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Lubricants, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2014) – 3 articles , Pages 1-43

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264 KiB  
Review
Lubricants in Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms
by Jinjiang Li and Yongmei Wu
Lubricants 2014, 2(1), 21-43; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants2010021 - 25 Feb 2014
Cited by 166 | Viewed by 55805
Abstract
Lubrication plays a key role in successful manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms; lubricants are essential ingredients in robust formulations to achieve this. Although many failures in pharmaceutical manufacturing operations are caused by issues related to lubrication, in general, lubricants do not gain [...] Read more.
Lubrication plays a key role in successful manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms; lubricants are essential ingredients in robust formulations to achieve this. Although many failures in pharmaceutical manufacturing operations are caused by issues related to lubrication, in general, lubricants do not gain adequate attention in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. In this paper, the fundamental background on lubrication is introduced, in which the relationships between lubrication and friction/adhesion forces are discussed. Then, the application of lubrication in the development of pharmaceutical products and manufacturing processes is discussed with an emphasis on magnesium stearate. In particular, the effect of its hydration state (anhydrate, monohydrate, dihydrate, and trihydrate) and its powder characteristics on lubrication efficiency, as well as product and process performance is summarized. In addition, the impact of lubrication on the dynamics of compaction/compression processes and on the mechanical properties of compacts/tablets is presented. Furthermore, the online monitoring of magnesium stearate in a blending process is briefly mentioned. Finally, the chemical compatibility of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with magnesium stearate and its reactive impurities is reviewed with examples from the literature illustrating the various reaction mechanisms involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additives for Lubricants)
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1931 KiB  
Review
Lubricants for Metal Belt Continuously Variable Transmissions
by Keiichi Narita
Lubricants 2014, 2(1), 11-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants2010011 - 25 Feb 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 8163
Abstract
This paper reviews the effects of lubricant additives and base stock used in metal belt continuously variable transmissions (CVT) fluids on the CVT transmission torque capacity. Additive formulation composed of phosphorus anti-wear agent, calcium detergent, and dispersant improved the friction coefficient between the [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the effects of lubricant additives and base stock used in metal belt continuously variable transmissions (CVT) fluids on the CVT transmission torque capacity. Additive formulation composed of phosphorus anti-wear agent, calcium detergent, and dispersant improved the friction coefficient between the metals. The analysis on the post-test surface suggests that the friction behavior strongly depends on the local morphology of the tribofilms derived from lubricant additives. Examining the effect of base stock on the torque capacity in actual belt CVTs revealed that SN (synthetic naphthene) exhibited 10% higher torque capacity than that of PAO (polyalphaolefin). It is believed that the difference in the torque capacity is due to the difference in the oil-film shearing force generated by the relative sliding between the belt and pulley. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additives for Lubricants)
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625 KiB  
Communication
The Application of Molecular Dynamics in Fullerene-Based Journal Bearing Simulation
by Alexey Kornaev, Leonid Savin and Mikhail Nozdrichkin
Lubricants 2014, 2(1), 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants2010001 - 24 Feb 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6736
Abstract
The article is devoted to modeling of the molecular microscopic journal bearing. The walls and the lubricant of the bearing are fullerene-like molecules. On the basis of similarity theory and analysis of the dimensions, the similarity criterion is proposed. This criterion characterizes the [...] Read more.
The article is devoted to modeling of the molecular microscopic journal bearing. The walls and the lubricant of the bearing are fullerene-like molecules. On the basis of similarity theory and analysis of the dimensions, the similarity criterion is proposed. This criterion characterizes the convergence of a numerical solution. The test calculation is also made to evaluate the quality of the proposed criterion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additives for Lubricants)
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