Selected Papers from the 9th Greek Conference of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020) | Viewed by 36396

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Laboratory of Evaluation of Human Biological Performance, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: exercise biochemistry and physiology; exercise metabolomics; sport nutrition
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exercise biochemistry and physiology is a very active field of scientific endeavor which, over the past half-century, has contributed immensely to understanding alters the way our bodies (and those of other animals) function. The Hellenic Society of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise is celebrating its 9th annual conference (to be held at Capsis Hotel, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 18 to 20, 2019) with a Special Issue in Sports. As in previous years, the conference aspires to become an important researchers, students, and other scholars in sport science from Greece and other countries meet, present their findings, exchange ideas, and network with peers.

The Special Issue “Selected Papers from the 9th Greek Conference of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise” will bring together outstanding research in the following areas:

  • Exercise biochemistry and molecular biology;
  • Exercise physiology;
  • Applications of training in sports;
  • Clinical exercise physiology and health;
  • Sport nutrition.

Authors who will present their original research either orally or in the form of a poster are invited to submit it as a full paper for publication in the Special Issue. Submission will open right after the conference (October 21, 2019) and will close on January 31, 2020. Manuscripts will undergo the regular peer-review process of the journal. Sports has agreed with the Hellenic Society of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise to offer the following extremely favorable article processing charges (APC) after acceptance:

  • 175 CHF (Swiss Francs) to the 9 papers that will receive top rankings from the conference scientific committee. That’s an 82.5% discount over the APC of 1000 CHF that will apply after June 30, 2019.
  • 800 CHF for all other papers (a 20% discount).

We are looking forward to receiving your work!

Prof. Vassilis Mougios
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise biochemistry
  • exercise physiology
  • exercise for health
  • molecular biology of exercise
  • clinical exercise physiology
  • training
  • sport nutrition

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 575 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Race Pace Characteristics of Medium and Low-Level Athens Marathon Runners
by Aristides Myrkos, Ilias Smilios, Eleni Maria Kokkinou, Evangelos Rousopoulos and Helen Douda
Sports 2020, 8(9), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8090116 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4444
Abstract
This study examined physiological and race pace characteristics of medium- (finish time < 240 min) and low-level (finish time > 240 min) recreational runners who participated in a challenging marathon route with rolling hills, the Athens Authentic Marathon. Fifteen athletes (age: 42 ± [...] Read more.
This study examined physiological and race pace characteristics of medium- (finish time < 240 min) and low-level (finish time > 240 min) recreational runners who participated in a challenging marathon route with rolling hills, the Athens Authentic Marathon. Fifteen athletes (age: 42 ± 7 years) performed an incremental test, three to nine days before the 2018 Athens Marathon, to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), maximal aerobic velocity (MAV), energy cost of running (ECr) and lactate threshold velocity (vLTh), and were analyzed for their pacing during the race. Moderate- (n = 8) compared with low-level (n = 7) runners had higher (p < 0.05) VO2 max (55.6 ± 3.6 vs. 48.9 ± 4.8 mL·kg−1·min−1), MAV (16.5 ± 0.7 vs. 14.4 ± 1.2 km·h−1) and vLTh (11.6 ± 0.8 vs. 9.2 ± 0.7 km·h−1) and lower ECr at 10 km/h (1.137 ± 0.096 vs. 1.232 ± 0.068 kcal·kg−1·km−1). Medium-level runners ran the marathon at a higher percentage of vLTh (105.1 ± 4.7 vs. 93.8 ± 6.2%) and VO2 max (79.7 ± 7.7 vs. 68.8 ± 5.7%). Low-level runners ran at a lower percentage (p < 0.05) of their vLTh in the 21.1–30 km (total ascent/decent: 122 m/5 m) and the 30–42.195 km (total ascent/decent: 32 m/155 m) splits. Moderate-level runners are less affected in their pacing than low-level runners during a marathon route with rolling hills. This could be due to superior physiological characteristics such as VO2 max, ECr, vLTh and fractional utilization of VO2 max. A marathon race pace strategy should be selected individually according to each athlete’s level. Full article
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12 pages, 462 KiB  
Article
Effects of Supplementary Strength–Power Training on Neuromuscular Performance in Young Female Athletes
by Konstantina Karagianni, Olyvia Donti, Christos Katsikas and Gregory C. Bogdanis
Sports 2020, 8(8), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8080104 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4257
Abstract
This study examined the effects of a short-duration supplementary strength–power training program on neuromuscular performance and sport-specific skills in adolescent athletes. Twenty-three female “Gymnastics for All” athletes, aged 13 ± 2 years, were divided into a training group (TG, n = 12) and [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of a short-duration supplementary strength–power training program on neuromuscular performance and sport-specific skills in adolescent athletes. Twenty-three female “Gymnastics for All” athletes, aged 13 ± 2 years, were divided into a training group (TG, n = 12) and a control group (CG, n = 11). Both groups underwent a test battery before and after 10 weeks of intervention. TG completed, in addition to gymnastics training, a supplementary 7–9 min program that included two rounds of strength and power exercises for arms, torso, and legs, executed in a circuit fashion with 1 min rest between rounds, three times per week. Initially, six exercises were performed (15 s work–15 s rest), while the number of exercises was decreased to four and the duration of each exercise was increased to 30 s (30 s rest) after the fifth week. TG improved countermovement jump performance with one leg (11.5% ± 10.4%, p = 0.002) and two legs (8.2% ± 8.8%, p = 0.004), drop jump performance (14.4% ± 12.6%, p = 0.038), single-leg jumping agility (13.6% ± 5.2%, p = 0.001), and sport-specific performance (8.8% ± 7.4%, p = 0.004), but not 10 m sprint performance (2.4% ± 6.6%, p = 0.709). No change was observed in the CG (p = 0.41 to 0.97). The results of this study indicated that this supplementary strength–power program performed for 7–9 min improves neuromuscular and sport-specific performance after 10 weeks of training. Full article
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10 pages, 788 KiB  
Article
Verifying Physiological and Biomechanical Parameters during Continuous Swimming at Speed Corresponding to Lactate Threshold
by Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Ioannis S. Nikitakis, Petros G. Botonis, Ioannis Malliaros and Argyris G. Toubekis
Sports 2020, 8(7), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8070095 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3802
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological responses and biomechanical parameters measured during 30 min of continuous swimming (T30) at intensity corresponding to lactate threshold previously calculated by an intermittent progressively increasing speed test (7 × 200 m). Fourteen competitive [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological responses and biomechanical parameters measured during 30 min of continuous swimming (T30) at intensity corresponding to lactate threshold previously calculated by an intermittent progressively increasing speed test (7 × 200 m). Fourteen competitive swimmers (18.0 (2.5) years, 67.5 (8.8) kg, 174.5 (7.7) cm) performed a 7 × 200 m front crawl test. Blood lactate concentration (BL) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were determined after each 200 m repetition, while heart rate (HR), arm-stroke rate (SR), and arm-stroke length (SL) were measured during each 200 m repetition. Using the speed vs. lactate concentration curve, the speed at lactate threshold (sLT) and parameters corresponding to sLT were calculated (BL-sLT, VO2-sLT, HR-sLT, SR-sLT, and SL-sLT). In the following day, a T30 corresponding to sLT was performed and BL-T30, VO2-T30, HR-T30, SR-T30, and SL-T30 were measured after the 10th and 30th minute, and average values were used for comparison. VO2-sLT was no different compared to VO2-T30 (p > 0.05). BL-T30, HR-T30, and SR-T30 were higher, while SL-T30 was lower compared to BL-sLT, HR-sLT, SR-sLT, and SL-sLT (p < 0.05). Continuous swimming at speed corresponding to lactate threshold may not show the same physiological and biomechanical responses as those calculated by a progressively increasing speed test of 7 × 200 m. Full article
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8 pages, 438 KiB  
Article
Heart Rate Responses during Sport-Specific High-Intensity Circuit Exercise in Child Female Gymnasts
by Andreas Salagas, Olyvia Donti, Christos Katsikas and Gregory C. Bogdanis
Sports 2020, 8(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8050068 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3400
Abstract
This study examined heart rate (HR) responses during a sport-specific high-intensity circuit training session to indirectly assess cardiorespiratory stress in child athletes. Seventeen, female gymnasts, aged 9–11 years performed two 5-min 15 s sets of circuit exercise, interspersed by a 3 min rest [...] Read more.
This study examined heart rate (HR) responses during a sport-specific high-intensity circuit training session to indirectly assess cardiorespiratory stress in child athletes. Seventeen, female gymnasts, aged 9–11 years performed two 5-min 15 s sets of circuit exercise, interspersed by a 3 min rest interval. Each set included five rounds of five gymnastic exercises (7 s work, 7 s rest) executed with maximal effort. During the first circuit training set, peak heart rate (HR) was 192 ± 7 bpm and average HR was 83 ± 4% of maximum HR (HRmax), which was determined in a separate session. In the second set, peak HR and average HR were increased to 196 ± 8 bpm (p < 0.001, d = 0.55) and to 89 ± 4% HRmax (p < 0.001, d = 2.19), respectively, compared with the first set. HR was above 80% HRmax for 4.1 ± 1.2 min during set 1 and this was increased to 5.1 ± 0.4 min in set 2 (p < 0.001, d = 1.15). Likewise, HR was above 90% of HRmax for 2.0 ± 1.2 min in set 1 and was increased to 3.4 ± 1.7 min in set 2 (p < 0.001, d = 0.98). In summary, two 5-min 15 s sets of high-intensity circuit training using sport-specific exercises, increased HR to levels above 80% and 90% HRmax for extended time periods, and thus may be considered as an appropriate stimulus, in terms of intensity, for improving aerobic fitness in child female gymnasts. Full article
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9 pages, 1945 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Postprandial Resistance Exercise on Blood Glucose and Lipids in Prediabetic, Beta-Thalassemia Major Patients
by Kalliopi Georgakouli, Alexandra Stamperna, Chariklia K. Deli, Niki Syrou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Ioannis G. Fatouros and Athanasios Z. Jamurtas
Sports 2020, 8(5), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8050057 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2892
Abstract
Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus are common consequences of iron overload in the pancreas of beta-thalassemia major (BTM) patients. Moreover, postprandial blood glucose elevations are linked to major vascular complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a bout [...] Read more.
Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus are common consequences of iron overload in the pancreas of beta-thalassemia major (BTM) patients. Moreover, postprandial blood glucose elevations are linked to major vascular complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a bout of acute resistance exercise following breakfast consumption of glucose and fat on the metabolism in prediabetic, BTM patients. Six patients underwent two trials (exercise and control) following breakfast consumption (consisting of approximately 50% carbohydrates, 15% proteins, 35% fat), in a counterbalanced order, separated by at least three days. In an exercise trial, patients performed chest and leg presses (3 sets of 10 repetitions maximum/exercise), while in the control trial they rested. Blood samples were obtained in both trials at: pre-meal, 45 min post-meal (pre-exercise/control), post-exercise/control, 1 h post-exercise/control, 2 h post-exercise/control and 24 h post-exercise/control. Blood was analysed for glucose and lipids (total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides). Blood glucose levels increased significantly 45 min following breakfast consumption. Blood glucose and lipids did not differ between trials at the same time points. It seems that a single bout of resistance training is not sufficient to improve blood glucose and fat levels for the subsequent 24-h post-exercise period in prediabetic, BTM patients. Full article
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11 pages, 419 KiB  
Article
Backward Running: Acute Effects on Sprint Performance in Preadolescent Boys
by Dimitrios Petrakis, Eleni Bassa, Anastasia Papavasileiou, Anthi Xenofondos and Dimitrios A. Patikas
Sports 2020, 8(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8040055 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3496
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of backward running (BwR) during warm-up on a 20-m sprint of boys’ performance, compared to forward running (FwR). Fourteen recreationally active preadolescent boys (aged 12.5 ± 0.5 years) were examined in 3 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of backward running (BwR) during warm-up on a 20-m sprint of boys’ performance, compared to forward running (FwR). Fourteen recreationally active preadolescent boys (aged 12.5 ± 0.5 years) were examined in 3 protocols: warm-up (control condition), warm-up with 3 × 10 m additional BwR sprints and warm-up with 3 × 10 m additional FwR sprints. Participants were evaluated 4 minutes after each protocol on a 20-m sprint and intermediate distances, as well as the rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Sprint speed across 10-20 m was significantly higher for the BwR warm-up compared to the regular warm-up (p < 0.05) and a significantly higher RPE after the BwR and FwR protocols compared to the control condition was recorded (p < 0.05). No significant difference was detected across the distances 0–5, 5–10, 0–10 and 0–20 m. Although adding 3 × 10-m sprints of BwR or FwR after the warm-up did not enhance performance in a 20 m sprint of preadolescent boys, the positive effect of BwR across 10–20 m distance suggests that BwR could be an alternative means for enhancing performance for certain phases of a sprint for this age. However, preadolescent boys’ response to different sprint conditioning exercise stimuli and the optimization of rest time to maximize performance remain to be determined. Full article
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10 pages, 1561 KiB  
Article
The Assessment and Relationship Between Quality of Life and Physical Activity Levels in Greek Breast Cancer Female Patients under Chemotherapy
by Maria Maridaki, Argyro Papadopetraki, Helen Karagianni, Michael Koutsilieris and Anastassios Philippou
Sports 2020, 8(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8030032 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3106
Abstract
A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) can be a complementary intervention during breast cancer (BCa) treatment, contributing to the alleviation of the chemotherapy-related side-effects. The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity (PA) levels and quality of [...] Read more.
A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) can be a complementary intervention during breast cancer (BCa) treatment, contributing to the alleviation of the chemotherapy-related side-effects. The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity (PA) levels and quality of life (QoL) parameters of BCa patients undergoing chemotherapy and compare them with healthy controls. A total of 94 BCa female patients and 65 healthy women were recruited and self-reported QoL and PA levels. The results reveal that women suffering from BCa spent only 134 ± 469 metabolic equivalents (MET)/week in vigorous PAs compared with the healthy females who spent 985±1508 MET/week. Also, BCa patients were spending 4.62±2.58 h/day sitting, contrary to the 2.34±1.05 h/day of the controls. QoL was scored as 63.43±20.63 and 70.14±19.49 while physical functioning (PF) as 71.48±23.35 and 84.46±15.48 by BCa patients and healthy participants, respectively. Negative correlations were found between QoL and fatigue, PF and pain, and fatigue and dyspnea, while a positive correlation was found between QoL and PF. This study indicated that the BCa group accumulated many hours seated and refrained from vigorous Pas, preferring PAs of moderate intensity. Additionally, BCa patients’ levels of functioning and QoL were moderate to high; however, they were compromised by pain, dyspnea and fatigue. Full article
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11 pages, 1750 KiB  
Article
Gastrocnemius Medialis Architectural Properties in Flexibility Trained and Not Trained Child Female Athletes: A Pilot Study
by Ioli Panidi, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Vasiliki Gaspari, Polyxeni Spiliopoulou, Anastasia Donti, Gerasimos Terzis and Olyvia Donti
Sports 2020, 8(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8030029 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3029
Abstract
Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) architecture and ankle angle were compared between flexibility trained (n = 10) and not trained (n = 6) female athletes, aged 8–10 years. Ankle angle, fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness were measured at the mid-belly and the distal [...] Read more.
Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) architecture and ankle angle were compared between flexibility trained (n = 10) and not trained (n = 6) female athletes, aged 8–10 years. Ankle angle, fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness were measured at the mid-belly and the distal part of GM, at rest and at the end of one min of static stretching. Flexibility trained (FT) and not trained athletes (FNT) had similar fascicle length at the medial (4.19 ± 0.37 vs. 4.24 ± 0.54 cm, respectively, p = 0.841) and the distal part of GM (4.25 ± 0.35 vs. 4.18 ± 0.65 cm, respectively, p = 0.780), similar pennation angles, and muscle thickness (p > 0.216), and larger ankle angle at rest (120.9 ± 4.2 vs. 110.9 ± 5.8°, respectively, p = 0.001). During stretching, FT displayed greater fascicle elongation compared to FNT at the medial (+1.67 ± 0.37 vs. +1.28 ± 0.22 cm, respectively, p = 0.048) and the distal part (+1.84 ± 0.67 vs. +0.97 ± 0.97 cm, respectively, p = 0.013), larger change in joint angle and muscle tendon junction displacement (MTJ) (p < 0.001). Muscle thickness was similar in both groups (p > 0.053). Ankle dorsiflexion angle significantly correlated with fascicle elongation at the distal part of GM (r = −0.638, p < 0.01) and MTJ displacement (r = −0.610, p < 0.05). Collectively, FT had greater fascicle elongation at the medial and distal part of GM and greater MTJ displacement during stretching than FNT of similar age. Full article
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9 pages, 802 KiB  
Article
Acute Effects of Intermittent and Continuous Static Stretching on Hip Flexion Angle in Athletes with Varying Flexibility Training Background
by Olyvia Donti, Vasiliki Gaspari, Kostantina Papia, Ioli Panidi, Anastasia Donti and Gregory C. Bogdanis
Sports 2020, 8(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8030028 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4131
Abstract
Τhis study examined changes in hip joint flexion angle after an intermittent or a continuous static stretching protocol of equal total duration. Twenty-seven female subjects aged 19.9 ± 3.0 years (14 artistic and rhythmic gymnasts and 13 team sports athletes), performed 3 min [...] Read more.
Τhis study examined changes in hip joint flexion angle after an intermittent or a continuous static stretching protocol of equal total duration. Twenty-seven female subjects aged 19.9 ± 3.0 years (14 artistic and rhythmic gymnasts and 13 team sports athletes), performed 3 min of intermittent (6 × 30 s with 30 s rest) or continuous static stretching (3 min) of the hip extensors, with an intensity of 80–90 on a 100-point visual analogue scale. The order of stretching was randomized and counterbalanced, and each subject performed both conditions. Hip flexion angle was measured with the straight leg raise test for both legs after warm-up and immediately after stretching. Both stretching types equally increased hip flexion angle by ~6% (continuous: 140.9° ± 20.4° to 148.6° ± 18.8°, p = 0.047; intermittent: 141.8° ± 20.3° to 150.0° ± 18.8°, p = 0.029) in artistic and rhythmic gymnasts. In contrast, in team sports athletes, only intermittent stretching increased hip flexion angle by 13% (from 91.0° ± 7.2° to 102.4° ± 14.5°, p = 0.001), while continuous stretching did not affect hip angle (from 92.4° ± 6.9° vs. 93.1° ± 9.2°, p = 0.99). The different effect of intermittent vs. continuous stretching on hip flexion between gymnasts and team sports athletes suggests that responses to static stretching are dependent on stretching mode and participants training experience. Full article
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9 pages, 876 KiB  
Article
Validating Physiological and Biomechanical Parameters during Intermittent Swimming at Speed Corresponding to Lactate Concentration of 4 mmol·L−1
by Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Ioannis S. Nikitakis, Petros G. Botonis, Ioannis Malliaros and Argyris G. Toubekis
Sports 2020, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8020023 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2804
Abstract
Background: Physiological and biomechanical parameters obtained during testing need validation in a training setting. The purpose of this study was to compare parameters calculated by a 5 × 200-m test with those measured during an intermittent swimming training set performed at constant speed [...] Read more.
Background: Physiological and biomechanical parameters obtained during testing need validation in a training setting. The purpose of this study was to compare parameters calculated by a 5 × 200-m test with those measured during an intermittent swimming training set performed at constant speed corresponding to blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol∙L−1 (V4). Methods: Twelve competitive swimmers performed a 5 × 200-m progressively increasing speed front crawl test. Blood lactate concentration (BL) was measured after each 200 m and V4 was calculated by interpolation. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), stroke rate (SR) and stroke length (SL) were determined during each 200 m. Subsequently, BL, HR, SR and SL corresponding to V4 were calculated. A week later, swimmers performed a 5 × 400-m training set at constant speed corresponding to V4 and BL-5×400, HR-5×400, RPE-5×400, SR-5×400, SL-5×400 were measured. Results: BL-5×400 and RPE-5×400 were similar (p > 0.05), while HR-5×400 and SR-5×400 were increased and SL-5×400 was decreased compared to values calculated by the 5 × 200-m test (p < 0.05). Conclusion: An intermittent progressively increasing speed swimming test provides physiological information with large interindividual variability. It seems that swimmers adjust their biomechanical parameters to maintain constant speed in an aerobic endurance training set of 5 × 400-m at intensity corresponding to 4 mmol∙L−1. Full article
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