diversity’ has become particularly pressing, methodological issues on how to best approach minorities that suffer from multiple discrimination represent some of the hottest subjects of concern. Stemming from the interest in putting into dialogue the existing American scholarship on CRT and anti-discrimination with the European focus on migrant integration, this paper explores the issue of integration in relation to intersectionality by merging the two frames. In doing so, it provides some observations about the complementarity of a racial justice approach for facing the new diversity-related challenges in European polity. In particular, it illustrates how Critical Race Studies can contribute to the analysis of inequality in Europe while drawing on the integration literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racialized Citizenship in Superdiverse Europe)
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Article
Meeting in the Middle: TVET Programs’ Education–Employment Linkage at Different Stages of Development
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060220 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 912
Abstract
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) programs are most successful at supporting youth labor markets when they combine education and employment. Education–employment linkage theory describes this combination in terms of power-sharing between actors from the education system and their counterparts in the [...] Read more.
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) programs are most successful at supporting youth labor markets when they combine education and employment. Education–employment linkage theory describes this combination in terms of power-sharing between actors from the education system and their counterparts in the employment system over key processes in the curriculum value chain of curriculum design, curriculum application (program delivery), and curriculum updating. The Education–Employment Linkage Index measures linkage for every function in a TVET program where actors from the two systems interact, aggregating those into processes and phases and eventually an index score. We apply this index to the largest upper-secondary TVET programs in Benin, Chile, Costa Rica, and Nepal. We find that Benin has relatively high education–employment linkage, while the other three countries score very low. Benin’s situation is unique because its TVET program is moving from employer-led to linked, rather than the typical employer integration into an education-based program. Other countries with large informal economies, low formal education and training rates, and existing non-formal employer-led training may be able to implement similar approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Economic Implications of Skill and Educational Mismatch)
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Article
Difficult Times: The Division of Domestic Work under Lockdown in France
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060219 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 900
Abstract
The lockdowns enforced in many countries to contain the spread of COVID-19 had important consequences for the domestic sphere. This paper analyzes the division of domestic work among heterosexual couples in France during the lockdown. In particular, we analyzed the role of time [...] Read more.
The lockdowns enforced in many countries to contain the spread of COVID-19 had important consequences for the domestic sphere. This paper analyzes the division of domestic work among heterosexual couples in France during the lockdown. In particular, we analyzed the role of time constraints and availability and expected to find a more egalitarian division of domestic work among couples in which the man had more time than his partner due to not working or working from home. We used data from the ELIPSS panel, a representative survey of the French population, and ran OLS regressions on the division of domestic work among 406 couples. The results show that men’s time availability was associated with a more egalitarian division of domestic work, even if gender inequalities persisted. However, we did not find any clear differences between men who did not work and men who worked from home, leading us to hypothesize that men’s presence at home is an important factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Work and Welfare: A Gender Lens on COVID-19)
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Article
Physical Health of Food Consumers during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060218 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 921
Abstract
The present research aims to analyze the habits observed in the perception of the general physical health condition of Portuguese food consumers in the COVID-19 pandemic. The investigation is focused on indicators such as weight, physical activity, and consumption habits through the adoption [...] Read more.
The present research aims to analyze the habits observed in the perception of the general physical health condition of Portuguese food consumers in the COVID-19 pandemic. The investigation is focused on indicators such as weight, physical activity, and consumption habits through the adoption of healthy and not healthy food. Centered on a quantitative approach, the research is based on the application of a questionnaire to a sample of 741 Portuguese consumers, between November 2020 and February 2021, a period during which the most severe measures of social isolation were imposed by the Portuguese government, since the beginning of the pandemic. Moreover, the questionnaire was applied to consumers over 18 years old. According to this population, and considering a 95% confidence level and a margin of error of 4%, the sample has a minimum of 601 responses. Being so, the results of this research are representative for the Portuguese food consumers. The theoretical model was estimated using Partial Least Squares (PLS) in the Smart PLS 3.0 software. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that the Portuguese perception of their weight did not change in the pandemic, despite showing that in general, the pandemic had a negative impact on their physical condition. On the other hand, the results show that the Portuguese associate the practice of physical exercise with physical well-being. Respondents also confirm a positive relationship between “positive eating behaviors (such as consumption of fruits and vegetables, low saturated foods and rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats” and water consumption) and “the perception of physical health in general”. On the contrary, respondents’ perception of the choice of negative eating behaviors (measured by the consumption of products with a high content of salt and sugar, snacks, and processed frozen and pre-cooked foods) have a negative impact on the “assessment of physical health, in the COVID-19 pandemic”. Hence, it was concluded that the Portuguese consider that an eventual increase in weight does not necessarily correspond to a perception of worse physical health; the practice of physical exercise and good eating habits corresponds to a perception of better physical health; the adoption of bad eating habits corresponds to the perception of bad physical health. Full article
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Article
Transparency Policies in European Public Broadcasters: Sustainability, Digitalisation and Fact-Checking
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060217 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 977
Abstract
Over the last few years, European public broadcasters have promoted the concept of public service media as one of their main values. To this end, transparency policies have been implemented as a mechanism of corporate projection by strengthening their role as an essential [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, European public broadcasters have promoted the concept of public service media as one of their main values. To this end, transparency policies have been implemented as a mechanism of corporate projection by strengthening their role as an essential service. The objective of this article is to ascertain the existence of this type of policies among European public broadcasters. To this end, a nominal group was made with 24 experts who were surveyed, thus generating new indicators of transparency and accountability strategies around sustainability and digitalization. The contents of the websites of RTVE (Spain), RTP (Portugal), France TV (France), RAI (Italy), BBC (UK), RTÉ (Ireland), ZDF (Germany), VRT (Belgium), and SVT (Sweden) were also analyzed, paying attention to such indicators and strategies. The main results include the identification of differences on the basis of the ideal models described by Hallin and Mancini; a commitment to credibility (fact-checking) to the detriment of diversity of opinions; and a connection between the political system and the media system, which, preliminarily, determines the level of transparency of these public entities. Full article
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Article
Kin Ties and Market Integration in a Yucatec Mayan Village
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060216 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
The importance of kin relationships varies with socioecological demands. Among subsistence agriculturalists, people commonly manage fluctuations in food availability by relying on family members to share resources and pool labor. However, the process of market integration may disrupt these support networks, which may [...] Read more.
The importance of kin relationships varies with socioecological demands. Among subsistence agriculturalists, people commonly manage fluctuations in food availability by relying on family members to share resources and pool labor. However, the process of market integration may disrupt these support networks, which may begin to carry costs or liabilities in novel market environments. The current study aims to address (1) how kin are distributed in household support networks (2) how kin support varies as households become more engaged in market activities, and (3) how variation in kin support is associated with income disparities within a Yucatec Maya community undergoing rapid market integration. Using long-term census data combined with social networks and detailed household economic data, we find that household support networks are primarily composed of related households. Second, households engaged predominantly in wage labor rely less on kin support than agricultural or mixed economy households. Finally, kin support is associated with lower household net income and income per capita. Understanding how kin support systems shift over the course of market integration and in the face of new opportunities for social and economic production provides a unique window into the social and economic drivers of human family formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behavioral Ecology of the Family)
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Article
Different Discussion Partners and Their Effect on Depression among Older Adults
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060215 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 828
Abstract
Although the multidimensionality of core discussion networks has been well established and widely studied, studies of the effects of social support on depression rarely consider the multifaceted aspects of dyadic discussion partner ties. This article proposes defining dyadic social relationships as a construct [...] Read more.
Although the multidimensionality of core discussion networks has been well established and widely studied, studies of the effects of social support on depression rarely consider the multifaceted aspects of dyadic discussion partner ties. This article proposes defining dyadic social relationships as a construct comprising several tie-level attributes and differentiating multiple forms of support relationships by assessing the configuration pattern of multiple attributes. The current study examines various forms of older adults’ discussion partners and identifies which form of discussion partner relationship is effective at buffering the negative effects of adverse life events on depression symptoms. Results from the University of California Social Network Survey show that older adults’ discussion partners can be classified into five distinct types of dyadic ties: spouse/romantic partners, close neighbors, remote type, social companions, and acquaintances. The discussion network with more close neighbor confidants is more effective at buffering the negative effects of adverse life events. These results offer an alternative way of investigating the differential significance of various social support relationships in mental well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Ties and Health Outcomes)
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Article
Readiness of Polish Industrial Enterprises for the Industry 4.0 Revolution
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060214 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 881
Abstract
Implementing solutions related to Industry 4.0 is a challenge for Polish industrial enterprises, regardless of size or affiliation to a larger, international organisation. The aim of this article is to examine the awareness, readiness and ability of these enterprises to meet this challenge. [...] Read more.
Implementing solutions related to Industry 4.0 is a challenge for Polish industrial enterprises, regardless of size or affiliation to a larger, international organisation. The aim of this article is to examine the awareness, readiness and ability of these enterprises to meet this challenge. This study was conducted on a group of 60 randomly selected representatives of companies operating in Poland. A structured interview consisting of 32 questions, carried out using the English computer-assisted web interview (CAWI) method, was used to collect the data. Statistical differences between companies employing up to 249 people and companies employing at least 250 people were verified by the use of the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. Latent variables were also extracted, and the comparison was conducted using the independent samples from a Student’s t-test. Regardless of the differences in responses between companies employing up to 249 employees and those employing 250 or more, the results showed an insufficient level of knowledge of technological solutions as well as a lack of awareness about supporting business development by means of specialised technology providers. Even though little awareness of the importance of Industry 4.0 solutions was identified, identifying key determinants for raising awareness of these solutions among companies operating in Poland may become not only the basis of further scientific research but also of a vital catalogue of activities that can be used to disseminate knowledge in this area. Both paths are extremely important for Polish enterprises. Practical implementation of Industry 4.0 measures particularly entails additional support for small and medium-sized enterprises (hereinafter SME) investment in technological, financial and human resources. Full article
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Article
Pedestrians’ Crossing Dilemma during the First Seconds of the Red-Light Phase
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060213 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Most safety concerns for pedestrian trips arise during road crossing, due to the interaction of pedestrians with motorized vehicles. This present paper attempts to explore the factors that have significant impact on pedestrians’ crossing behavior, and to identify the group of pedestrians that [...] Read more.
Most safety concerns for pedestrian trips arise during road crossing, due to the interaction of pedestrians with motorized vehicles. This present paper attempts to explore the factors that have significant impact on pedestrians’ crossing behavior, and to identify the group of pedestrians that appear to be the most prone to crossing a road during the first five seconds of the red phase. In this context, observations were conducted in twelve signalized crossings in one-way roads, in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The collected data (600 observations of crossing pedestrians) were analyzed statistically; more specifically, the observations were analyzed through descriptive statistics, and a classification tree was developed for predicting pedestrians’ decisions. The results indicate that pedestrians’ crossing behavior is most of all affected by the behavior of other pedestrians in the signalized crossing. Also, the number of traffic lanes has an impact on pedestrians’ decision to cross the road during the first five seconds of the red-light phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
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Article
Timing, Initiators, and Causes of Divorce in a Mayangna/Miskito Community in Nicaragua
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060212 - 06 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
There exists a paucity of evolution-oriented research focusing on why relationships end, particularly in comparison to the substantial literature centered around individual preferences that define the beginning of relationships. In contrast, there is a long tradition in the fields of sociology and family [...] Read more.
There exists a paucity of evolution-oriented research focusing on why relationships end, particularly in comparison to the substantial literature centered around individual preferences that define the beginning of relationships. In contrast, there is a long tradition in the fields of sociology and family studies of exploring divorce; however, this body of research is largely limited to studies of Western populations. We address these gaps in the literature with an examination of patterns of divorce among a small-scale horticultural population in Nicaragua. We test a number of hypotheses derived from behavioral ecology perspective regarding the timing and causes of divorce. Results lend support to all but one of the hypotheses. Overall divorce rates are comparable to U.S. rates; however, they tend to occur earlier in marriages. Children appear to provide a slight buffering effect against divorce, although age in marriage does not. Gender differences in the reported causes of divorce fall along the lines that would be expected due to differences in partner preferences reported in previous research. Finally, this population also exhibits a similar peculiar pattern exhibited by Western populations, in which divorce is more costly for women, and yet women are slightly more likely to initiate divorces than husbands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behavioral Ecology of the Family)
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Article
Achieving Juvenile Justice through Abolition: A Critical Review of Social Work’s Role in Shaping the Juvenile Legal System and Steps toward Achieving an Antiracist Future
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060211 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
The first juvenile court was created in 1899 with the help of social workers who conceptualized their actions as progressive. Youth were deemed inculpable for certain actions since, cognitively, their brains were not as developed as those of adults. Thus, separate measures were [...] Read more.
The first juvenile court was created in 1899 with the help of social workers who conceptualized their actions as progressive. Youth were deemed inculpable for certain actions since, cognitively, their brains were not as developed as those of adults. Thus, separate measures were created to rehabilitate youth who exhibited delinquent and deviant behavior. Over one hundred years later, we have a system that disproportionately arrests, confines, and displaces Black youth. This paper critiques social work’s role in helping develop the first juvenile courts, while highlighting the failures of the current juvenile legal system. We then use P.I.C. abolition as a theoretical framework to offer guidance on how social work can once again assist in the transformation of the juvenile legal system as a means toward achieving true justice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racial and Ethnic Issues in the Criminal Justice System)
Article
“It’s Not Just about Work and Living Conditions”: The Underestimation of the COVID-19 Pandemic for Black Canadian Women
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060210 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1241
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has increasingly been defined as the shecession for its disproportionate debilitating impact on women. Despite this gendered analysis, a number of health activists have called on governments to account for the experiences of Black communities as they are disproportionately suffering [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increasingly been defined as the shecession for its disproportionate debilitating impact on women. Despite this gendered analysis, a number of health activists have called on governments to account for the experiences of Black communities as they are disproportionately suffering the effects of this pandemic. In the media’s address of the impact of the pandemic, we ask, what experiences are represented in news stories and are Black women present in these representations. Performing a content analysis of 108 news articles, a reading of media discourses through a racial lens reveals a homogenization of women’s experiences and an absence of the Black experience. In the small number of news stories that do focus on Black women, we see that the health disparities are not simply the result of precarious work and living conditions, but also the struggle against anti-Black racism on multiple fronts. In critiquing, however, we also bring forth the small number of news stories on the Black experience that speak to the desire and hope that can thrive outside of white supremacist structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender, Work-Family Interface and Organizational Action)
Article
“Loving Couples and Families:” Assimilation as Honorary Whiteness and the Making of the Vietnamese Refugee Family
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060209 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Integration studies of Vietnamese refugees and their children begin with the problem of assimilation based on cultural and racial difference and ultimately lead these groups to achieve upward mobility against great odds. While scholars have offered alternatives to linear models of assimilation which [...] Read more.
Integration studies of Vietnamese refugees and their children begin with the problem of assimilation based on cultural and racial difference and ultimately lead these groups to achieve upward mobility against great odds. While scholars have offered alternatives to linear models of assimilation which assume a prescribed path to determine when migrants become integrated, the ideologies and norms which underlie the so-called problem of assimilation remain largely unexamined. Building from a feminist and Foucauldian analysis of power, this article examines state-sponsored knowledge production, such as semi-annual government surveys of Vietnamese refugees as representations which reproduce and reinforce logics of heteronormativity and white supremacy. I contextualize the production of these social science surveys as legibility projects in the geopolitical context of international (Cold War) and domestic (state attempts to dismantle black power movements through civil rights) maintenance of white supremacy. By examining self-sufficiency surveys of Vietnamese refugees conducted upon arrival to the US from the 1970s–1980s and 1990s studies of the second generation, I argue that the family is an instrumental yet overlooked dimension of the racialization of Vietnamese as new immigrants which is rooted in heteronormative, Orientalist, and anti-black notions of family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigration and White Supremacy in the 21st Century)
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Article
Exploring the Role of the Workplace in Experiences of Commuter Stress: A Mixed-Method Study from Sofia, Bulgaria
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060208 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Several studies have argued that the effects of commuter stress spill into other domains of everyday life, including the workplace. However, the entanglements between commuter stress and the workplace are complex and multidirectional. Commuter stresses both shapes and is shaped by managerial policies, [...] Read more.
Several studies have argued that the effects of commuter stress spill into other domains of everyday life, including the workplace. However, the entanglements between commuter stress and the workplace are complex and multidirectional. Commuter stresses both shapes and is shaped by managerial policies, workplace social relations, and the negotiations of working schedules. The present paper explores these interconnections. Drawing on a survey of 281 office-based employees in 27 companies in Sofia, Bulgaria, the paper demonstrates how the characteristics of individuals and individual journeys are important in shaping commuter stress but not exclusively so. In examining the significance of the workplace in relation to commuter stress, the paper differentiates between the geographical location of the workplace and the employing organisation, thus offering a granular understanding of spatial (e.g., the quality of the public spaces surrounding the office) and organisational (e.g., managerial decisions regarding parking) factors. The paper highlights the social and spatial constraints within which commutes are carried out, thus emphasising the role of employers and local government in what is often understood in terms of individual travel choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Promotion, Public Health, and Built Environment)
Article
Does Intercultural Contact Increase Anti-Racist Behavior on Social Network Sites?
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(6), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060207 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Empirical attention on online intercultural contact and prejudice reduction are increasing. Nevertheless, still little is known on processes that could influence the contact–prejudice relation as well as the relation between online contact and anti-racist behavior. Based on literature on intergroup contact, the present [...] Read more.
Empirical attention on online intercultural contact and prejudice reduction are increasing. Nevertheless, still little is known on processes that could influence the contact–prejudice relation as well as the relation between online contact and anti-racist behavior. Based on literature on intergroup contact, the present study aims to fill these gaps, focusing on online intergroup relationships between people from different countries. Specifically, it examines whether and to what extent empathic feelings and online community commitment mediate the relationship between online intergroup contact and both perceived ethnic discrimination and anti-racist behavior on Facebook. We collected data from a predominantly Italian sample of 1018 Facebook users (Mage = 30.03, SDage = 11.09; females: 80.01%); participants filled in an online questionnaire. A semi-full Structural Equation Modeling was used to test hypotheses. The results confirmed that when intergroup contact was established, such contact was able to increase the sense of being committed to the online community, which increased the perception of online discrimination towards ethnic and racial minorities, which in turn was able to increase the anti-racist behavior. The ambivalent role of the empathy in online contexts will be discussed. Full article
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