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J. Pers. Med., Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 144 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Accurate placement of prosthetic implants in shoulder replacement is known to play a significant role in improving functional outcomes and longevity. Augmented Reality systems have many promising advantages, including allowing the surgeon to study the patient’s anatomy without the need for invasive procedures and allowing virtual interrogation of the joint’s surface.
AR technologies has the further potential to assist surgeons intraoperatively, aiding the guidance of surgical tools. This offers the prospect of increased component placement accuracy, reduced surgical procedure time, and improved radiological and functional outcomes.
In this AR proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate superior accuracy of guidewire placement in shoulder replacement. View this paper
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Article
Characterization of Risk Profiles for Diabetic Retinopathy Progression
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080826 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent complication of diabetes and, through its vision-threatening complications, i.e., macular edema and proliferative retinopathy, may lead to blindness. It is, therefore, of major relevance to identify the presence of retinopathy in diabetic patients and, when present, to [...] Read more.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent complication of diabetes and, through its vision-threatening complications, i.e., macular edema and proliferative retinopathy, may lead to blindness. It is, therefore, of major relevance to identify the presence of retinopathy in diabetic patients and, when present, to identify the eyes that have the greatest risk of progression and greatest potential to benefit from treatment. In the present paper, we suggest the development of a simple to use alternative to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grading system, establishing disease severity as a necessary step to further evaluate and categorize the different risk factors involved in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. It needs to be validated against the ETDRS classification and, ideally, should be able to be performed automatically using data directly from the examination equipment without the influence of subjective individual interpretation. We performed the characterization of 105 eyes from 105 patients previously classified by ETDRS level by a Reading Centre using a set of rules generated by a decision tree having as possible inputs a set of metrics automatically extracted from Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCTA) and Spectral Domain- OCT (SD-OCT) measured at different localizations of the retina. When the most relevant metrics were used to derive the rules to perform the organization of the full pathological dataset, taking into account the different ETDRS grades, a global accuracy equal to 0.8 was obtained. In summary, it is now possible to envision an automated classification of DR progression using noninvasive methods of examination, OCT, and SS-OCTA. Using this classification to establish the severity grade of DR, at the time of the ophthalmological examination, it is then possible to identify the risk of progression in severity and the development of vision-threatening complications based on the predominant phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Diabetic Retinopathy)
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Review
A Critical Review of Radiation Therapy: From Particle Beam Therapy (Proton, Carbon, and BNCT) to Beyond
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080825 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
In this paper, we discuss the role of particle therapy—a novel radiation therapy (RT) that has shown rapid progress and widespread use in recent years—in multidisciplinary treatment. Three types of particle therapies are currently used for cancer treatment: proton beam therapy (PBT), carbon-ion [...] Read more.
In this paper, we discuss the role of particle therapy—a novel radiation therapy (RT) that has shown rapid progress and widespread use in recent years—in multidisciplinary treatment. Three types of particle therapies are currently used for cancer treatment: proton beam therapy (PBT), carbon-ion beam therapy (CIBT), and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). PBT and CIBT have been reported to have excellent therapeutic results owing to the physical characteristics of their Bragg peaks. Variable drug therapies, such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and immunotherapy, are combined in various treatment strategies, and treatment effects have been improved. BNCT has a high dose concentration for cancer in terms of nuclear reactions with boron. BNCT is a next-generation RT that can achieve cancer cell-selective therapeutic effects, and its effectiveness strongly depends on the selective 10B accumulation in cancer cells by concomitant boron preparation. Therefore, drug delivery research, including nanoparticles, is highly desirable. In this review, we introduce both clinical and basic aspects of particle beam therapy from the perspective of multidisciplinary treatment, which is expected to expand further in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue EPR Effect-Based Tumor Targeted Nanomedicine)
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Article
Value of Strain-Ratio Elastography in the Diagnosis and Differentiation of Uterine Fibroids and Adenomyosis
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080824 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
Benign uterine disorders, including uterine fibroids (UF) and adenomyosis (AM), can impact the life quality and fertility of women of reproductive age. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) has long been used for their early identification, but its combined use with elastography seems to improve diagnostic [...] Read more.
Benign uterine disorders, including uterine fibroids (UF) and adenomyosis (AM), can impact the life quality and fertility of women of reproductive age. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) has long been used for their early identification, but its combined use with elastography seems to improve diagnostic accuracy of UF and AM. Thus, a prospective pilot study was conducted on 79 patients who underwent hysterectomy (25 microscopically diagnosed with AM and 53 with UF), with the aim of assessing the ability of TVUS combined with strain ratio elastography (SE) to accurately diagnose and distinguish UF and AM. Significantly higher mean and maximal strain ratio (SR) values were identified for patients with histologically confirmed AM as opposed to those with UF (p < 0.001). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, calculated in comparison with histology results, were higher for UF than AM. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied between the two study groups, revealing cutoff values of 7.71 for mean SR and 8.91 for maximal SR, respectively, with good sensitivity and specificity parameters (100% and 96.23%; 96% and 96.23%). Our results support the use of TVUS in combination with SE for the positive and differential diagnosis of UF and AM, through identification of their particular tissue stiffness features. Full article
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Article
Multi-Omics Analysis of SOX4, SOX11, and SOX12 Expression and the Associated Pathways in Human Cancers
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080823 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
The Sry-related HMG BOX (SOX) gene family encodes transcription factors containing highly conserved high-mobility group domains that bind to the minor groove in DNA. Although some SOX genes are known to be associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression, their expression and prognostic value [...] Read more.
The Sry-related HMG BOX (SOX) gene family encodes transcription factors containing highly conserved high-mobility group domains that bind to the minor groove in DNA. Although some SOX genes are known to be associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression, their expression and prognostic value have not been systematically studied. We performed multi-omic analysis to investigate the expression of SOX genes in human cancers. Expression and phylogenetic tree analyses of the SOX gene family revealed that the expression of three closely related SOX members, SOX4, SOX11, and SOX12, was increased in multiple cancers. Expression, mutation, and alteration of the three SOX members were evaluated using the Oncomine and cBioPortal databases, and the correlation between these genes and clinical outcomes in various cancers was examined using the Kaplan–Meier, PrognoScan, and R2 database analyses. The genes commonly correlated with the three SOX members were categorized in key pathways related to the cell cycle, mitosis, immune system, and cancer progression in liver cancer and sarcoma. Additionally, functional protein partners with three SOX proteins and their probable signaling pathways were explored using the STRING database. This study suggests the prognostic value of the expression of three SOX genes and their associated pathways in various human cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Bioinformatics in Precision Medicine)
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Article
Significant Reduction in Vertebral Artery Dose by Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy: A Pilot Study for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080822 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 698
Abstract
Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) with the vertebral artery (VA)-sparing technique has been initially proposed in our institution. This pilot study was conducted to compare the dose to VAs between IMPT and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A [...] Read more.
Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) with the vertebral artery (VA)-sparing technique has been initially proposed in our institution. This pilot study was conducted to compare the dose to VAs between IMPT and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of six patients with NPC treated by IMPT were enrolled in the study. Target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were delineated, including 12 samples of right and left VAs, respectively, for each patient. Treatment planning by IMPT and dual-arc VMAT was carried out for comparison. The IMPT plan significantly reduced VA mean dose, V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50, compared to the VMAT plan in all 12 samples (p < 0.001). The average mean dose to VAs for IMPT was 35.2% (23.4–46.9%), which was less compared to VMAT (p < 0.001). Adequate dose coverage was achieved with both IMPT and VMAT plans for three different dose levels of target volumes for all patients. IMPT significantly reduces VA dose while maintaining adequate dose coverage of all target volumes. For patients with head and neck cancer who seek to preserve their blood flow to the brain in order to decrease late vascular and neurologic sequelae, IMPT should be considered. A prospective study with longer follow-up is ongoing to confirm our preliminary results. Full article
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Systematic Review
The Prognostic Role of Micro-RNAs in Head and Neck Cancers: An Umbrella Review
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080821 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
We conducted an umbrella review which synthetizes the findings of systematic reviews available in the literature that investigate the prognostic role of miRNAs as potential biomarkers in the field of tertiary prevention of head and neck Cancer (HNC). We selected systematic reviews in [...] Read more.
We conducted an umbrella review which synthetizes the findings of systematic reviews available in the literature that investigate the prognostic role of miRNAs as potential biomarkers in the field of tertiary prevention of head and neck Cancer (HNC). We selected systematic reviews in English related to HNC, with meta-analysis of observational studies that reported quantitative prognostic measures, hazard ratios (HRs), overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS). The methodological quality of the included reviews was assessed by using the AMSTAR-2 tool. The most reported miRNAs were the following: miRNA2, Let7 family and miR17, etc. Four out of six reviews particularly emphasized the link between miRNA21 expression and HNC patients. Recently the cumulative effects of sets of miRNAs have been increasingly studied and might be a stronger predictor of survival than single miRNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology)
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Review
Use of Lipid-Modifying Agents for the Treatment of Glomerular Diseases
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080820 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Although dyslipidemia is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), it is more common in nephrotic syndrome (NS), and guidelines for the management of hyperlipidemia in NS are largely opinion-based. In addition to the role of circulating lipids, an increasing number of studies suggest [...] Read more.
Although dyslipidemia is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), it is more common in nephrotic syndrome (NS), and guidelines for the management of hyperlipidemia in NS are largely opinion-based. In addition to the role of circulating lipids, an increasing number of studies suggest that intrarenal lipids contribute to the progression of glomerular diseases, indicating that proteinuric kidney diseases may be a form of “fatty kidney disease” and that reducing intracellular lipids could represent a new therapeutic approach to slow the progression of CKD. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in the utilization of lipid-modifying agents to lower renal parenchymal lipid accumulation and to prevent or reduce kidney injury. The agents mentioned in this review are categorized according to their specific targets, but they may also regulate other lipid-relevant pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Treatment and Hereditary Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome)
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Article
The Impact of the Synergistic Effect of Temperature and Air Pollutants on Chronic Lung Diseases in Subtropical Taiwan
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080819 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested an association between air pollution and lung disease. However, few studies have explored the relationship between chronic lung diseases classified by lung function and environmental parameters. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the relationship between chronic lung diseases, air [...] Read more.
Previous studies have suggested an association between air pollution and lung disease. However, few studies have explored the relationship between chronic lung diseases classified by lung function and environmental parameters. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the relationship between chronic lung diseases, air pollution, meteorological factors, and anthropometric indices. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Taiwan Biobank and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Database. A total of 2889 participants were included. We found a V/U-shaped relationship between temperature and air pollutants, with significant effects at both high and low temperatures. In addition, at lower temperatures (<24.6 °C), air pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO) (adjusted OR (aOR):1.78/Log 1 ppb, 95% CI 0.98–3.25; aOR:5.35/Log 1 ppb, 95% CI 2.88–9.94), nitrogen monoxide (NO) (aOR:1.05/ppm, 95% CI 1.01–1.09; aOR:1.11/ppm, 95% CI 1.07–1.15), nitrogen oxides (NOx) (aOR:1.02/ppm, 95% CI 1.00–1.05; aOR:1.06/ppm, 95% CI 1.04–1.08), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) (aOR:1.29/ppm, 95% CI 1.01–1.65; aOR:1.77/ppm, 95% CI 1.36–2.30) were associated with restrictive and mixed lung diseases, respectively. Exposure to CO, NO, NO2, NOx and SO2 significantly affected obstructive and mixed lung disease in southern Taiwan. In conclusion, temperature and air pollution should be considered together when evaluating the impact on chronic lung diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology)
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Article
The Effect of Radiotherapy on Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas Evolution: Confronting Theory with Clinical Data
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080818 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 689
Abstract
Diffuse low-grade gliomas are slowly growing tumors that always recur after treatment. In this paper, we revisit the modeling of the evolution of the tumor radius before and after the radiotherapy process and propose a novel model that is simple yet biologically motivated [...] Read more.
Diffuse low-grade gliomas are slowly growing tumors that always recur after treatment. In this paper, we revisit the modeling of the evolution of the tumor radius before and after the radiotherapy process and propose a novel model that is simple yet biologically motivated and that remedies some shortcomings of previously proposed ones. We confront this with clinical data consisting of time series of tumor radii from 43 patient records by using a stochastic optimization technique and obtain very good fits in all cases. Since our model describes the evolution of a tumor from the very first glioma cell, it gives access to the possible age of the tumor. Using the technique of profile likelihood to extract all of the information from the data, we build confidence intervals for the tumor birth age and confirm the fact that low-grade gliomas seem to appear in the late teenage years. Moreover, an approximate analytical expression of the temporal evolution of the tumor radius allows us to explain the correlations observed in the data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Applications for Clinical Radiotherapy)
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Article
The Patient-Specific Combined Target Zone for Morpho-Functional Planning of Total Hip Arthroplasty
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080817 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
Background Relevant criteria for total hip arthroplasty (THA) planning have been introduced in the literature which include the hip range of motion, bony coverage, anterior cup overhang, leg length discrepancy, edge loading risk, and wear. The optimal implant design and alignment depends on [...] Read more.
Background Relevant criteria for total hip arthroplasty (THA) planning have been introduced in the literature which include the hip range of motion, bony coverage, anterior cup overhang, leg length discrepancy, edge loading risk, and wear. The optimal implant design and alignment depends on the patient’s anatomy and patient-specific functional parameters such as the pelvic tilt. The approaches proposed in literature often consider one or more criteria for THA planning. but to the best of our knowledge none of them follow an integrated approach including all criteria for the definition of a patient-specific combined target zone (PSCTZ). Questions/purposes (1) How can we calculate suitable THA implant and implantation parameters for a specific patient considering all relevant criteria? (2) Are the resulting target zones in the range of conventional safe zones? (3) Do patients who fulfil these combined criteria have a better outcome score? Methods A method is presented that calculates individual target zones based on the morphology, range of motion and load acting on the hip joint and merges them into the PSCTZ. In a retrospective analysis of 198 THA patients, it was calculated whether the patients were inside or outside the Lewinnek safe zone, Dorr combined anteversion range and PSCTZ. The postoperative Harris Hip Scores (HHS) between insiders and outsiders were compared. Results 11 patients were inside the PSCTZ. Patients inside and outside the PSCTZ showed no significant difference in the HHS. However, a significant higher HHS was observed for the insiders of two of the three sub-target zones incorporated in the PSCTZ. By combining the sub-target zones in the PSCTZ, all PSCTZ insiders except one had an HHS higher than 90. Conclusions The results might suggest that, for a prosthesis implanted in the PSCTZ a low outcome score of the patient is less likely than using the conventional safe zones by Lewinnek and Dorr. For future studies, a larger cohort of patients inside the PSCTZ is needed which can only be achieved if the cases are planned prospectively with the method introduced in this paper. Clinical Relevance The method presented in this paper could help the surgeon combining multiple different criteria during THA planning and find the suitable implant design and alignment for a specific patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Patient-Specific Implants in Musculoskeletal (Orthopedic) Surgery)
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Article
Let-7a-5p, miR-100-5p, miR-101-3p, and miR-199a-3p Hyperexpression as Potential Predictive Biomarkers in Early Breast Cancer Patients
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080816 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study is to identify miRNAs able to predict the outcomes in breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 24 patients receiving NAC and not reaching pathologic complete response (pCR). miRNAs were analyzed [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study is to identify miRNAs able to predict the outcomes in breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 24 patients receiving NAC and not reaching pathologic complete response (pCR). miRNAs were analyzed using an Illumina Next-Generation-Sequencing (NGS) system. Results: Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly higher in patients with up-regulation of let-7a-5p (EFS p = 0.006; OS p = 0.0001), mirR-100-5p (EFS s p = 0.01; OS p = 0.03), miR-101-3p (EFS p = 0.05; OS p = 0.01), and miR-199a-3p (EFS p = 0.02; OS p = 0.01) in post-NAC samples, independently from breast cancer subtypes. At multivariate analysis, only let-7a-5p was significantly associated with EFS (p = 0.009) and OS (p = 0.0008). Conclusion: Up-regulation of the above miRNAs could represent biomarkers in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in the Integrated Management of Breast Cancer)
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Article
Perceptions about Research Participation among Individuals at Risk and Individuals with Premanifest Huntington’s Disease: A Survey Conducted by the European Huntington Association
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080815 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
There has been great progress in Huntington’s disease (HD) research. Yet, effective treatments to halt disease before the onset of disabling symptoms are still unavailable. Scientific breakthroughs require an active and lasting commitment from families. However, they are traditionally less involved and heard [...] Read more.
There has been great progress in Huntington’s disease (HD) research. Yet, effective treatments to halt disease before the onset of disabling symptoms are still unavailable. Scientific breakthroughs require an active and lasting commitment from families. However, they are traditionally less involved and heard in studies. Accordingly, the European Huntington Association (EHA) surveyed individuals at risk (HDRisk) and with premanifest HD (PreHD) to determine which factors affect their willingness to participate in research. Questions assessed research experience and knowledge, information sources, reasons for involvement and noninvolvement, and factors preventing and facilitating participation. The survey included 525 individuals, of which 68.8% never participated in studies and 38.6% reported limited research knowledge. Furthermore, 52% trusted patient organizations to get research information. Reasons for involvement were altruistic and more important than reasons for noninvolvement, which were related to negative emotions. Obstacles included time/financial constraints and invasive procedures, while professional support was seen as a facilitator. PreHD individuals reported less obstacles to research participation than HDRisk individuals. Overall, a high motivation to participate in research was noted, despite limited experience and literacy. This motivation is influenced by subjective and objective factors and, importantly, by HD status. Patient organizations have a key role in fostering motivation through education and support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Many Faces of Huntington Disease)
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Article
Reduced MIP-1β as a Trait Marker and Reduced IL-7 and IL-12 as State Markers of Anorexia Nervosa
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080814 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Alterations in certain inflammatory markers have been found in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, their relation to clinical characteristics has not been extensively explored, nor is it clear whether they are trait or state features of the disorder. This cross-sectional study measured [...] Read more.
Alterations in certain inflammatory markers have been found in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, their relation to clinical characteristics has not been extensively explored, nor is it clear whether they are trait or state features of the disorder. This cross-sectional study measured serum concentrations of 36 inflammatory markers in people with acute AN (n = 56), recovered AN (rec-AN; n = 24) and healthy controls (HC; n = 51). The relationship between body mass index (BMI), eating disorder psychopathology, depression symptoms and inflammatory markers was assessed. Statistical models controlled for variables known to influence cytokine concentrations (i.e., age, ethnicity, smoking status and medication usage). Overall, most inflammatory markers including pro-inflammatory cytokines were unchanged in AN and rec-AN. However, in AN and rec-AN, concentrations of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β were lower than HCs. Interleukin (IL)-7 and IL-12/IL-23p40 were reduced in AN, and concentrations of macrophage-derived chemokine, MIP-1α and tumor necrosis factor-α were reduced in rec-AN compared to HC. In conclusion, a reduction in MIP-1β may be a trait marker of the illness, whereas reductions in IL-7 and IL-12/IL-23p40 may be state markers. The absence of increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in AN is contradictory to the wider literature, although the inclusion of covariates may explain our differing findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers and Clinical Research in Eating Disorders)
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Article
Plateletworks® as a Point-of-Care Test for ASA Non-Sensitivity
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080813 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 651
Abstract
Aspirin (ASA) therapy is proven to be effective in preventing adverse cardiovascular events; however, up to 30% of patients are non-sensitive to their prescribed ASA dosage. In this pilot study, we demonstrated, for the first time, how ASA non-sensitivity can be diagnosed using [...] Read more.
Aspirin (ASA) therapy is proven to be effective in preventing adverse cardiovascular events; however, up to 30% of patients are non-sensitive to their prescribed ASA dosage. In this pilot study, we demonstrated, for the first time, how ASA non-sensitivity can be diagnosed using Plateletworks®, a point-of-care platelet function test. Patients prescribed 81 mg of ASA were recruited in a series of two successive phases—a discovery phase and a validation phase. In the discovery phase, a total of 60 patients were recruited to establish a cut-off point (COP) for ASA non-sensitivity using Plateletworks®. Each sample was simultaneously cross-referenced with a light transmission aggregometer (LTA). Our findings demonstrated that >52% maximal platelet aggregation using Plateletworks® had a sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio of 80%, 70%, and 2.67, respectively, in predicting ASA non-sensitivity. This COP was validated in a secondary cohort of 40 patients prescribed 81 mg of ASA using Plateletworks® and LTA. Our data demonstrated that our established COP had a 91% sensitivity and 69% specificity in identifying ASA non-sensitivity using Plateletworks®. In summary, Plateletworks® is a point-of-care platelet function test that can appropriately diagnose ASA non-sensitive patients with a sensitivity exceeding 80%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atherosclerosis: Technologies of Personalized Medicine)
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Article
Screening of Mood Symptoms Using MMPI-2-RF Scales: An Application of Machine Learning Techniques
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080812 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 782
Abstract
(1) Background: The MMPI-2-RF is the most widely used and most researched test among the tools for assessing psychopathology, and previous studies have established its validity. Mood disorders are the most common mental disorders worldwide; they present difficulties in early detection, go undiagnosed [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The MMPI-2-RF is the most widely used and most researched test among the tools for assessing psychopathology, and previous studies have established its validity. Mood disorders are the most common mental disorders worldwide; they present difficulties in early detection, go undiagnosed in many cases, and have a poor prognosis. (2) Methods: We analyzed a total of 8645 participants. We used the PHQ-9 to evaluate depressive symptoms and the MDQ to evaluate hypomanic symptoms. We used the 10 MMPI-2 Restructured Form scales and 23 Specific Problems scales for the MMPI-2-RF as predictors. We performed machine learning analysis using the k-nearest neighbor classification, linear discriminant analysis, and random forest classification. (3) Results: Through the machine learning technique, depressive symptoms were predicted with an AUC of 0.634–0.767, and the corresponding value range for hypomanic symptoms was 0.770–0.840. When using RCd to predict depressive symptoms, the AUC was 0.807, but this value was 0.840 when using linear discriminant classification. When predicting hypomanic symptoms with RC9, the AUC was 0.704, but this value was 0.767 when using the linear discriminant method. (4) Conclusions: Using machine learning analysis, we defined that participants’ mood symptoms could be classified and predicted better than when using the Restructured Clinical scales. Full article
Review
Management of Individual Patient Expectations When Starting with Highly Effective CFTR Modulators
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080811 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Highly effective CFTR modulators such as elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor (ELE/TEZ/IVA will become available for an increasing number of people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF) in the near future. Before the start of this therapy, many questions may arise concerning the expected effects. We assembled the currently [...] Read more.
Highly effective CFTR modulators such as elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor (ELE/TEZ/IVA will become available for an increasing number of people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF) in the near future. Before the start of this therapy, many questions may arise concerning the expected effects. We assembled the currently available data from the literature about ELE/TEZ/IVA that focused on commonly asked questions from patients. Overall, the literature so far presents a very hopeful prospect of effects, not only on lung function, but also on nutritional status, sinonasal symptoms and quality of life. The effects in patients with pwCF with severe lung damage are also favorable. Treatment is generally well tolerated. In some cases, patient-derived cell models can help in predicting the effects for individual patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cystic Fibrosis and Personalized Medicine)
Article
The Role of Pain Catastrophizing and Pain Acceptance in Performance-Based and Self-Reported Physical Functioning in Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Obesity
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080810 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Impaired physical functioning is one of the most critical consequences associated with fibromyalgia, especially when there is comorbid obesity. Psychological factors are known to contribute to perceived (i.e., subjective) physical functioning. However, physical function is a multidimensional concept encompassing both subjective and objective [...] Read more.
Impaired physical functioning is one of the most critical consequences associated with fibromyalgia, especially when there is comorbid obesity. Psychological factors are known to contribute to perceived (i.e., subjective) physical functioning. However, physical function is a multidimensional concept encompassing both subjective and objective functioning. The contribution of psychological factors to performance-based (i.e., objective) functioning is unclear. This study aims to investigate the contribution of pain catastrophizing and pain acceptance to both self-reported and performance-based physical functioning. In this cross-sectional study, 160 participants completed self-report measures of pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and pain severity. A self-report measure and a performance-based test were used to assess physical functioning. Higher pain catastrophizing and lower pain acceptance were associated with poorer physical functioning at both self-reported and performance-based levels. Our results are consistent with previous evidence on the association between pain catastrophizing and pain acceptance with self-reported physical functioning. This study contributes to the current literature by providing novel insights into the role of psychological factors in performance-based physical functioning. Multidisciplinary interventions that address pain catastrophizing and pain acceptance are recommended and might be effective to improve both perceived and performance-based functioning in women with FM and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
Article
Kinesio Taping vs. Auricular Acupressure for the Personalised Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080809 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Background: Dysmenorrhoea is the medical term for menstrual pain. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 81% of women of childbearing age are affected by this condition, and it is one of the leading causes of absenteeism from work and school among [...] Read more.
Background: Dysmenorrhoea is the medical term for menstrual pain. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 81% of women of childbearing age are affected by this condition, and it is one of the leading causes of absenteeism from work and school among women. Although there are pharmacological treatments available for menstrual-pain relief, they do not respond to all women’s needs. Therefore, there is a need to study and develop non-pharmacological alternatives to broaden the individualised treatment options for dysmenorrhea. There are scarce studies published on non-pharmacological treatments, such as kinesio tape and auricular acupressure for the relief of menstrual pain, but the scientific evidence available suggest that these techniques may be beneficial in addressing this problem. The objective of this pilot study was to assess and compare the effectiveness of kinesio tape and auricular acupressure to decrease pain and drug intake in women with primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods: This was a double-blind randomized clinical controlled trial. The period of study was from September 2017 to August 2018. Women enrolled in the University of Extremadura and who had primary dysmenorrhoea were randomized to five groups: control (n = 23), kinesio tape (n = 23), placebo kinesio tape (n = 23), auricular acupressure (n = 23) and placebo auricular acupressure (n = 22). Measures were taken during the pretreatment phase (at four menstrual cycles), during the post-intervention phase (at four menstrual cycles) and during the follow-up phase (at the first and third menstrual cycles after the treatment was completed). The primary outcome measures were mean pain intensity, maximum pain intensity, number of painful days and dose of drug intake during menstruation, measured with the Visual Analogue Scale. The secondary outcome measures were the length of the cycle, the length of menstruation, the drug intake and the type of drug. Results: In all, 108 participants completed the study. The statistical analysis (MANOVA, ANOVA, t-paired and McNemar tests) showed that kinesio tape and auricular acupressure have a beneficial effect on pain relief (mean pain intensity, p < 0.001; maximum pain intensity, p < 0.001; number of painful days, p = 0.021; dose of drug intake, p < 0.001). In addition, once the treatments were withdrawn, the auricular-acupressure group maintained lower scores during the first follow-up cycle (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Kinesio tape and auricular acupressure decrease pain and drug intake in women with primary dysmenorrhoea. The changes in the auricular-acupressure group seemed to last longer. The results suggest that these techniques could be used as complementary personalised therapies to the pharmacological treatment and not as a substitution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nursing and Health Care)
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Review
Breast Cancer Treatments: Updates and New Challenges
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080808 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2821
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer diagnosed in women worldwide. This heterogeneous disease can be classified into four molecular subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2 and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)) according to the expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and the [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer diagnosed in women worldwide. This heterogeneous disease can be classified into four molecular subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2 and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)) according to the expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR), and the overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Current BC treatments target these receptors (endocrine and anti-HER2 therapies) as a personalized treatment. Along with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, these therapies can have severe adverse effects and patients can develop resistance to these agents. Moreover, TNBC do not have standardized treatments. Hence, a deeper understanding of the development of new treatments that are more specific and effective in treating each BC subgroup is key. New approaches have recently emerged such as immunotherapy, conjugated antibodies, and targeting other metabolic pathways. This review summarizes current BC treatments and explores the new treatment strategies from a personalized therapy perspective and the resulting challenges. Full article
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Article
Uncovering the Imprints of Chronic Disease on Patients’ Lives and Self-Perceptions
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080807 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients face psychological hardship due to physical discomfort, disabilities, and anxieties. Previous research indicated a bidirectional relationship and patient desire for emotional support from providers. This study examined lesser-understood RA experiences across the psychological and social contexts in relation to [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients face psychological hardship due to physical discomfort, disabilities, and anxieties. Previous research indicated a bidirectional relationship and patient desire for emotional support from providers. This study examined lesser-understood RA experiences across the psychological and social contexts in relation to self-perception through the patients’ expression of their struggles with these burdens. We conducted four semistructured focus groups and eleven interviews (total n = 31). A codebook was developed and refined through iterative transcript coding via NVivo-12. Four emerging themes were identified by inductive, thematic analysis: (1) the patients’ healthy appearances were a myth, with subthemes revealing a conflict between an inclination to hide the disease and a desire for validation, while feeling embarrassed by symptom manifestations and disappointment at withdrawal from social interactions; (2) an identity crisis due to diminished functionality, autonomy, and sense of self; (3) RA constantly occupied the mind, as its unpredictability dictated daily schedules and altered plans; and (4) the disease’s chronic nature influenced personal outlook to worry about or accept the uncertainty. Even with effective treatment, the invisibility of the disease, the fear and anticipation of flare-ups, and identity clashes caused emotional distress. The insights offer a different perspective on personalized medicine, complementing clinical treatments based on genetic or biomarker profile. For patient-centered holistic care, education is needed to prompt both patients and providers to discuss psychological issues for more customized, integrated interventions. The findings can help inform healthcare teams and families in recognizing and supporting these physical-psychological intertwined experiences, thereby ameliorating patients’ wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nursing and Health Care)
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Article
Eight Weeks Unsupervised Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Previously Hospitalized of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080806 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
The aim of our study was to determine the impact of unsupervised Pulmonary Rehabilitation (uns-PR) on patients recovering from COVID-19, and determine its anthropometric, biological, demographic and fitness correlates. All patients (n = 20, age: 64.1 ± 9.9 years, 75% male) participated [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to determine the impact of unsupervised Pulmonary Rehabilitation (uns-PR) on patients recovering from COVID-19, and determine its anthropometric, biological, demographic and fitness correlates. All patients (n = 20, age: 64.1 ± 9.9 years, 75% male) participated in unsupervised Pulmonary Rehabilitation program for eight weeks. We recorded anthropometric characteristics, pulmonary function parameters, while we performed 6 min walk test (6 MWT) and blood sampling for oxidative stress measurement before and after uns-PR. We observed differences before and after uns-PR during 6 MWT in hemodynamic parameters [systolic blood pressure in resting (138.7 ± 16.3 vs. 128.8 ± 8.6 mmHg, p = 0.005) and end of test (159.8 ± 13.5 vs. 152.0 ± 12.2 mmHg, p = 0.025), heart rate (5th min: 111.6 ± 16.9 vs. 105.4 ± 15.9 bpm, p = 0.049 and 6th min: 112.5 ± 18.3 vs. 106.9 ± 17.9 bpm, p = 0.039)], in oxygen saturation (4th min: 94.6 ± 2.9 vs. 95.8 ± 3.2%, p = 0.013 and 1st min of recovery: 97.8 ± 0.9 vs. 97.3 ± 0.9%), in dyspnea at the end of 6 MWT (1.3 ± 1.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.9 score, p = 0.005), in distance (433.8 ± 102.2 vs. 519.2 ± 95.4 m, p < 0.001), in estimated O2 uptake (14.9 ± 2.4 vs. 16.9 ± 2.2 mL/min/kg, p < 0.001) in 30 s sit to stand (11.4 ± 3.2 vs. 14.1 ± 2.7 repetitions, p < 0.001)] Moreover, in plasma antioxidant capacity (2528.3 ± 303.2 vs. 2864.7 ± 574.8 U.cor., p = 0.027), in body composition parameters [body fat (32.2 ± 9.4 vs. 29.5 ± 8.2%, p = 0.003), visceral fat (14.0 ± 4.4 vs. 13.3 ± 4.2 score, p = 0.021), neck circumference (39.9 ± 3.4 vs. 37.8 ± 4.2 cm, p = 0.006) and muscle mass (30.1 ± 4.6 vs. 34.6 ± 7.4 kg, p = 0.030)] and sleep quality (6.7 ± 3.9 vs. 5.6 ± 3.3 score, p = 0.036) we observed differences before and after uns-PR. Our findings support the implementation of unsupervised pulmonary rehabilitation programs in patients following COVID-19 recovery, targeting the improvement of many aspects of long COVID-19 syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Clinical and Community Nursing)
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Article
Examining the Association between Evidence-Based Practice and Burnout among Spanish Physical Therapists: A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080805 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 998
Abstract
The aim of this study was to quantify the level of burnout and competence for evidence-based practice among Spanish physical therapists and to determine if there is a relationship between these and other socio-professional factors. A cross-sectional study with 472 Spanish Physiotherapists. An [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to quantify the level of burnout and competence for evidence-based practice among Spanish physical therapists and to determine if there is a relationship between these and other socio-professional factors. A cross-sectional study with 472 Spanish Physiotherapists. An electronic survey was conducted that included the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire and sociodemographic data. The three subscales of the Burnout correlated with attitude and total Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. Attitude and practice for evidence-based practice, educational level and experience were the variables that showed the greatest influence on burnout. Burnout and the degree of evidence-based practice were identified as being discretely related. Specifically, it seems that the evidence-based practice could improve the lack of personal accomplishment, meaning that through interventions perceived as more effective and advantageous, a sense of mastery and self-efficacy is experienced. Full article
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Review
Frequency of Important CYP450 Enzyme Gene Polymorphisms in the Iranian Population in Comparison with Other Major Populations: A Comprehensive Review of the Human Data
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080804 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes can cause alteration in metabolic activity of clinically important medicines. Thus, single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variations (CNVs) in CYP genes are leading factors of drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity and form pharmacogenetics biomarkers for drug [...] Read more.
Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes can cause alteration in metabolic activity of clinically important medicines. Thus, single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variations (CNVs) in CYP genes are leading factors of drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity and form pharmacogenetics biomarkers for drug dosing, efficacy, and safety. The distribution of cytochrome P450 alleles differs significantly between populations with important implications for personalized drug therapy and healthcare programs. To provide a meta-analysis of CYP allele polymorphisms with clinical importance, we brought together whole-genome and exome sequencing data from 800 unrelated individuals of Iranian population (100 subjects from 8 major ethnics of Iran) and 63,269 unrelated individuals of five major human populations (EUR, AMR, AFR, EAS and SAS). By integrating these datasets with population-specific linkage information, we evolved the frequencies of 140 CYP haplotypes related to 9 important CYP450 isoenzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) giving a large resource for major genetic determinants of drug metabolism. Furthermore, we evaluated the more frequent Iranian alleles and compared the dataset with the Caucasian race. Finally, the similarity of the Iranian population SNVs with other populations was investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine: Pharmacokinetics)
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Article
Automatic Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder Using Optical Coherence Tomography Data and Artificial Intelligence
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080803 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study is to explore an objective approach that aids the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD), based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) data which are analyzed using artificial intelligence. Methods: Structural analyses of nine layers of the retina were [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study is to explore an objective approach that aids the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD), based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) data which are analyzed using artificial intelligence. Methods: Structural analyses of nine layers of the retina were analyzed in 17 type I BD patients and 42 controls, according to the areas defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. The most discriminating variables made up the feature vector of several automatic classifiers: Gaussian Naive Bayes, K-nearest neighbors and support vector machines. Results: BD patients presented retinal thinning affecting most layers, compared to controls. The retinal thickness of the parafoveolar area showed a high capacity to discriminate BD subjects from healthy individuals, specifically for the ganglion cell (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82) and internal plexiform (AUC = 0.83) layers. The best classifier showed an accuracy of 0.95 for classifying BD versus controls, using as variables of the feature vector the IPL (inner nasal region) and the INL (outer nasal and inner inferior regions) thickness. Conclusions: Our patients with BD present structural alterations in the retina, and artificial intelligence seem to be a useful tool in BD diagnosis, but larger studies are needed to confirm our findings. Full article
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Article
Screening for Glucose Metabolism Disorders, Assessment the Disse Insulin Resistance Index and Hospital Prognosis of Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080802 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Objective: To study insulin resistance markers and their relationship with preoperative status and hospital complications of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with type 2 diabetes, prediabetes and normoglycemia. Methods: We included 383 consecutive patients who underwent CABG. Patients were divided into [...] Read more.
Objective: To study insulin resistance markers and their relationship with preoperative status and hospital complications of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with type 2 diabetes, prediabetes and normoglycemia. Methods: We included 383 consecutive patients who underwent CABG. Patients were divided into two groups—with carbohydrate metabolism disorders (CMD, n = 192) and without CMD (n = 191). Free fatty acids and fasting insulin in plasma were determined, and the Disse, QUICKI and revised QUICKI indices were calculated in all patients. Perioperative characteristics and postoperative complications were analyzed in these groups, and their relations with markers of insulin resistance. Results: Screening before CABG increased the number of patients with CMD from 25.3% to 50.1%. Incidence of postoperative stroke (p = 0.044), and hospital stay after CABG > 30 days (p = 0.014) was greater in CMD patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase in left atrial size, age, aortic clamping time, and decrease in Disse index were independently associated with hospital stay >10 days and/or perioperative complications. Conclusions: Screening for CMD before CABG increased the patient number with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. In the CMD group, there were more frequent hospital complications. The Disse index was an independent predictor of long hospital stay and/or poor outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postoperative Complications and Personalized Medicine)
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Article
Efficacy of Laser Doppler Flowmetry, as a Diagnostic Tool in Assessing Pulp Vitality of Traumatised Teeth: A Split Mouth Clinical Study
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080801 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) in determining the changes in the pulpal blood flow (PBF) during post-traumatic period of the traumatised permanent teeth. Methods: 88 teeth of 44 patients (mean age 10.30 ± 2.38) were [...] Read more.
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) in determining the changes in the pulpal blood flow (PBF) during post-traumatic period of the traumatised permanent teeth. Methods: 88 teeth of 44 patients (mean age 10.30 ± 2.38) were recruited according to the eligibility criteria and divided into two groups: test group (44 traumatised teeth) and control group (44 sound and healthy teeth). The measurement of PBF was performed, using a LDF monitor. Results: The analysis of the LDF outcomes in function of diagnosis indicated that the measurements of the traumatised teeth were significantly higher than those of non-traumatised teeth (p ˂ 0.05). Conclusions: LDF application provides dentists with fundamental benefits in terms of an early and precise investigation of PBF. In addition, LDF is a useful monitoring tool for revascularization of traumatised teeth and reliable objective diagnostic indicator of pulp vitality. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (Registration number: NCT04967456). Full article
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Editorial
Pharmacogenomics: From Basic Research to Clinical Implementation
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080800 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
The established contribution of genetic variation to drug response has the potential to improve drug efficacy and reduce drug toxicity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacogenomics: From Basic Research to Clinical Implementation)
Article
Glycemic Gap as a Useful Surrogate Marker for Glucose Variability and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080799 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
(1) Background: Recent studies have reported that the glucose variability (GV), irrespective of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), could be an additional risk factor for the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, measurements for GV, such as continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and fasting plasma glucose [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Recent studies have reported that the glucose variability (GV), irrespective of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), could be an additional risk factor for the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, measurements for GV, such as continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) variability, are expensive and time consuming. (2) Methods: This present study aims to explore the correlation between the glycemic gap as a measurement of GV, and DR. In total, 2565 patients were included in this study. We evaluated the effect of the different types of glycemic gaps on DR progression. (3) Results: We found that the area under the curve (AUC) values of both the glycemic gap and negative glycemic gap showed an association with DR progression. (4) Conclusions: On eliminating the possible influences of chronic blood glucose controls, the results show that GV has deleterious effects that are associated with the progression of DR. The glycemic gap is a simple measurement of GV, and the predictive value of the negative glycemic gap in DR progression shows that GV and treatment-related hypoglycemia may cause the development of DR. Individual treatment goals with a reasonable HbA1c and minimal glucose fluctuations may help in preventing DR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Diabetic Retinopathy)
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Article
Pain Improvement in Parkinson’s Disease Patients Treated with Safinamide: Results from the SAFINONMOTOR Study
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080798 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Background and objective: Pain is a frequent and disabling symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Our aim was to analyze the effectiveness of safinamide on pain in PD patients from the SAFINONMOTOR (an open-label study of the effectiveness of SAFInamide on NON-MOTOR symptoms [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Pain is a frequent and disabling symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Our aim was to analyze the effectiveness of safinamide on pain in PD patients from the SAFINONMOTOR (an open-label study of the effectiveness of SAFInamide on NON-MOTOR symptoms in Parkinson´s disease patients) study. Material and Methods: SAFINONMOTOR is a prospective open-label single-arm study conducted in five centers from Spain. In this analysis, a secondary objective of the study, the score in the KPPS (King´s Parkinson´s Disease Pain Scale) at V1 (baseline) and V4 (6 months ± 1 month) were compared. Wilcoxon´s rank sum test was performed to test the changes from V1 to V4. Results: Forty-four (88%) out of 50 PD patients (age 68.5 ± 9.12 years; 58% women; 6.4 ± 5.1 years from diagnosis) completed the study. The KPPS total score was reduced by 43.6% (from 40.04 ± 36.18 in V1 to 22.60 ± 21.42 in V4; p < 0.0001). By domains, improvement was observed in musculoskeletal (−35.9%; p = 0.009), fluctuation-related (−51.7%; p = 0.020), nocturnal (−46.1%; p = 0.001), discoloration and/or edema/swelling (−50.4%; p = 0.009) and radicular pain (−40.1%; p = 0.048). A total of 21 adverse events in 11 patients (22%) were reported, five being severe, but not related to safinamide. Conclusion: Safinamide is well tolerated and improves pain in PD patients at 6 months. Future studies are necessary to analyze the possible beneficial effect of safinamide on pain in PD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Therapeutics of Neurological Diseases)
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Article
Efficacy of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty after iStent Implantation in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080797 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 643
Abstract
iStent implantation is thought to augment the trabecular outflow channel in the anterior segment of the eye. We hypothesized that iStent with subsequent selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) would better control the intraocular pressure (IOP) compared to standalone SLT in patients with primary open-angle [...] Read more.
iStent implantation is thought to augment the trabecular outflow channel in the anterior segment of the eye. We hypothesized that iStent with subsequent selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) would better control the intraocular pressure (IOP) compared to standalone SLT in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We, therefore, determined if the presence of an iStent combined with SLT was statistically associated with IOP lowering compared to standalone SLT. Through retrospective electronic medical record review, records of 824 eyes from 440 patients who received primary SLT without a history of iStent were considered. Additionally, 42 eyes from 28 patients who received SLT after combined phacoemulsification and iStent implantation that failed to control intraocular pressure (IOP) and/or the progression of the disease were retrospectively reviewed. IOP and number of medications, which were tracked in each patient for up to 12 months post laser, were also examined. Successful outcome was defined as a statistically significant reduction in IOP or number of medications at 6 months. As defined in univariate analysis (p ≤ 0.01), multivariate analysis included iStent, age, sex, race, and initial IOP as variables. IOP reduction was statistically associated with patients pre-SLT IOP (p < 0.001) but not with patients with iStent (p = 0.222). Medication reduction was statistically associated with the pre-SLT number of medications (p < 0.001) and iStent (p < 0.001). In eyes that received SLT, iStent was not statistically associated with a greater reduction in IOP compared to controls, but was associated with a higher reduction in the overall number of medications used 6 months after receiving SLT. The work presented should guide clinicians to consider SLT as an effective therapy after iStent implantation, in terms of glaucoma medication reduction in iStent patients, but clinicians should know that the presence of an iStent does not necessarily make subsequent SLT more effective at lowering IOP. Full article
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