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Soc. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 40 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Many workers (employees and self-employed), in Maghreb countries, work informally without any social security coverage. There are two theoretical lenses through which one can view informality: exclusion and exit. The first lens argues that informal employment is made up of workers who are pushed into it because of entry barriers to the formal sector, and the second lens views informal employment as workers who voluntarily choose it. The former assumption is used to inform state effectiveness in delivering welfare, and the latter tells us much about state legitimacy. This article confirms the heterogeneity of the informal labor market in three Maghreb countries. Furthermore, it highlights the profiles of workers who voluntarily choose informality, an aspect that is missing from previous studies. Finally, this article proposes policy recommendations in order to extend social security to informal workers. [...] Read more.
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Article
Detained during a Pandemic: Human Rights behind Locked Doors
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070276 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Every year, thousands of people are detained in United States immigration detention centers. Built to prison specifications and often run by private companies, these detention centers have long been criticized by academics and advocacy groups. Problems such as overcrowding and lack of access [...] Read more.
Every year, thousands of people are detained in United States immigration detention centers. Built to prison specifications and often run by private companies, these detention centers have long been criticized by academics and advocacy groups. Problems such as overcrowding and lack of access to basic healthcare and legal representation have plagued individuals in detention centers for years. These failings have been illuminated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has disproportionately impacted detained migrants. Against a human rights backdrop, this article will examine how the U.S. immigration detention system has proven even more problematic in the context of the pandemic and offer insights to help avoid similar outcomes in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crimmigration in the Age of COVID-19)
Perspective
Behavioral Ecology of the Family: Harnessing Theory to Better Understand Variation in Human Families
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070275 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Researchers across the social sciences have long been interested in families. How people make decisions such as who to marry, when to have a baby, how big or small a family to have, or whether to stay with a partner or stray are [...] Read more.
Researchers across the social sciences have long been interested in families. How people make decisions such as who to marry, when to have a baby, how big or small a family to have, or whether to stay with a partner or stray are questions that continue to interest economists, sociologists, demographers, and anthropologists. Human families vary across the globe; different cultures have different marriage practices, different ideas about who raises children, and even different notions of what a family is. Human behavioral ecology is a branch of anthropology that is particularly interested in cultural variation of family systems and how these differences impact upon the people that inhabit them; the children, parents, grandparents. It draws on evolutionary theory to direct research and generate testable hypotheses to uncover how different ecologies, including social contexts, can explain diversity in families. In this Special Issue on the behavioral ecology of the family, we have collated a selection of papers that showcase just how useful this framework is for understanding cultural variation in families, which we hope will convince other social scientists interested in family research to draw upon evolutionary and ecological insight in their own work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behavioral Ecology of the Family)
Article
Social Bottom-Up Approaches in Post-COVID-19 Scenario: The AGOGHÈ Project
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070274 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
The AGOGHÈ Project aims to produce innovative and entrepreneurial models following the global socioeconomic changes caused by COVID-19. Its objectives include (i) generating awareness, education and social skills through dedicated ethical workstations and workgroups; (ii) developing a novel figure called “Social Trainer” who [...] Read more.
The AGOGHÈ Project aims to produce innovative and entrepreneurial models following the global socioeconomic changes caused by COVID-19. Its objectives include (i) generating awareness, education and social skills through dedicated ethical workstations and workgroups; (ii) developing a novel figure called “Social Trainer” who represents a professional opportunity for young graduates, able to discuss, explain and guide others through the maze of active citizenship rules. The project was developed in the Quartieri Spagnoli of Naples (Italy). The current manuscript reports preliminary data from the local community collected between November and December 2020. Results provide an insight into the neighbourhood, where the lockdown produced an increment in school dropouts and irreparable economic damage. In conclusion, the approach proposed with the AGOGHÈ Project, fully described here, is predicted to be beneficial in increasing social, cultural and economic aspects in the local area and in facilitating a dialogue between people, stakeholders and governments engaging in novel resolutions for post-COVID-19 crises. Full article
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Article
Relationships of Resource Strategies, Family Composition, and Child Growth in Two Rural Timor-Leste Communities
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070273 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Subsistence and economic activities undertaken by households in the context of transition from subsistence farming to cash economies are sometimes seen as substitutable with only minimal reference to the households themselves. We use data from in-depth interviews of 190 householders in Ossu (mountains) [...] Read more.
Subsistence and economic activities undertaken by households in the context of transition from subsistence farming to cash economies are sometimes seen as substitutable with only minimal reference to the households themselves. We use data from in-depth interviews of 190 householders in Ossu (mountains) and Natarbora (coastal plains), Timor-Leste, to query relationships of family composition, resource strategies, and their relationships to children’s growth. Principal component analyses of six household composition variables reveal “grandparent and fostered-in children”, “two generational households with numerous adults and children”, and “smaller households with few adults and fostered-out children”, explaining 72% of the variance. A similar procedure with 11 resource variables produced four components explaining 56% of resource variance. Households with grandparents have a pension income and engage in large animal husbandry, and are associated with better standardized BMI for resident children. Households with numerous members (but not grandparents) are more invested in subsistence gardening and are negatively associated with child stature. Salaried income is not associated with household composition, but children in these households are taller than their peers. Consistent differences between the two communities are partially a result of differences in socioecology, but there remain unexplained differences that may relate to cultural practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behavioral Ecology of the Family)
Article
Impact of In-School Suspension on Black Girls’ Math Course-Taking in High School
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070272 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Black girls are more likely to receive in-school suspension (ISS) in comparison to their non-Black peers. However, research on the effect of in-school suspension on students’ academic achievement, specifically math achievement of Black girls, is still very limited. Mathematics is an important foundational [...] Read more.
Black girls are more likely to receive in-school suspension (ISS) in comparison to their non-Black peers. However, research on the effect of in-school suspension on students’ academic achievement, specifically math achievement of Black girls, is still very limited. Mathematics is an important foundational component of science, technology, and engineering fields, which are domains in which Black girls are underrepresented. Using the nationally representative Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), this study explores the relationship between in-school suspension and the highest math course completed in a multi-level analysis of 860 Black female participants from 320 high schools. Our findings revealed that in-school suspension was associated with lower mathematics course-taking. Implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racial Justice in Learning Contexts)
Article
Global Spaces for Local Politics: An Exploratory Analysis of Facebook Ads in Spanish Election Campaigns
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070271 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Sponsored content on Facebook has become an indispensable tool for implementing political campaign strategies. However, in political communication research, this channel is still unexplored due to its advertising model in which only target audiences are exposed to sponsored content. The launching of the [...] Read more.
Sponsored content on Facebook has become an indispensable tool for implementing political campaign strategies. However, in political communication research, this channel is still unexplored due to its advertising model in which only target audiences are exposed to sponsored content. The launching of the Facebook Ad Library in May 2018 can be considered a turning point in this regard, inasmuch as it now offers users direct access to ads paid for by political parties, among other advertisers. This paper analyzes some aspects of the strategies implemented by six national parties during the campaigns running up to the two general elections held in Spain in 2019, by performing an analysis on a corpus of 14,684 ads downloaded directly from the Facebook Ad Library. It also provides evidence of the different emphasis placed by the parties on sponsored content. For its part, an analysis of ad scheduling shows how the publishing of ads was stepped up as polling day approached, while also revealing the practice of posting political content way in advance of election campaigns. Full article
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Article
The Distribution and Consequences of Sexual Misconduct Perpetrated by Peacekeepers in Haiti: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070270 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
During the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), reports of sexual abuse and exploitation and children fathered by peacekeepers were brought forward to the UN. In 2017, a cross-sectional mixed-methods survey was administered by Haitian research assistants using SenseMaker® (Cognitive Edge, [...] Read more.
During the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), reports of sexual abuse and exploitation and children fathered by peacekeepers were brought forward to the UN. In 2017, a cross-sectional mixed-methods survey was administered by Haitian research assistants using SenseMaker® (Cognitive Edge, Singapore), a rapid data collection tool that allows participants to share a narrative on a topic of interest. In total, 2541 self-interpreted narratives in relation to the experiences of Haitian women and girls vis-à-vis peacekeepers were collected from a convenience sample of Haitian males and females across Haiti. This exploratory secondary data analysis analyzes whether narratives about sexual misconduct perpetrated by MINUSTAH peacekeepers were associated with rural, semi-urban, or urban locations and investigates the relationship between sharing narratives about sexual misconduct and the desire to engage with the UN/MINUSTAH. After adjustment, narratives addressing sexual misconduct were more likely to be shared in rural locations, compared to urban locations (RRrural: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.38). Personal experiences of sexual misconduct were more likely (RRsex: 4.52; 95% CI: 3.34, 6.12) to be associated with rejection of the UN/MINUSTAH, compared to personal narratives of positive/neutral experiences. This research is an empirical steppingstone to understanding the distribution and consequences of peacekeeper-perpetrated sexual abuse and exploitation in Haiti. Full article
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Article
The Socio-Educational Adaptation of Secondary School Migrant Students in Sicily: Migrant Generation, School Linguistic Mediation and Teacher Proactivity Factors
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070269 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the implications of linguistic mediation processes and educational proactivity in schools for the socio-educational adaptation of immigrant students. The study is based on empirical research and the perspectives of the main actors: the immigrant students themselves. To this [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the implications of linguistic mediation processes and educational proactivity in schools for the socio-educational adaptation of immigrant students. The study is based on empirical research and the perspectives of the main actors: the immigrant students themselves. To this end, a non-experimental and descriptive quantitative methodology was used. The sample consisted of 100 students of foreign origin enrolled in an Italian school located in a typical socio-cultural environment. The results show significant differences in linguistic mediation and socio-educational variables and differences in expectations of progress and social adaptation of students born outside Italy vis-a-vis students who, although born in Italy, are still considered foreigners. It will also analyze teaching proactivity as a communication facilitator for first-generation immigrant pupils born outside Italy. In conclusion, it is noted that, to favor multicultural environments where all students, regardless of their origin, feel accepted, integrated, and welcomed, it is necessary to utilize all available resources to promote improvements in teaching-learning processes and strengthen social relations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section International Migration)
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Article
The Participation of Children and Adolescents in the Protection System: The Case of the Spanish Legislation
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070268 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Children’s right to participation is enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), specifically in Article 12; however, the participation of children in the protection system continues to be a challenge. There is a need for a paradigm shift, in [...] Read more.
Children’s right to participation is enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), specifically in Article 12; however, the participation of children in the protection system continues to be a challenge. There is a need for a paradigm shift, in which children and adolescents (CA) are considered as active subjects of rights in all areas of their lives, and that means allowing them to participate in decisions that concern them. The study analysed 20 Spanish laws, both national and autonomous, that regulate child protection and the rights of CA in the protection system. It focuses on examining the participation of children in the protection system, divided into its three dimensions: the right to be informed, the right to be heard and the right to be involved. There is complexity in the different regulations. All of them are consistent with the CRC and provide for participation, but not all to the same extent. There is a lack of harmonisation between the legislation of autonomous communities, leading to practical difficulties for the professionals who have to implement the legislation on a daily basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child-Centric Approaches in Theory, Policy and Practice)
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Article
Youth Violence and Human Security in Nigeria
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070267 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
The failures of governance and statehood in Nigeria breed an anarchical or disruptive system in the state and provide a platform for youth violence and justification for disruptive behaviour against the state systems and structures. Contributing to the available research, this study shifts [...] Read more.
The failures of governance and statehood in Nigeria breed an anarchical or disruptive system in the state and provide a platform for youth violence and justification for disruptive behaviour against the state systems and structures. Contributing to the available research, this study shifts its focus to understand and address the linkage of disruptive behaviour by studying and discussing Human Security through the lens of youth violence in Nigeria. In doing so, this study adopts a mixed method approach of quantitative and qualitative data with Ted Robert Gurr’s theory of relative deprivation to investigate, analyse and discuss the issues herein. From the findings, cultism and ethnic factors were identified as major causes of youth violence among others. Thus, effective institutions, quality education, economic and security regional or geopolitical zones programs is noted as a means to address youth violence in Nigeria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Criminal Behavior and Young Adult)
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Article
Social Security Enrollment as an Indicator of State Fragility and Legitimacy: A Field Experiment in Maghreb Countries
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070266 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
State legitimacy and effectiveness can be observed in the state’s approach to delivering welfare to citizens, thus mitigating social grievances and avoiding conflicts. Social security systems in the Maghreb countries are relatively similar in their architecture and aim to provide social insurance to [...] Read more.
State legitimacy and effectiveness can be observed in the state’s approach to delivering welfare to citizens, thus mitigating social grievances and avoiding conflicts. Social security systems in the Maghreb countries are relatively similar in their architecture and aim to provide social insurance to all the workers in the labor market. However, they suffer from the same main problem: a low rate of enrollment of workers. Many workers (employees and self-employed) work informally without any social security coverage. The issue of whether informal jobs are chosen voluntarily by workers or as a strategy of last resort is controversial. Many authors recognize that the informal sector is heterogeneous and assume that it is made up of (1) workers who voluntarily choose it, and (2) others who are pushed into it because of entry barriers to the formal sector. The former assumption tells us much about state legitimacy/attractiveness, and the latter is used to inform state effectiveness in delivering welfare. Using the Sahwa survey and discrete choice models, this article confirms the heterogeneity of the informal labor market in three Maghreb countries: Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Furthermore, this article highlights the profiles of workers who voluntarily choose informality, an aspect that is missing from previous studies. Finally, this article proposes policy recommendations in order to extend social security to informal workers and to include them in the formal labor market. Full article
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Article
Psychological and Gender Differences in a Simulated Cheating Coercion Situation at School
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070265 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1768
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze gender, anxiety, and psychological inflexibility differences of high school students’ behaviors in a simulated situation of peer coercion into academic cheating. Method: A total of 1147 volunteer adolescents participated, (Men: N = 479; Mage = 16.3; Women: N [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze gender, anxiety, and psychological inflexibility differences of high school students’ behaviors in a simulated situation of peer coercion into academic cheating. Method: A total of 1147 volunteer adolescents participated, (Men: N = 479; Mage = 16.3; Women: N = 668; Mage = 16.2). The participants saw 15 s animated online video presenting peer coercion into an academic cheating situation, including a questionnaire about their reactions to face the situation. They also answered the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for children and adolescents and the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y). Gender was associated with the behaviors facing the situation. Higher state anxiety and inflexibility were present in those participants that avoided aggressive behaviors facing the situation; on the other hand, trait anxiety was present in those who reacted aggressively. Finally, higher anxiety and inflexibility were associated with the used moral disengagement mechanisms, but also with peers’ perception as sanctioning or being against the participants’ decision. The most aggressive students were more flexible and less stressed than those who tried to solve assertively. Expectations about peers seem to be relevant to the decision-making facing moral dilemmas and peer victimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Violence, Victimization and Prevention)
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Article
From the Inquisition Pyre to Insertion into the Church: The Familial and Social Trajectory of Hernando Ortiz, a Jewish Convert in the Spanish Empire in the 16th Century
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070264 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1393
Abstract
This is a study of the trajectory of a Jewish converso who had a brilliant career at the University of Mexico in the 16th century: he received degrees from the faculties of arts, theology and law and was a professor for more than [...] Read more.
This is a study of the trajectory of a Jewish converso who had a brilliant career at the University of Mexico in the 16th century: he received degrees from the faculties of arts, theology and law and was a professor for more than 28 years. He gained prestige and earned the respect of his fellow citizens, participated in monarchical politics and was an active member of his society, becoming the elected bishop of Guatemala. However, when he tried to become a judge of the Inquisition, a thorough investigation revealed his Jewish ancestry back in the Iberian Peninsula, causing his career to come to a halt. Further inquiry revealed that his grandmother had been burned by the Inquisition and accused of being a Judaizer around 1481; his nephews and nieces managed, in 1625, to obtain a letter from the Inquisition vouching for the “cleanliness of blood” of the family. Furthermore, the nephews founded an entailed estate in Oaxaca and forbade the heir of the entail to marry into the Jewish community. The university was a factor that facilitated their integration, but the Inquisition reminded them of its limits. The nephews denied their ancestors and became part of the society of New Spain. We have here a well-documented case that represents the possible existence of many others. Full article
Case Report
The Dialectic of Transnational Integration and National Disintegration as Challenge for Multilevel Governance
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070263 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
A large number of studies have detected that within the EU multilevel governance there is a transformation toward a hybrid knowledge co-production that overcomes traditional categories such as locality or embeddedness. There, a sort of sustainable decision-making knowledge is co-developed and theoretically supposed [...] Read more.
A large number of studies have detected that within the EU multilevel governance there is a transformation toward a hybrid knowledge co-production that overcomes traditional categories such as locality or embeddedness. There, a sort of sustainable decision-making knowledge is co-developed and theoretically supposed to be applied top-down on the national level of EU member states. However, in practice such processes of unification are always associated with a risk of limited compliance with specific national situations and with a specific national “world of relevancies”. Despite the rise in popularity of these top-down initiatives within international policy levels, there is a lack of studies that empirically analyze how national policy systems respond to these global standardization approaches. Therefore, the central aim of this study is twofold: Based on an exemplary case of an international information system co-produced by an expert group of the European Commission, it first reconstructs whether and how transnational information is integrated on the national policy level. Second, it elucidates factors limiting an application. The results show that this international knowledge system was used for basal purposes and was mainly challenged by non-compliance with national specificities and the existence of alternative knowledge sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
Article
The Fragile Axes of Life: A Capability Approach Perspective towards Graduates’ Education–Job Mismatches and Subjective Well-Being
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070262 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Using the capability approach as a theoretical framework, this article aims to: (1) explore how subjective individual well-being differs among higher education graduates and especially to what extent it is associated with graduates’ vertical education–job mismatches; (2) reveal the embeddedness of the link [...] Read more.
Using the capability approach as a theoretical framework, this article aims to: (1) explore how subjective individual well-being differs among higher education graduates and especially to what extent it is associated with graduates’ vertical education–job mismatches; (2) reveal the embeddedness of the link between graduates’ vertical education–job mismatches and subjective well-being in different socio-economic contexts; and (3) outline some policy implications of the analysis undertaken. It argues that vertical education–job mismatch among graduates has an important influence on experiences of the benefits that come from higher education. By analysing micro-level data from the European Social Survey, carried out in 2012 and macro-level data for 24 European countries via descriptive statistics and multilevel regression, the study shows that education–job mismatch is associated with capability deprivation, as graduates who are vertically mismatched have less interest in what they are doing, feel less autonomous and competent, and are less confident that they are leading a meaningful life or being treated with respect by others in comparison to those graduates who are employed in jobs which correspond to their level of education. The article also provides evidence that the association between graduates’ education–job mismatches and individual subjective well-being is embedded in different socio-economic contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Economic Implications of Skill and Educational Mismatch)
Article
The Effects of Race and Ethnicity on Admission, Graduation, and Recidivism in the Milwaukee County Adult Drug Treatment Court
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070261 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1841
Abstract
Drug courts play a key role in the criminal justice system by diverting individuals from incarceration and providing them with resources to address substance use issues and reduce criminal recidivism. However, it is unclear whether drug courts reflect—or even exacerbate—preexisting racial/ethnic disparities in [...] Read more.
Drug courts play a key role in the criminal justice system by diverting individuals from incarceration and providing them with resources to address substance use issues and reduce criminal recidivism. However, it is unclear whether drug courts reflect—or even exacerbate—preexisting racial/ethnic disparities in the criminal justice system. While prior literature has offered some insight into the influence of race and ethnicity on drug court success, much of the focus has been on outcomes (i.e., program completion and recidivism) rather than disparities at earlier stages (i.e., referral to admittance). The current study adds to this body of research by evaluating the Milwaukee County Adult Drug Treatment Court to examine whether racial/ethnic disparities exist at several stages of the drug court process: (1) referral to admittance, (2) likelihood of graduation, and (3) likelihood of recidivism. Results of the analyses determined racial/ethnic disparities in the likelihood of admission to the drug court, as well as the likelihood of graduation. There were no racial/ethnic disparities found in the likelihood of recidivism. The analyses also identified several additional variables that were influential in the likelihood of admission (risk score, prior record), likelihood of graduation (age, prior record, custody sanctions), and recidivism (drug court outcome). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racial and Ethnic Issues in the Criminal Justice System)
Article
Historical Context Changes Pathways of Parental Influence on Reproduction: An Empirical Test from 20th-Century Sweden
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070260 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
Several studies have found that parental absences in childhood are associated with individuals’ reproductive strategies later in life. However, these associations vary across populations and the reasons for this heterogeneity remain debated. In this paper, we examine the diversity of parental associations in [...] Read more.
Several studies have found that parental absences in childhood are associated with individuals’ reproductive strategies later in life. However, these associations vary across populations and the reasons for this heterogeneity remain debated. In this paper, we examine the diversity of parental associations in three ways. First, we test whether different kinds of parental availability in childhood and adolescence are associated with women’s and men’s ages at first birth using the intergenerational and longitudinal Uppsala Birth Cohort Study (UBCoS) dataset from Sweden. This cultural context provides a strong test of the hypothesis that parents influence life history strategies given that robust social safety nets may buffer parental absences. Second, we examine whether investments in education help explain why early parental presence is associated with delayed ages at first birth in many post-industrial societies, given that parents often support educational achievement. Third, we compare parental associations with reproductive timing across two adjacent generations in Sweden. This historical contrast allows us to control for many sources of heterogeneity while examining whether changing educational access and norms across the 20th-century change the magnitude and pathways of parental influence. We find that parental absences tend to be associated with earlier first births, and more reliably so for women. Many of these associations are partially mediated by university attendance. However, we also find important differences across cohorts. For example, the associations with paternal death become similar for sons and daughters in the more recent cohort. One possible explanation for this finding is that fathers start influencing sons and daughters more similarly. Our results illustrate that historical changes within a population can quickly shift how family affects life history. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behavioral Ecology of the Family)
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Article
The Role of Mindfulness in the Intimate Relationships and Psychological Wellbeing in Emerging Adulthood
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070259 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
Little is known about the impact of mindfulness on psychological wellbeing, anxiety, and avoidance in couple relationships. In emerging adulthood, intimate relationships are associated with life satisfaction and changes that can cause psychological maladjustment. This study seeks to determine if dispositional mindfulness acts [...] Read more.
Little is known about the impact of mindfulness on psychological wellbeing, anxiety, and avoidance in couple relationships. In emerging adulthood, intimate relationships are associated with life satisfaction and changes that can cause psychological maladjustment. This study seeks to determine if dispositional mindfulness acts as a protective variable between psychological wellbeing, anxiety, and avoidance and identify the factors that are protectors. A sample was obtained of 391 young university students between 18 and 25 years old. The Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Ryff Scales of Psychological Wellbeing, and the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale were used. The results show that the highest levels of dispositional mindfulness are associated with greater psychological wellbeing. Dispositional mindfulness cannot act as a protective variable against anxiety and avoidance, and values were non-significant in intimate relationships. It is necessary to continue investigating the most protective facets of mindfulness for both anxiety and avoidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Family Well-Being)
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Article
Employee Preparedness for Industry 4.0 in Logistic Sector: A Cross-National Study between Poland and Malaysia
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070258 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Today we are witnessing a paradigm shift when it comes to the industry. There are chances that Industry 4.0 does not only involve major changes in production and business solutions, but also the ability of many enterprises (mainly production companies) to come closer [...] Read more.
Today we are witnessing a paradigm shift when it comes to the industry. There are chances that Industry 4.0 does not only involve major changes in production and business solutions, but also the ability of many enterprises (mainly production companies) to come closer to developed economies. This article highlights the aspect of creating new business models that integrate organizations around Industry 4.0 solutions and create new value for the client and internal client. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between the implementation of selected Industry 4.0 technologies as well as the knowledge and preparation of employees for changes caused by new solutions, e.g., in the area of the automation and robotization of industry or data and information management. The questionnaire research was conducted among 80 logistics companies in Poland and 80 in Malaysia. Based on the obtained data, a statistical analysis was conducted of the relationships between the above-mentioned variables. The analysis concerned: the employees’ knowledge of the Industry 4.0 paradigm, preparing employees for challenges and the implementation of Industry 4.0 technology. The correlation analysis showed the existence of a statistical relationship between the analysed variables. The analysis of quantitative data showed differences between Poland and Malaysia in terms of employee preparation, their knowledge of Industry 4.0 and activities related to the implementation of specific IR4.0 technologies. The presented analysis relates to one of the analysed areas, therefore it is a contribution to further considerations and comparisons. Full article
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Article
The Charnegroes: Black Africans and the Ontological Conflict in Catalonia
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070257 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 2106
Abstract
This paper frames an in depth reflection on the current social and political changes and the emerging phenomenon of body politics of migrant and racialized groups in Europe. The ongoing discussion aims to address the meaning of “being” Catalan for Black Africans in [...] Read more.
This paper frames an in depth reflection on the current social and political changes and the emerging phenomenon of body politics of migrant and racialized groups in Europe. The ongoing discussion aims to address the meaning of “being” Catalan for Black Africans in Catalonia. It is grounded on a criterion of ontological commitment and the epistemological aspect of ethnography. I dig into the debate about what makes a racial identity salient in the context of national identity rhetoric. I look thoroughly at the outcomes of the encounter between Black African migrants and the constant resignification of Catalan national identity. I aim to disentangle the racial premises and tackle what Black Africans share once the racial questions are removed. My approach stands within the growing field of postcolonial criticism to understand historical continuities and ontological conflicts. I focus on culture, race, and identity to analyze the cultural dynamics of Senegalese migrants and Equatoguinean communities within the national identity building process in Catalonia. I coined a new concept, Charnegroes, to propose a practical explanation of the emergence of body politics and the changing reality of the relationship between the “us” and the “other” under the recurrent transitions between old and new, colonial and postcolonial, the past and the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Racialized Citizenship in Superdiverse Europe)
Article
Analysis of Non-Marital Fertility in Nigeria and Implications for Intervention and Future Research
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070256 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Fertility and marriage are inextricably linked in sub-Saharan Africa, but recent changes, such as the rise in non-marital fertility, signals a weakening link, and the second demographic transition offers some explanations. Non-marital fertility comes with disadvantages, but it has not been adequately studied [...] Read more.
Fertility and marriage are inextricably linked in sub-Saharan Africa, but recent changes, such as the rise in non-marital fertility, signals a weakening link, and the second demographic transition offers some explanations. Non-marital fertility comes with disadvantages, but it has not been adequately studied in Nigeria. Hence, this study examined the levels, patterns, and correlates of non-marital fertility, and offers implications for interventions and future research. Using data from the Nigeria Demographic and Survey 2008–2018, with a pooled weighted sample size of 11,925 unmarried women, percentage distribution was employed and a two-part model for count data was fitted, with the result showing that the level of non-marital fertility is 29%, and it is common among younger, rural dwelling, and uneducated unmarried women. The correlates of non-marital fertility include age, region of residence, level of education, religion, household wealth index, relationship status, ethnicity, work status, and age at sexual debut. Interventions to arrest rise of non-martial fertility due to its obvious disadvantages, should strengthen sexual and reproductive health programs for unmarried rural-dwelling young women, and revitalize welfare efforts for children born outside wedlock, for poor women, while future research should explore an in-depth understanding of non-marital births. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
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Review
Indigenous Meanings of Provenance in the Context of Alternative Food Movements and Supply-Chain Traceability: A Review
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070255 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
This article reviews the concept of provenance from both contemporary and traditional aspects. The incorporation of indigenous meanings and conceptualizations of belonging into provenance are explored. First, we consider how the gradual transformation of marketplaces into market and consumer activism catalyzed the [...] Read more.
This article reviews the concept of provenance from both contemporary and traditional aspects. The incorporation of indigenous meanings and conceptualizations of belonging into provenance are explored. First, we consider how the gradual transformation of marketplaces into market and consumer activism catalyzed the need for provenance. Guided by this, we discuss the meaning of provenance from an indigenous and non-indigenous rationale. Driven by the need for a qualitative understanding of food, the scholarship has utilized different epistemologies to demonstrate how authentic connections are cultivated and protected by animistic approaches. As a tool to mobilize place, we suggest that provenance should be embedded in the immediate local context. Historic place-based indigenous knowledge systems, values, and lifeways should be seen as a model for new projects. This review offers a comprehensive collection of research material with emphasis on a variety of fields including anthropology, economic geography, sociology, and biology, which clarifies the meaning of provenance in alternative food systems. It questions the current practices of spatial confinement by stakeholders and governments that are currently applied to the concepts of provenance in foods, and instead proposes a holistic approach to understand both indigenous and non-indigenous ideologies but with an emphasis on Maori culture and its perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Studies and Sociology)
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Article
Effects of Reconstruction Planning on the Utility of Social Capital in Minamisanriku, Miyagi after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070254 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1647
Abstract
This mixed-methods community-based participatory research project is set in the rural coastal community of Minamisanriku, Miyagi. Ten years after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, this study investigates whether and to what extent social capital acts as an asset to drive economic growth, [...] Read more.
This mixed-methods community-based participatory research project is set in the rural coastal community of Minamisanriku, Miyagi. Ten years after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, this study investigates whether and to what extent social capital acts as an asset to drive economic growth, recovery, collaboration, and decision making for residents to address social and economic problems as they perceive them. The connection between reconstruction planning and recovery is also investigated. Primary data collection methods include a conceptual social capital mapping exercise (n = 200) to document resident bonding, bridging, and linking capital relationships (n = 1994), and semi-structured interviews (n = 70) to capture how residents with high linking capital do or do not utilize it. Participant observation and secondary data analysis contextualized resident maps and interviews. Overall, the study results suggest that the utility of social capital is highly sensitive to the cultural norms of social and power hierarchies, that it fortifies in group–out group dynamics, and enables residents to address immediate needs, but lacks the ability to enable residents to use the resources and information entrenched in their social networks and other structures effectively due to intermediating issues of unequal development of social and economic infrastructure across districts and other community disparities that emerge through the reconstruction process. Full article
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Article
Gender Differences in Social Networks Based on Prevailing Kinship Norms in the Mosuo of China
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070253 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Although cooperative social networks are considered key to human evolution, emphasis has usually been placed on the functions of men’s cooperative networks. What do women’s networks look like? Do they differ from men’s networks and what does this suggest about evolutionarily inherited gender [...] Read more.
Although cooperative social networks are considered key to human evolution, emphasis has usually been placed on the functions of men’s cooperative networks. What do women’s networks look like? Do they differ from men’s networks and what does this suggest about evolutionarily inherited gender differences in reproductive and social strategies? In this paper, we test the ‘universal gender differences’ hypothesis positing gender-specific network structures against the ‘gender reversal’ hypothesis that posits that women’s networks look more ‘masculine’ under matriliny. Specifically, we ask whether men’s friendship networks are always larger than women’s networks and we investigate measures of centrality by gender and descent system. To do so, we use tools from social network analysis and data on men’s and women’s friendship ties in matrilineal and patrilineal Mosuo communities. In tentative support of the gender reversal hypothesis, we find that women’s friendship networks in matriliny are relatively large. Measures of centrality and generalized linear models otherwise reveal greater differences between communities than between men and women. The data and analyses we present are primarily descriptive given limitations of sample size and sampling strategy. Nonetheless, our results provide support for the flexible application of social relationships across genders and clearly challenge the predominant narrative of universal gender differences across space and time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behavioral Ecology of the Family)
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Article
Local vs. International Hamburger Foodservice in the Consumer’s Mind: An Exploratory Study
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070252 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Fast-food chains are everywhere and every day millions of people choose to have a break in a fast-food outlet. However, in recent years some local hamburger foodservice chains outside of the well-known international fast-food chains have found success by leveraging products linked with [...] Read more.
Fast-food chains are everywhere and every day millions of people choose to have a break in a fast-food outlet. However, in recent years some local hamburger foodservice chains outside of the well-known international fast-food chains have found success by leveraging products linked with their territory. How do consumers value the service received in an international, rather than a local, fast-food outlet? This aspect is under-investigated in the literature, but is relevant in order to capture the main and most important differences between the two systems. Through a structured survey, consumers’ perceptions of both international and local hamburger foodservice outlets in the Turin Metropolitan area (Italy) were measured and analysed. The results indicate that consumers generally have a break in an international fast-food restaurant, but the value assigned to local fast-food chains is higher than that assigned to international ones. Specifically, local fast-food chains are appreciated for particular aspects related to the supply chain (animal welfare, ethical and social aspects, the origin of the raw materials, and some other characteristics of the food). The findings contribute to a more in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour, and give an insight into the relevance of the local aspects as opposed to the international ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Studies and Sociology)
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Article
Factors Affecting Women’s Intention to Lead Family Businesses in Mexico
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070251 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1728
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to establish the prevalence of barriers to women’s leadership in the family business in terms of invisibility, the glass ceiling effect, and sexism. We conduct eight semi-structured interviews with women holding leading managerial roles in family businesses [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to establish the prevalence of barriers to women’s leadership in the family business in terms of invisibility, the glass ceiling effect, and sexism. We conduct eight semi-structured interviews with women holding leading managerial roles in family businesses in Mexico to identify the factors that impede/facilitate their involvement. We apply the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in order to determine how these factors support/constrain women in their roles. We find that some factors and circumstances are critical for women to achieve an important leadership role in the family business. These factors entail levels of education and experience, the extent to which women participate in strategic decision making and governance of the firm, as well as the support of the company’s founder and other family members for these women’s efficacy and self-esteem. These results challenge some of the extant findings in the literature, thus enriching the current perspectives on the leadership role of women in family firms. Moreover, this research is the first attempt to analyze impediments to women under the TPB perspective as well as one of the few studies conducted on the topic in Latin America, specifically in Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
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Article
Lost in Transition to Adulthood? Illegalized Male Migrants Navigating Temporal Dispossession
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070250 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1658
Abstract
The so-called ‘refugee crisis’ has been portrayed as an invasion that threatens Europe and calls its sovereignty into question, prompting exceptional emergency responses. These (re)bordering processes highlight Europe’s uneven, discriminatory, and racialized filtering system. European nation-states sort desired and undesired migrants through sets [...] Read more.
The so-called ‘refugee crisis’ has been portrayed as an invasion that threatens Europe and calls its sovereignty into question, prompting exceptional emergency responses. These (re)bordering processes highlight Europe’s uneven, discriminatory, and racialized filtering system. European nation-states sort desired and undesired migrants through sets of precarious administrative statuses that translate into limited access to resources, most notably the formal labor market. European border regimes impose specific spatialities and temporalities on migrants through long-term physical and social deceleration: territorial assignation, enduring unemployment, forced idleness, and protracted periods of waiting. These temporal ruptures interrupt individual biographies and hinder the hopes of a young population seeking a better future. However, some find ways to navigate the socio-spatial deceleration they face. In this paper, I explore how European border regimes affect the trajectory of Sub-Saharan male migrants and how they appropriate such temporal dispossession. I use biographical analysis and participant observations of a squatting organization in a Swiss city to scrutinize the everyday practices and aspirations of a population made illegal and, as a result, denied access to social markers of maturity. I investigate how time intersects with physical, social, and existential im/mobility. I argue that, in navigating spaces of asymmetrical power relationships, impoverished migrants find autonomy in illegality. Neither victimizing nor romanticizing illegalized migrants’ trajectories, this paper offers an ethnographic analysis of the capacities of an impoverished population to challenge European border regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crisis, (Im)mobilities and Young Life Trajectories)
Article
The Association between Dating Apps and Alcohol Consumption in an Italian Sample of Active Users, Former Users, and Non-Users
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070249 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
To date, the relationship between alcohol use and dating app use has been investigated mostly in conjunction with sexual activities and in homosexual men. For this reason, the aim of this study was to explore the association between dating app use and alcohol [...] Read more.
To date, the relationship between alcohol use and dating app use has been investigated mostly in conjunction with sexual activities and in homosexual men. For this reason, the aim of this study was to explore the association between dating app use and alcohol consumption among the general population. A cross-sectional study was conducted including app users, non-users, and former users: 1278 respondents completed an online ad hoc questionnaire assessing dating app use, motivations for installing dating apps, alcohol use, and demographics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was run to investigate the association between dating app use, demographic features, and alcohol consumption. Whereas educational level, age, and gender significantly contributed to the regular consumption of alcohol, dating app use did not account for a significant amount of variance between regular and not regular drinkers. However, people who installed and used dating apps with the motivation of searching for sexual partners were more likely to be regular drinkers. Among the active users, heavy app users were less likely to drink regularly. The study indicates that underlying factors (sexual aspects, motives for using the apps) and the intensity of using the apps may mediate the relationship between dating app use and alcohol use. Full article
Article
Considering COVID-19 through the Lens of Hazard and Disaster Research
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070248 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Decades of social science research have taught us much about how individuals, groups, and communities respond to disasters. The findings of this research have helped inform emergency management practices, including disaster preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, [...] Read more.
Decades of social science research have taught us much about how individuals, groups, and communities respond to disasters. The findings of this research have helped inform emergency management practices, including disaster preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, most of us—researchers or not—have attempted or are attempting to make sense of what is going on around us. In this article, we assert that we need not examine the pandemic in a vacuum; rather, we can draw upon scholarly and practical sources to inform our thinking about this 21st century catastrophe. The pandemic has provided an “unfortunate opportunity” to revisit what we know about disaster phenomena, including catastrophes, and to reconsider the findings of research from over the years. Drawing upon academic research, media sources, and our own observations, we focus on the U.S. and employ disaster characteristics framework of (1) etiology or origins; (2) physical damage characteristics; (3) disaster phases or cycles; (4) vulnerability; (5) community impacts; and (6) individual impacts to examine perspectives about the ways in which the ongoing pandemic is both similar and dissimilar to conceptualizations about the social dimensions of hazards and disasters. We find that the COVID-19 pandemic is not merely a disaster; rather, it is a catastrophe. Full article
Article
Disrupted Care Continuity: Testing Associations between Social Networks and Transition Success for Children with Autism
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(7), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10070247 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
Children with autism situated in lower income families often receive intensive educational interventions as their primary form of treatment, due to financial barriers for community interventions. However, the continuity of care can be disrupted by school transitions. The quality of social relationships during [...] Read more.
Children with autism situated in lower income families often receive intensive educational interventions as their primary form of treatment, due to financial barriers for community interventions. However, the continuity of care can be disrupted by school transitions. The quality of social relationships during the transition to a new school among parents, school staff and community providers, called the team-around-the-child (TAC), can potentially buffer a child with autism from the adverse effects caused by care disruptions. Qualities of social relationships, including trust and collaborative problem solving, can be measured using social network analysis. This study investigates if two different types of TAC relationships, defined as (1) the level of trust among team members and (2) the degree of collaborative problem solving among team members, are associated with perceived successful transitions for children with autism from lower income families. Findings suggested that TAC trust is significantly associated with the outcome of transition success for children with autism immediately post-transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Ties and Health Outcomes)
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