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Sports, Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 18 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We compared the effects of two eight-week, home-based, and single-exercise strengthening regimes in [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Strategies and Solutions for Team Sports Athletes in Isolation due to COVID-19
Sports 2020, 8(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040056 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4578
Abstract
In December of 2019, there was an outbreak of a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) in China. The virus rapidly spread into the whole World causing an unprecedented pandemic and forcing governments to impose a global [...] Read more.
In December of 2019, there was an outbreak of a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) in China. The virus rapidly spread into the whole World causing an unprecedented pandemic and forcing governments to impose a global quarantine, entering an extreme unknown situation. The organizational consequences of quarantine/isolation are: absence of organized training and competition, lack of communication among athletes and coaches, inability to move freely, lack of adequate sunlight exposure, inappropriate training conditions. Based on the current scientific, we strongly recommend encouraging the athlete to reset their mindset to understand quarantine as an opportunity for development, organizing appropriate guidance, educating and encourage athletes to apply appropriate preventive behavior and hygiene measures to promote immunity and ensuring good living isolation conditions. The athlete’s living space should be equipped with cardio and resistance training equipment (portable bicycle or rowing ergometer). Some forms of body mass resistance circuit-based training could promote aerobic adaptation. Sports skills training should be organized based on the athlete’s needs. Personalized conditioning training should be carried out with emphasis on neuromuscular performance. Athletes should also be educated about nutrition (Vitamin D and proteins) and hydration. Strategies should be developed to control body composition. Mental fatigue should be anticipated and mental controlled. Adequate methods of recovery should be provided. Daily monitoring should be established. This is an ideal situation in which to rethink personal life, understanding the situation, that can be promoted in these difficult times that affect practically the whole world. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Backward Running: Acute Effects on Sprint Performance in Preadolescent Boys
Sports 2020, 8(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040055 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of backward running (BwR) during warm-up on a 20-m sprint of boys’ performance, compared to forward running (FwR). Fourteen recreationally active preadolescent boys (aged 12.5 ± 0.5 years) were examined in 3 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of backward running (BwR) during warm-up on a 20-m sprint of boys’ performance, compared to forward running (FwR). Fourteen recreationally active preadolescent boys (aged 12.5 ± 0.5 years) were examined in 3 protocols: warm-up (control condition), warm-up with 3 × 10 m additional BwR sprints and warm-up with 3 × 10 m additional FwR sprints. Participants were evaluated 4 minutes after each protocol on a 20-m sprint and intermediate distances, as well as the rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Sprint speed across 10-20 m was significantly higher for the BwR warm-up compared to the regular warm-up (p < 0.05) and a significantly higher RPE after the BwR and FwR protocols compared to the control condition was recorded (p < 0.05). No significant difference was detected across the distances 0–5, 5–10, 0–10 and 0–20 m. Although adding 3 × 10-m sprints of BwR or FwR after the warm-up did not enhance performance in a 20 m sprint of preadolescent boys, the positive effect of BwR across 10–20 m distance suggests that BwR could be an alternative means for enhancing performance for certain phases of a sprint for this age. However, preadolescent boys’ response to different sprint conditioning exercise stimuli and the optimization of rest time to maximize performance remain to be determined. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Caffeine Supplementation Does Not Improve Performance in Trained CrossFit® Athletes
Sports 2020, 8(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040054 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Caffeine’s ergogenic effects persist during various exercise modalities; however, information establishing its efficacy during CrossFit® protocols is limited. This study aimed to determine the effects of caffeine supplementation on CrossFit® performance. Twenty CrossFit®-trained men (age = 26.7 ± 6.2 [...] Read more.
Caffeine’s ergogenic effects persist during various exercise modalities; however, information establishing its efficacy during CrossFit® protocols is limited. This study aimed to determine the effects of caffeine supplementation on CrossFit® performance. Twenty CrossFit®-trained men (age = 26.7 ± 6.2 years, experience = 3.7 ± 2.9 years) were randomized in a double-blind, crossover design. Participants completed two sessions separated by a seven-day washout period, 60 min after consuming 5 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo. In each session, participants completed as many rounds as possible in 20 min of five pull-ups, 10 push-ups, and 15 air squats. CrossFit® performance was the total number of repetitions completed in 20 min. Paired-samples t-tests were used to compare CrossFit® performance between caffeine and placebo conditions and to test for a potential learning effect between the first and second sessions. CrossFit® performance was not significantly different during the caffeine condition compared to the placebo (468.6 ± 114.7 vs. 466.7 ± 94.3 repetitions, p = 0.861). A significant learning effect was identified between the first and second sessions (452.4 ± 101 vs. 483.8 ± 106.5 repetitions, p = 0.001), with no significant effect of treatment order (p = 0.438). Caffeine’s ergogenic effect were not present during the CrossFit® workout “Cindy”; however, future research should include familiarization sessions and examine other CrossFit® workouts in novice and women participants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Presenting Health Status in Children Using a Radar Plot
Sports 2020, 8(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040053 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Background: To try out the feasibility of presenting the health status of children 6 to 12 years old by using radar plots. Methods: With data from the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) we have described the health status for 1340 children aged 6 [...] Read more.
Background: To try out the feasibility of presenting the health status of children 6 to 12 years old by using radar plots. Methods: With data from the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) we have described the health status for 1340 children aged 6 to 12 years. We collected or calculated: stature, body mass, waist circumference, waist to height ratio, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol concentration, blood pressure, accelerometer assessed physical activity, endurance interval running performance, and quality of life. Pertinent variables were presented through a radar plot for both individual cases and groups. Results: The boys showed better endurance and recorded more moderate to vigorous physical activity than the girls. The activity level dropped from age 6 to age 12 for both sexes. The girls showed a lower systolic blood pressure compared with boys. Self-rated quality of life was high among boys and girls. Conclusions: This cohort showed good health and the radar plot made it easy to visualise health status for groups and individuals. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of One Versus Two Doses of a Multi-Ingredient Pre-Workout Supplement on Metabolic Factors and Perceived Exertion during Moderate-Intensity Running in Females
Sports 2020, 8(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040052 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 706
Abstract
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of one versus two doses of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement on energy expenditure during moderate-intensity treadmill running. In addition, our second aim was to investigate the responses of associated metabolic factors [...] Read more.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of one versus two doses of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement on energy expenditure during moderate-intensity treadmill running. In addition, our second aim was to investigate the responses of associated metabolic factors (i.e., substrate utilization, measures of gas exchange), perceived exertion, and resting cardiovascular variables with one and two doses of the pre-workout supplement. Twelve females (mean ± SD: age = 25.3 ± 9.4 years; body mass = 61.2 ± 6.8 kg) completed three bouts of 30 min of treadmill running at 90% of their ventilatory threshold on separate days after consuming one dose of the pre-workout supplement (1-dose), two doses (2-dose), and a placebo. There were no differences among conditions for energy expenditure, fat or carbohydrate oxidation, respiratory exchange ratio, oxygen consumption, or heart rate across exercise time. The two-dose group, however, had lower (p = 0.036) ratings of perceived exertion (11.8 ± 1.7) than the one-dose (12.6 ± 1.7) and the placebo (12.3 ± 1.2) at the 20-min time point of exercise as well as greater resting systolic blood pressure (110 ± 10 mmHg) compared to the one-dose (106 ± 10 mmHg) and the placebo (104 ± 10 mmHg) conditions. Both the one-dose and two-dose conditions had greater increases in diastolic blood pressure compared to the placebo. Thus, our findings indicated that the present pre-workout supplement had no performance-enhancing benefits related to energy metabolism but did attenuate feelings of exertion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability of Change of Direction and Agility Assessments in Youth Soccer Players
Sports 2020, 8(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040051 - 18 Apr 2020
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Considering the vast physical and neural developments experienced throughout adolescence, the reliability of physical performance may vary in youth populations. This study aimed to examine the reliability of change of direction (COD) and agility tests in youth soccer players. Altogether, 86 youth soccer [...] Read more.
Considering the vast physical and neural developments experienced throughout adolescence, the reliability of physical performance may vary in youth populations. This study aimed to examine the reliability of change of direction (COD) and agility tests in youth soccer players. Altogether, 86 youth soccer players, aged 13.6 ± 2.0 years, volunteered to participate. Data were collected from a modified 505 COD test (m505COD) and the Y-sprint drill in both pre-planned (Y-SprintPRE) and reactive (Y-SprintREACT) conditions during 2 sessions, 7 days apart. Anthropometric data including body mass, standing stature, and sitting height were also collected. COD and agility tests demonstrated good reliability (ICC = 0.81–0.91; CV = 1.2–2.0; d = 0.00–0.31; p < 0.01) for our entire sample. However, we observed a small negative relationship between age and intersession differences for the Y-SprintPRE (r = −0.28; p = 0.04), and moderate negative relationships between both age (r = −0.41; p < 0.01), and maturity offset (r = −0.39; p < 0.01) for the Y-SprintREACT. Although the COD and agility tests adopted within this study possess good intersession reliability, we observed greater intersession differences for younger and less mature individuals. We suggest that while COD and agility tests may provide meaningful objective data for monitoring the development of youth soccer players, these tests should be used with caution when evaluating younger, more immature athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Development of Change of Direction Speed and Agility)
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Open AccessEditorial
Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context
Sports 2020, 8(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040050 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Outdoor and adventure sports (OAS) have been linked to positive health and wellbeing outcomes. This Special Edition brings together cutting-edge research and thought on the implications of this link. An analysis of the papers in this Special Edition reveals important insights into (i) [...] Read more.
Outdoor and adventure sports (OAS) have been linked to positive health and wellbeing outcomes. This Special Edition brings together cutting-edge research and thought on the implications of this link. An analysis of the papers in this Special Edition reveals important insights into (i) the diverse and powerful outcomes derived from adventure experiences, (ii) how adventure experiences facilitate these outcomes, (iii) how best to design outdoor and adventure experiences. The evidence in this edition indicates a need for a more systematic approach to the inclusion of OAS as important to good health and wellbeing. OAS should be included as part of education, health, policy and planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
Open AccessArticle
The Federated Practice of Soccer Influences Hamstring Flexibility in Healthy Adolescents: Role of Age and Weight Status
Sports 2020, 8(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040049 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 418
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the hamstring flexibility between federated soccer and non-federated adolescents, and also to evaluate the effect of age and weight status on hamstring flexibility. The participants were 234 students (11–18 years old) divided into: (i) G1: [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the hamstring flexibility between federated soccer and non-federated adolescents, and also to evaluate the effect of age and weight status on hamstring flexibility. The participants were 234 students (11–18 years old) divided into: (i) G1: non-federated (n = 127), and (ii) G2: federated in soccer (n = 107). The deep flexion of the trunk (DF) test and the sit and reach test (SRT) were performed. G2 showed higher values for the DF and SRT compared to G1 (p < 0.05). Both flexibility tests correlated positively (r = 0.4, p < 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with the DF test (r = −0.3, p < 0.001), but not with the SRT. Divided by BMI, the underweight and normal weight groups had higher scores in the DF test compared with the overweight and obese groups (p < 0.001). BMI was negatively correlated with hamstring flexibility. Federated soccer students present higher scores of hamstring flexibility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Traditional versus an Alternative Strengthening Exercise Program on Shoulder Pain, Function and Physical Performance in Individuals with Subacromial Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Sports 2020, 8(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040048 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1232
Abstract
A manual shoulder-training device may represent an alternative training device to improve symptoms and function in patients with subacromial shoulder pain by strengthening the external rotators. Thus, we examined the effects of a traditional versus an alternative strengthening exercise program on shoulder pain/function [...] Read more.
A manual shoulder-training device may represent an alternative training device to improve symptoms and function in patients with subacromial shoulder pain by strengthening the external rotators. Thus, we examined the effects of a traditional versus an alternative strengthening exercise program on shoulder pain/function and physical performance in individuals with subacromial shoulder pain. Fifty-six adults with subacromial shoulder pain were randomly assigned to a passive control group (CON; n = 20), a traditional training group (TRA; n = 19), or an alternative training group (ALT; n = 17). Both training groups conducted a progressive home-based strengthening exercise program for the external rotators for eight weeks using elastic bands only (TRA group) or in combination with the shoulder-training device (Schulterhilfe®) (ALT group). Pre- and post-training assessment included measures of shoulder pain/function (i.e., shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI)) and physical performance (i.e., shoulder flexibility, maximal isometric strength, and strength endurance). We found significant test × group interactions in most of the investigated variables. Post hoc analyses showed significant training-related improvements for proxies of shoulder pain/function, shoulder flexibility, maximal isometric strength, and strength endurance in favor of the ALT and TRA group in comparison to the CON group. Further, larger and more frequent effects were found for the ALT compared to the TRA group. Measures of shoulder pain/function and physical performance can be significantly improved by both training regimens in individuals with subacromial shoulder pain. However, strength training using elastic bands with the manual shoulder device (ALT group) as compared to elastic bands (TRA group) only was more effective and may thus be a recommendable alternative in order to mitigate subacromial shoulder pain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship of Performance Measures and Muscle Activity between a 180° Change of Direction Task and Different Countermovement Jumps
Sports 2020, 8(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040047 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 531
Abstract
The ability to rapidly perform change of direction (COD) is crucial for performance in Soccer. COD speed is thought to share similarities with countermovement jumps in kinematics and muscle activation. Thus, the objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between [...] Read more.
The ability to rapidly perform change of direction (COD) is crucial for performance in Soccer. COD speed is thought to share similarities with countermovement jumps in kinematics and muscle activation. Thus, the objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activities in performance measures of a modified 505-agility test and different countermovement jumps. Twenty-one experienced soccer players performed a COD test including the 505-agility test and uni- and bi-lateral horizontal and vertical countermovement jumps. The main findings were that the vertical bilateral and horizontal unilateral countermovement jump were able to predict total time to complete the COD, but not 505-agility time. Muscle activity in the COD and countermovement jumps was only distinguished by a higher peak muscle activity for the adductor longus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris in the COD to stabilize the hip and decelerate knee joint movements when turning compared with the jumps. Conclusively, the relationship between performance in countermovement jumps and total time to complete the COD test was due to longer sprint distances, which makes the distinction between performances bigger. Peak muscle activity of most muscles is similar between the jumps and the COD step, indicating similar muscular demands between these activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Development of Change of Direction Speed and Agility)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
“Paralympic Brain”. Compensation and Reorganization of a Damaged Human Brain with Intensive Physical Training
Sports 2020, 8(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040046 - 07 Apr 2020
Viewed by 701
Abstract
The main aim of the study was to evaluate how the brain of a Paralympic athlete with severe disability due to cerebral palsy has reorganized after continuous training geared to enhance performance. Both corticospinal excitability of upper-limb muscles and electromyographic activity during swimming [...] Read more.
The main aim of the study was to evaluate how the brain of a Paralympic athlete with severe disability due to cerebral palsy has reorganized after continuous training geared to enhance performance. Both corticospinal excitability of upper-limb muscles and electromyographic activity during swimming were investigated for a Paralympic gold medalist in swimming competitions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the affected and intact hand motor cortical area revealed that the affected side finger muscle cortical representation area shifted towards the temporal side, and cortico-spinal excitability of the target muscle was prominently facilitated, i.e., the maximum motor evoked potential in the affected side, 6.11 ± 0.19 mV was greater than that in the intact side, 4.52 ± 0.39 mV (mean ± standard error). Electromyographic activities during swimming demonstrated well-coordinated patterns as compared with rather spastic activities observed in the affected side during walking on land. These results suggest that the ability of the brain to reorganize through intensive training in Paralympic athletes can teach interesting lessons to the field neurorehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuromuscular Function and Movement Control)
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Open AccessArticle
A Cluster Set Protocol in the Half Squat Exercise Reduces Mechanical Fatigue and Lactate Concentrations in Comparison with a Traditional Set Configuration
Sports 2020, 8(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040045 - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Splitting sets into clusters has been shown to maintain performance during resistance training. This study compared the acute fatigue produced by a traditional (TSC) versus a cluster (CSC) set configuration in the smith machine half squat exercise. Fifteen males performed a single bout [...] Read more.
Splitting sets into clusters has been shown to maintain performance during resistance training. This study compared the acute fatigue produced by a traditional (TSC) versus a cluster (CSC) set configuration in the smith machine half squat exercise. Fifteen males performed a single bout of TSC and CSC separated by 72–96 h. In the TSC, participants performed as many repetitions as possible until reaching a 20% drop in barbell velocity (MPV), while in the CSC, they performed the same number of repetitions with 15 seconds inter-repetition rest. Effects of both protocols in MPV, countermovement jump height (CMJ), and blood lactate (BLa) were measured. Significant differences between protocols were found for MPV of the last repetition (0.4 vs 0.5 m/s TSC and CSC) and BLa (6.8 mmol/L vs 3.2 mmol/L TSC and CSC). Significant drop of velocity from the first to the last repetition of the set (19.9%), decrease in CMJ height (35.4 vs 32.6 cm), and increase in BLa (2.1 vs 6.8 mmol/L) pre–post-exercise was observed just for the TSC protocol. The results of the present study showed that CSC reduces the lactate response and mechanical fatigue produced by a single set on the half squat exercise in comparison with TSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives in Resistance Training)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultramarathon Plasma Metabolomics: Phosphatidylcholine Levels Associated with Running Performance
Sports 2020, 8(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040044 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 945
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to identify plasma metabolites associated with superior endurance running performance. In 2016, participants at the Western States Endurance Run (WSER), a 100-mile (161-km) foot race, underwent non-targeted metabolomic testing of their post-race plasma. Metabolites associated with faster [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to identify plasma metabolites associated with superior endurance running performance. In 2016, participants at the Western States Endurance Run (WSER), a 100-mile (161-km) foot race, underwent non-targeted metabolomic testing of their post-race plasma. Metabolites associated with faster finish times were identified. Based on these results, runners at the 2017 WSER underwent targeted metabolomics testing, including lipidomics and choline levels. The 2017 participants’ plasma metabolites were correlated with finish times and compared with non-athletic controls. In 2016, 427 known molecules were detected using non-targeted metabolomics. Four compounds, all phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were associated with finish time (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05). All were higher in faster finishers. In 2017, using targeted PC analysis, multiple PCs, measured pre- and post-race, were higher in faster finishers (FDR < 0.05). The majority of PCs was noted to be higher in runners (both pre- and post-race) than in controls (FDR < 0.05). Runners had higher choline levels pre-race compared to controls (p < 0.0001), but choline level did not differ significantly from controls post-race (p = 0.129). Choline levels decreased between the start and the finish of the race (p < 0.0001). Faster finishers had lower choline levels than slower finishers at the race finish (p = 0.028). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Different Lower-Limb Setup Positions Do Not Consistently Change Backstroke Start Time to 10 m
Sports 2020, 8(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040043 - 31 Mar 2020
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Backstroke starts involve the athlete starting from a flexed position with their feet against the pool wall and then extending their ankles, knees, hips and back to push off; however, swimmers can start in different positions. The purpose of this study was to [...] Read more.
Backstroke starts involve the athlete starting from a flexed position with their feet against the pool wall and then extending their ankles, knees, hips and back to push off; however, swimmers can start in different positions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance impact of different knee extension angles in the setup position for a backstroke start. Ten backstroke swimmers completed maximum-effort starts in each of two setup positions: one with the knees maximally flexed, and one with the knees less flexed. The start handles and touchpad were instrumented with multi-axial force sensors. Activity of major hip and knee extensors was measured using surface electromyography. Body position in the sagittal plane was recorded using high-speed cameras. There was no overall difference in time to 10 m between the two conditions (p = 0.36, dz = 0.12), but some participants showed differences as large as 0.12 s in time to 10 m between start conditions. We observed that starts performed from a setup position with less knee flexion had an average 0.07 m greater head entry distance (p = 0.07, dz = 0.53), while starts from a setup position with maximal knee flexion had an average 0.2 m/s greater takeoff velocity (p = 0.02, dz = 0.78). Both head entry distance and takeoff velocity are related to start performance, suggesting each position may optimize different aspects of the backstroke start. Coaches should assess athletes individually to determine which position is optimal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Two Strength Training Models on Muscle Power and Strength in Elite Women’s Football Players
Sports 2020, 8(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040042 - 30 Mar 2020
Viewed by 800
Abstract
This study evaluates changes in power and strength after implementing two different models of 9-week strength training in elite women’s football players. A group of 13 players (age 20.2 ± 3.3 years, body mass 57.2 ± 3.7 kg, height 163.6 ± 5.3 cm, [...] Read more.
This study evaluates changes in power and strength after implementing two different models of 9-week strength training in elite women’s football players. A group of 13 players (age 20.2 ± 3.3 years, body mass 57.2 ± 3.7 kg, height 163.6 ± 5.3 cm, VO2max 45.2 ± ml/min) underwent either a complex (the intermittent load type) or combined (the maximal strength and dynamic method) model of training. The training load was tailored to each athlete. Results showed that the complex model of training improved power (10 W/kg, p = 0.006) and height of vertical jump (5.3 cm, p = 0.001), weight of 1 Repeat Maximum (1RM) which was (5.8 kg, p = 0.015), power and speed in the acceleration phase of barbell half squats (BHS) at weights from 20 to 60 kg, and the number of repetitions in BHS (10.3%, p = 0.012). The combined model of training improved the time of shuttle run (0.44 s, p = 0.000), weight of 1RM in BHS (9.6kg, p = 0.000) and BP (4 kg, p = 0.000), power in the acceleration phase of BHS at weights from 50 to 60 kg, the number of repetitions in BP (14.3%, p = 0.000), BHS (9.4%, p = 0.002), barbell bench pulls (11.9%, p = 0.002) and sit-ups (7.7%, p = 0.001). These findings indicate that the complex model of training improves explosive abilities, whereas the combined model is effective for developing strength at weights close to players’ 1RM and for repeatedly overcoming resistance. Therefore, coaches should choose the training model based on the needs of individual players. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Are Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Stress Greater in Isometric or in Dynamic Resistance Exercise?
Sports 2020, 8(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040041 - 28 Mar 2020
Viewed by 732
Abstract
Medical and sports medicine associations are reluctant to endorse isometric exercise to the same extent as dynamic resistance exercise (RE). The major concern is the fear of greater increases in blood pressure (BP) that might be associated with isometric exercise. This review comprehensively [...] Read more.
Medical and sports medicine associations are reluctant to endorse isometric exercise to the same extent as dynamic resistance exercise (RE). The major concern is the fear of greater increases in blood pressure (BP) that might be associated with isometric exercise. This review comprehensively presents all human studies that directly compared the magnitude of hemodynamic responses between isometric and dynamic RE. We also discuss possible mechanisms controlling BP-response and cardiovascular adjustments during both types of RE. The most prominent finding was that isometric and dynamic RE using small-muscle mass evoke equal increases in BP; however, the circulatory adjustments contributing to this response are different in dynamic and isometric RE. In contrast, studies using large-muscle mass report inconsistent results for the magnitude of BP-response between the two types of RE. Thus, when the same muscles and workloads are used, the increase in BP during isometric and dynamic RE is more comparable to what is commonly believed. However, it should be noted that only a few studies equalized the workload in two types of RE, most used small sample sizes, and all studies employed healthy participants. More studies are needed to compare the cardiovascular risks associated with isometric and dynamic RE, especially in individuals with chronic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Responses and Adaptations in Resistance Exercise)
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Open AccessArticle
Daily School Physical Activity from before to after Puberty Improves Bone Mass and a Musculoskeletal Composite Risk Score for Fracture
Sports 2020, 8(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040040 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 383
Abstract
This 7.5-year prospective controlled exercise intervention study assessed if daily school physical activity (PA), from before to after puberty, improved musculoskeletal traits. There were 63 boys and 34 girls in the intervention group (40 min PA/day), and 26 boys and 17 girls in [...] Read more.
This 7.5-year prospective controlled exercise intervention study assessed if daily school physical activity (PA), from before to after puberty, improved musculoskeletal traits. There were 63 boys and 34 girls in the intervention group (40 min PA/day), and 26 boys and 17 girls in the control group (60 min PA/week). We measured musculoskeletal traits at the start and end of the study. The overall musculoskeletal effect of PA was also estimated by a composite score (mean Z-score of the lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), total body lean mass (TBLM), calcaneal ultrasound (speed of sound (SOS)), and muscle strength (knee flexion peak torque)). We used analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) for group comparisons. Compared to the gender-matched control group, intervention boys reached higher gains in BMC, BA, muscle strength, as well as in the composite score, and intervention girls higher gains in BMC, BA, SOS, as well as in the composite score (all p < 0.05, respectively). Our small sample study indicates that a daily school-based PA intervention program from Tanner stage 1 to 5 in both sexes is associated with greater bone mineral accrual, greater gain in bone size, and a greater gain in a musculoskeletal composite score for fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Health in Youth)
Open AccessArticle
Movement Competency Training Delivery: At School or Online? A Pilot Study of High-School Athletes
Sports 2020, 8(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040039 - 26 Mar 2020
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Movement competency (MC) development of high-school athletes can prepare them for the requirements of physical preparation training and the demands of sport. The aim of this study was to explore the physical effects of and athlete compliance to coach-led versus self-directed training approaches [...] Read more.
Movement competency (MC) development of high-school athletes can prepare them for the requirements of physical preparation training and the demands of sport. The aim of this study was to explore the physical effects of and athlete compliance to coach-led versus self-directed training approaches in this population. Thirty-nine high-school athletes (19 male, 14.5 ± 0.3 years old; 20 female, 14.6 ± 0.3 years) were allocated into two groups for a physical preparation program to improve MC. Groups were prescribed either (i) one face-to-face and one online (F2F, n = 18), or (ii) two online (OL, n = 21) sessions per week for 16-weeks. Before and after the intervention, the Athlete Introductory Movement Screen (AIMS) was used to assess MC alongside common physical capacity measures (triple-hop, star-excursion balance, medicine ball throw, 40 m sprint and countermovement jump). Dropout left 22 participants with pre-post physical scores. Compliance with online training was low and F2F session attendance moderate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess participant perceptions following the intervention. Assessing individual responses, the F2F group had a higher proportion of positive responders to AIMS scores, yet capacity measures were inconclusive across groups. Face-to-face coaching when acquiring MCs as part of physical preparation, may provide greater positive perceptions towards training compared to self-directed online prescriptions, and thereby greater compliance. Full article
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