Special Issue "Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions"

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 February 2022) | Viewed by 33261

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Fábio G. Teixeira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
i3S - Institute for Research and Innovation in Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
Interests: regenerative medicine; mesenchymal stem cells; stem cells secretome; bioreactor cell culture; exosomes; astrocyte reactivity; neuron-glia communication; 3D culture systems; Parkinson's disease
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Catarina Godinho
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Medical Pathology, Nutrition and Clinical Exercise Group (PaMNEC) of Multidisciplinary Research Center of Egas Moniz (CiiEM), 2829-511 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: neurological diseases; parkinson's disease; elderly and aging; clinical exercise; non-pharmacologic interventions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Júlio Belo Fernandes
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Medical Pathology, Nutrition and Clinical Exercise Group (PaMNEC) of Multidisciplinary Research, Center of Egas Moniz (CiiEM), Escola Superior de Saúde Egas Moniz, 2829-511 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: nursing; personalized medicine; physical rehabilitation; neurorehabilitation; qualitative research; health promotion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Background: Chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases are growing at an alarming rate, especially in the aging population. People who have chronic disease spend a significant amount of time in self-management in out-of-hospital environments, in their homes and in their community settings. These patients have different disease statuses and management requirements, so providing personalized care is key.

Aim and scope: We aim to publish articles describing a personalized care approach to the diagnosis and treatment to chronically ill patients.

History: Personalised care is a collaborative process that should be used in chronic condition management in which patients, caregivers and healthcare providers identify and discuss problems caused by or related to the patient's condition, and then develop plans and goals to empower patients. 

Cutting-edge research: Personalized care can improve aspects of physical health, mental health and the ability to self-manage conditions. Thus, a personalized care approach could greatly benefit patients with chronic conditions.

What kind of papers we are soliciting: We encourage the submission of manuscripts that describe a personalized care approach to the diagnosis and treatment to chronically ill patients.

Dr. Fábio G. Teixeira
Dr. Catarina Godinho
Prof. Dr. Júlio Belo Fernandes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • personalized care
  • person-centredness
  • patient compliance
  • patient participation
  • empowerment
  • chronic conditions
  • chronic disease

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Editorial
Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12050737 - 01 May 2022
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Chronic diseases are commonly defined as conditions that last one year or more and require ongoing medical attention, limit activities of daily living, or both [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)

Research

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Article
Rehabilitation Nurse’s Perspective on Transitional Care: An Online Focus Group
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(4), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12040582 - 05 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
The increasing incidence of chronic and dependence leads to the need for hospitalization and adaptation in the process of returning home, as well as transition between care levels to ensure continuity of care. The World Health Organization has been warning about this problem [...] Read more.
The increasing incidence of chronic and dependence leads to the need for hospitalization and adaptation in the process of returning home, as well as transition between care levels to ensure continuity of care. The World Health Organization has been warning about this problem since 2016, and consider reorganizing the care model as one of the solutions. The present study aimed to analyse the nurses’ perspective on transitional care for dependent people with rehabilitation care needs after hospital discharge. Methods: A focus group was developed with the participation of Rehabilitation Nurses from the hospital and community context, and content analysis was defined a posteriori. Results: From the content analysis emerged four related categories: promotion of continuity of care, nurse of advanced practice as a care manager, capacitation of the person and caregiver, and promotion of the care coordination. Conclusions: The present study allowed the strategies identification that minimize fragmentation risk of care and promote the person participation in transitional care. Ensuring transitional care is imperative to increase the quality of care, the satisfaction of professionals, clients, and the development of a system of sustainable health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
Article
Personalised Approach to Diagnosing and Managing Ischemic Stroke with a Plasma-Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030457 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Background: The increasing incidence of ischemic stroke has led to the search for a novel biomarker to predict the course of disease and the risk of mortality. Recently, the role of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) as a biomarker and indicator [...] Read more.
Background: The increasing incidence of ischemic stroke has led to the search for a novel biomarker to predict the course of disease and the risk of mortality. Recently, the role of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) as a biomarker and indicator of immune system activation has been widely examined. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the dynamics of changes in serum levels of suPAR in ischemic stroke and to evaluate the prognostic value of suPAR in determining mortality risk. Methods: Eighty patients from the Department of Neurology, diagnosed with ischemic stroke, were enrolled in the study. Residual blood was obtained from all the patients on the first, third and seventh days after their ischemic stroke and the concentrations of suPAR and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as the number of leukocytes and National Institute of Health’s Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, were evaluated. Results: On the first day of ischemic stroke, the average suPAR concentration was 6.55 ng/mL; on the third day, it was 8.29 ng/mL; on the seventh day, it was 9.16 ng/mL. The average CRP concentration on the first day of ischemic stroke was 4.96 mg/L; on the third day, it was 11.76 mg/L; on the seventh day, it was 17.17 mg/L. The number of leukocytes on the first day of ischemic stroke was 7.32 × 103/mm3; on the third day, it was 9.27 × 103/mm3; on the seventh day, it was 10.41 × 103/mm3. Neurological condition, which was assessed via the NIHSS, on the first day of ischemic stroke, was scored at 10.71 points; on the third day, it was scored at 12.34 points; on the seventh day, it was scored at 13.75 points. An increase in the values of all the evaluated parameters on the first, third and seventh days of hospitalisation was observed. The patients with hypertension, ischemic heart disease and type 2 diabetes showed higher suPAR and CRP concentrations at the baseline as well as on subsequent days of hospitalisation. The greatest sensitivity and specificity were characterised by suPAR-3, where a value above 10.5 ng/mL resulted in a significant increase in mortality risk. Moreover, an NIHSS-1 score above 12 points and a CRP-3 concentration above 15.6 mg/L significantly increased the risk of death in the course of the disease. Conclusions: The plasma suPAR concentration after ischemic stroke is strongly related to the patient’s clinical status, with a higher concentration on the first and third days of stroke resulting in a poorer prognosis at a later stage of treatment. Therefore, assessing the concentration of this parameter has important prognostic value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
Article
Stigma towards People with Mental Illness among Portuguese Nursing Students
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030326 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Stigma is a substantial obstacle when caring for people with mental illness. Nursing students’ negative attitudes towards people with mental illness may impact the quality of care delivered and consequentially patient outcomes. In this study, we assessed the stigmatising attitudes and beliefs of [...] Read more.
Stigma is a substantial obstacle when caring for people with mental illness. Nursing students’ negative attitudes towards people with mental illness may impact the quality of care delivered and consequentially patient outcomes. In this study, we assessed the stigmatising attitudes and beliefs of nursing students towards people with mental illness and examined its relationship with several psycho-socio-demographic variables. This was a quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive correlational study, which was developed with a non-probabilistic convenience sample of 110 nursing students. Stigmatising attitudes and beliefs were assessed using the Portuguese version of the Attribution Questionnaire AQ-27. Results show that the dimensions of stigma with higher scores were help, pity, coercion and avoidance. However, significant differences were only observed depending on the year of study (fourth-year students, who already had clinical placements in this area, are less likely to show stigma), the relationship (family is less prone to show coercion), the history of mental health treatment (students with a history of mental health treatment have more tendency to help) and whether they considered working in the mental health field (students who have considered working in this field are less prone to show anger, avoidance and think of patients as dangerous). Therefore, we conclude that education in a classroom setting alone is not enough to reduce stigma in nursing students, clinical placement in the area is required to achieve such results. It is thus essential to improve nursing curricula worldwide so that students are exposed to both psychiatric nursing theory and clinical practice in the first years of the nursing degree. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
Article
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in the Elderly: The Perspective of Nursing Students
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(2), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12020306 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
Health promotion and disease prevention are closely linked to health literacy. Therefore, intervention to increase individuals’ knowledge is essential if action is to be taken to promote a healthy lifestyle with support from health professionals for decision making on choices leading to behavioral [...] Read more.
Health promotion and disease prevention are closely linked to health literacy. Therefore, intervention to increase individuals’ knowledge is essential if action is to be taken to promote a healthy lifestyle with support from health professionals for decision making on choices leading to behavioral change. Taking into account the growing aging population, nurses and nursing students have to develop interventions to promote health and prevent disease in these people, in order to keep them healthy and with quality of life. This study aims to understand how nursing students’ experiences in a clinical teaching context contributed to the development of their competencies in the promotion of health and prevention of disease in the elderly. Method: Qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study carried out with ten students about to finish a graduate nursing course in a higher education institution in the South of Portugal. This study was carried out through narratives, one of the most common data collection procedures in social and health investigations. The content analysis technique, more specifically the thematic categorical analysis, was used for data analysis. The study received authorization from the Ethics Committee of the institution where it took place. Results: Three categories were found: “Strategies to promote health and prevent disease in the elderly”, “Health improvements from the implementation of the strategies to promote health and prevent disease in the elderly”, and “The impact your participation in these strategies to promote health and prevent disease in the elderly had on your formative process”. Conclusion: The students developed competencies during their clinical teaching experiences through the implementation of strategies of health promotion and disease prevention adapted to/focused on the needs of the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
Article
Assessment of Sleep among Patients with Chronic Liver Disease: Association with Quality of Life
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(12), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11121387 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
The present study aims to assess the sleep characteristics and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs), as well as the relationship between them. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study, over a period of eight months, on patients [...] Read more.
The present study aims to assess the sleep characteristics and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs), as well as the relationship between them. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study, over a period of eight months, on patients with CLDs. Sleep was assessed by subjective tools (self-reported validated questionnaires), semi-objective methods (actigraphy), and HRQOL by using the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ). The results indicated that 48.21% of patients with CLDs had a mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score higher than five, suggestive of poor sleep; 39.29% of patients had a mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score ≥11, indicative of daytime sleepiness. Actigraphy monitoring showed that patients with cirrhosis had significantly more delayed bedtime hours and get-up hours, more awakenings, and more reduced sleep efficacy when compared to pre-cirrhotics. The CLDQ and SF-36 questionnaire scores were significantly lower in cirrhotics compared to pre-cirrhotics within each domain. Moreover, we identified significant correlations between the variables from each questionnaire, referring to HRQOL and sleep parameters. In conclusion, sleep disturbances are commonly encountered among patients with CLDs and are associated with impaired HRQOL. This is the first study in Romania that assesses sleep by actigraphy in a cohort of patients with different stages of CLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
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Article
Effects of Therapeutic and Aerobic Exercise Programs on Pain, Neuromuscular Activation, and Bite Force in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(11), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111170 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Pain in masticatory muscles is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and can lead to changes in the patterns of neuromuscular activity of masticatory muscles and decrease in bite force. This study assesses the effects of three [...] Read more.
Pain in masticatory muscles is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and can lead to changes in the patterns of neuromuscular activity of masticatory muscles and decrease in bite force. This study assesses the effects of three eight-week exercise programs on pain intensity, neuromuscular activation, and bite force of masticatory muscles in patients with TMD. Forty-five patients were divided into three groups: a therapeutic exercise program (G1), a therapeutic and aerobic exercise program (G2), and an aerobic exercise program (G3). The masticatory muscles’ pain was evaluated using the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the masseter was recorded during maximum voluntary contraction and at rest, and bite force was evaluated using a dynamometer. These parameters were evaluated twice at baseline (A01/A02), at the end of the eight-week intervention period (A1), and 8–12 weeks after the end of the intervention (A2). After intervention, G2 showed the best results, with a significantly decrease in masticatory muscles’ pain and increase in bite force. These results suggest that interventions to reduce pain in patients with TMD should be multimodal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
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Article
Patients’ Characterization of Medication, Emotions, and Incongruent Perceptions around Adherence
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(10), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11100975 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
Medication nonadherence is prevalent among patients with chronic diseases. Previous research focused on patients’ beliefs in medication or illness and applied risk-benefit analyses when reasoning their behavior. This qualitative study examined rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients’ perceptions and feelings toward medication in parallel with [...] Read more.
Medication nonadherence is prevalent among patients with chronic diseases. Previous research focused on patients’ beliefs in medication or illness and applied risk-benefit analyses when reasoning their behavior. This qualitative study examined rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients’ perceptions and feelings toward medication in parallel with attitudes about their own adherence. We conducted four 90-min focus groups and seven 60-min interviews with a diverse sample of RA patients (n = 27). Discussions covered dilemmas encountered, emotions, and thought process concerning medication, and included application of projective techniques. Transcripts were analyzed in NVivo-12 using a thematic coding framework through multiple rounds of deduction and categorization. Three themes emerged, each with mixed sentiments. (1) Ambivalent feelings toward medication: participants experienced internal conflicts as their appreciation of drugs for relief contradicted worries about side effects or “toxicity” and desire to not identify as sick, portraying medications as “best friend” and “evil”. (2) Struggles in taking medication: participants “hated” the burden of managing regimen and resented the reliance and embarrassment. (3) Attitudes and behavior around adherence: most participants self-reported high adherence yet also described frequently self-adjusting medications, displaying perception-action incongruency. Some expressed nervousness and resistance while others felt empowered when modifying dosage, which might have motivated or helped them self-justify nonadherence. Only a few who deviated from prescription discussed it with their clinicians though most participants expressed the desire to do so; open communication with providers reinforced a sense of confidence and control of their own health. Promoting personalized care with shared decision-making that empowers and supports patients in managing their long-term treatment could encourage adherence and improve overall health outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
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Article
A Novel Boot Camp Program to Help Guide Personalized Exercise in People with Parkinson Disease
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(9), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11090938 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Given the variety of exercise programs available for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), such individuals may struggle to make decisions about what exercise to perform. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness, satisfaction, and preferences regarding participation in a PD-personalized [...] Read more.
Given the variety of exercise programs available for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), such individuals may struggle to make decisions about what exercise to perform. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness, satisfaction, and preferences regarding participation in a PD-personalized educational and exercise boot camp program. Attendees participated in a four-day program consisting of exercise sessions, workshops, and social activities. We collected demographic and clinical information. We assessed satisfaction and preferences immediately after. At one-month follow-up, participants assessed usefulness and changes in exercise habits. Eight individuals diagnosed with PD, with a mean age of 59.5 ± 6.8 years, participated. All participants felt “very satisfied” and likely to attend future events. The two favorite sessions were: cognitive stepping and dance-based movements. At one-month follow-up, participants considered the program “very useful” and reported changes in their exercise routine. Our results suggest that the boot camp program was considered useful and capable of influencing participants’ exercise habits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
Article
The Effects of Different Types of Dual Tasking on Balance in Healthy Older Adults
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(9), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11090933 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Numerous of our daily activities are performed within multitask or dual task conditions. These conditions involve the interaction of perceptual and motor processes involved in postural control. Age-related changes may negatively impact cognition and balance control. Studies identifying changes related to dual-task actions [...] Read more.
Numerous of our daily activities are performed within multitask or dual task conditions. These conditions involve the interaction of perceptual and motor processes involved in postural control. Age-related changes may negatively impact cognition and balance control. Studies identifying changes related to dual-task actions in older people are need. This study aimed to determine the effects of different types of dual-tasking on the balance control of healthy older adults. The sample included 36 community-living older adults, performing two tests—a sway test and a timed up-and-go test—in three conditions: (a) single motor task; (b) dual motor task; and (c) dual motor task with cognitive demands. Cognitive processes (dual-task and cognition) affected static balance, increasing amplitude (p < 0.001) and frequency (p < 0.001) of the center of mass displacements. Dynamic balance revealed significant differences between the single motor condition and the other two conditions during gait phases (p < 0.001). The effect of dual-tasking in older adults suggests that cognitive processes are a main cause of increased variability in balance and gait when under an automatic control. During sit-to-stand, turning, and turn-to-sit movements under dual-tasking, the perceptive information becomes the most important focus of attention, while any cognitive task becomes secondary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
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Article
The Role of Pain Catastrophizing and Pain Acceptance in Performance-Based and Self-Reported Physical Functioning in Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Obesity
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080810 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
Impaired physical functioning is one of the most critical consequences associated with fibromyalgia, especially when there is comorbid obesity. Psychological factors are known to contribute to perceived (i.e., subjective) physical functioning. However, physical function is a multidimensional concept encompassing both subjective and objective [...] Read more.
Impaired physical functioning is one of the most critical consequences associated with fibromyalgia, especially when there is comorbid obesity. Psychological factors are known to contribute to perceived (i.e., subjective) physical functioning. However, physical function is a multidimensional concept encompassing both subjective and objective functioning. The contribution of psychological factors to performance-based (i.e., objective) functioning is unclear. This study aims to investigate the contribution of pain catastrophizing and pain acceptance to both self-reported and performance-based physical functioning. In this cross-sectional study, 160 participants completed self-report measures of pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and pain severity. A self-report measure and a performance-based test were used to assess physical functioning. Higher pain catastrophizing and lower pain acceptance were associated with poorer physical functioning at both self-reported and performance-based levels. Our results are consistent with previous evidence on the association between pain catastrophizing and pain acceptance with self-reported physical functioning. This study contributes to the current literature by providing novel insights into the role of psychological factors in performance-based physical functioning. Multidisciplinary interventions that address pain catastrophizing and pain acceptance are recommended and might be effective to improve both perceived and performance-based functioning in women with FM and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)

Review

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Review
Family Risk Factors That Jeopardize Child Development: Scoping Review
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(4), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12040562 - 01 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1327
Abstract
The obligation to protect children is defined by law. However, there is fragility in identifying actual or potential situations that jeopardize their development. This review aims to identify the family risk factors that jeopardize child development. A scoping review was conducted following the [...] Read more.
The obligation to protect children is defined by law. However, there is fragility in identifying actual or potential situations that jeopardize their development. This review aims to identify the family risk factors that jeopardize child development. A scoping review was conducted following the Joanna Briggs Institute for Evidence-Based Practice framework and the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. The research was carried out on the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Nursing & Allied Health Collection: Comprehensive, MEDLINE Complete, and MedicLatina, with a time limit of 2010 to 2021. The search was restricted to documents written in Portuguese, English, and French. A total of 3998 articles were initially identified. After selecting and analysing, 28 risk factors were extracted from 29 articles. Four categories of risk factors were identified—namely, patterns of social and economic interaction, family characteristics, caregiver’s characteristics, and parenting. The results of this review allow the identification of family risk factors that jeopardize child development. This is significant for Child Protective Services workers as they carry out their risk assessments. This assessment is the first step in avoiding an accumulation of harm to at-risk children and allowing the development of interventions for minimising harm’s impact on children’s development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
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Review
Adherence to Therapy in Glaucoma Treatment—A Review
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(4), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12040514 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
Glaucoma is a chronic disease and the second leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide, whose initial treatment consists of self-administered topical ocular hypotensive eyedrops. Adherence with glaucoma medications is a fundamental problem in the care of glaucoma patients as up to 50% [...] Read more.
Glaucoma is a chronic disease and the second leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide, whose initial treatment consists of self-administered topical ocular hypotensive eyedrops. Adherence with glaucoma medications is a fundamental problem in the care of glaucoma patients as up to 50% of patients fail to receive the intended benefits of the treatment. The literature has identified many barriers to patients’ compliance, from factors depending on the type of medication administered, communication between physician and patients, to factors dependent on patients’ behaviour and lifestyle. Failure to take medication as prescribed increases the risk that patients will not receive the desired benefit, which often leads to a worsening of the disease. Our aim is to synthesize the methods used for measuring adherence of patients to glaucoma therapy and the interventions used for addressing adherence, laying emphasis on a patient-centred approach, taking time to educate patients about their chronic disease and to assess their views on treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
Review
Bibliometric Analysis of the Informal Caregiver’s Scientific Production
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12010061 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
(1) Background: Due to the increase in care needs, especially in the elderly, the concept of caregiver has emerged. This concept has undergone changes over the years due to new approaches and new research in the area. It is in this context that [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Due to the increase in care needs, especially in the elderly, the concept of caregiver has emerged. This concept has undergone changes over the years due to new approaches and new research in the area. It is in this context that the concept of informal caregiver emerged. (2) Objectives: To analyse the evolution of the caregiver concept. (3) Methods: Bibliometric analysis, data collection (Web of Science Core Collection) and analysis (Excel; CiteSpace; VOSviewer). (4) Results: Obtained 22,326 articles. The concept emerged in 1990, being subjected to changes, mostly using the term “informal caregiver” since 2016, frequently related to the areas of Gerontology and Nursing. The following research boundaries emerged from the analysis: “Alzheimer’s Disease”, “Elderly” and “Institutionalization”. (5) Conclusions: The informal caregiver emerges as a useful care partner, being increasingly studied by the scientific community, particularly in the last 5 years. Registration number from Open Science Framework: osf.io/84e5v. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
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Review
The SGLT-2 Inhibitors in Personalized Therapy of Diabetes Mellitus Patients
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(12), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11121249 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents a major public health problem, with yearly increasing prevalence. DM is considered a progressive vascular disease that develops macro and microvascular complications, with a great impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients. Over time, DM has become [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents a major public health problem, with yearly increasing prevalence. DM is considered a progressive vascular disease that develops macro and microvascular complications, with a great impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients. Over time, DM has become one of the most studied diseases; indeed, finding new pharmacological ways to control it is the main purpose of the research involved in this issue. Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are a modern drug class of glucose-lowering agents, whose use in DM patients has increased in the past few years. Besides the positive outcomes regarding glycemic control and cardiovascular protection in DM patients, SGLT-2i have also been associated with metabolic benefits, blood pressure reduction, and improved kidney function. The recent perception and understanding of SGLT-2i pathophysiological pathways place this class of drugs towards a particularized patient-centered approach, moving away from the well-known glycemic control strategy. SGLT-2i have been shown not only to reduce death from cardiovascular causes, but also to reduce the risk of stroke and heart failure hospitalization. This article aims to review and highlight the existing literature on the effects of SGLT-2i, emphasizing their role as oral antihyperglycemic agents in type 2 DM, with important cardiovascular and metabolic benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
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Review
Virtual Reality-Based Therapy Reduces the Disabling Impact of Fibromyalgia Syndrome in Women: Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(11), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111167 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
Background: Virtual reality-based therapy (VRBT) is a novel therapeutic approach to be used in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The aim of our study is to assess the effect of VRBT to reduce the impact of FMS in outcomes such as pain, dynamic [...] Read more.
Background: Virtual reality-based therapy (VRBT) is a novel therapeutic approach to be used in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The aim of our study is to assess the effect of VRBT to reduce the impact of FMS in outcomes such as pain, dynamic balance, aerobic capacity, fatigue, quality of life (QoL), anxiety and depression. Methods: Systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted from a bibliographic search in PubMed, Scopus, PEDro, Web of Science and CINAHL until April 2021 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare VRBT versus others to assess the mentioned outcomes in women with FMS. Effect size was calculated with standardized mean difference (SMD) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: Eleven RCTs involving 535 women with FMS were included. Using the PEDro scale, the mean methodological quality of the included studies was moderate (6.63 ± 0.51). Our findings showed an effect of VRBT on the impact of FMS (SMD −0.62, 95% CI −0.93 to −0.31); pain (SMD −0.45, 95% CI −0.69 to −0.21); dynamic balance (SMD −0.76, 95% CI −1.12 to −0.39); aerobic capacity (SMD 0.32, 95% CI 0.004 to 0.63); fatigue (SMD −0.58, 95% CI −1.02 to −0.14); QoL (SMD 0.55, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.81); anxiety (SMD −0.47, 95% CI −0.91 to −0.03) and depression (SMD −0.46, 95% CI −0.76 to −0.16). Conclusions: VRBT is an effective therapy that reduces the impact of FMS, pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression and increases dynamic balance, aerobic capacity and quality of life in women with FMS. In addition, VRBT in combination with CTBTE showed a large effect in reducing the impact of FMS and fatigue and increasing QoL in these women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
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Review
Interventions to Promote a Healthy Sexuality among School Adolescents: A Scoping Review
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(11), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111155 - 07 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Schools are particularly suitable contexts for the implementation of interventions focused on adolescent sexual behavior. Sexual education and promotion have a multidisciplinary nature. Nurses’ role and the spectrum of the carried-out interventions is not clear. We aimed to identify interventions that promote a [...] Read more.
Schools are particularly suitable contexts for the implementation of interventions focused on adolescent sexual behavior. Sexual education and promotion have a multidisciplinary nature. Nurses’ role and the spectrum of the carried-out interventions is not clear. We aimed to identify interventions that promote a healthy sexuality among school adolescents. Our review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews and was registered in the Open Science Framework. Published articles on sexuality in adolescents in school contexts were considered. The research limitations included primary studies; access in full text in English, Spanish, or Portuguese; and no data publication limitation. Research was carried out on the EBSCOhost, PubMed, SciELO, and Web of Science platforms; gray literature and the bibliographies of selected articles were also searched. A total of 56 studies were included in the sample. The studies used a broad range of research methods, and 10 types of interventions were identified. Multi-interventional programs and socio-emotional interventions showed a greater impact on long-term behavioral changes, and continuity seemed to be a key factor. Long-term studies are needed to reach a consensus on the effectiveness of interventions. Nurses’ particular role on the multidisciplinary teams was found to be a gap in the research, and must be further explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
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Protocol
Safety-Promoting Interventions for the Older Person with Hip Fracture on Returning Home: A Protocol for a Systematic Review
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(5), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12050654 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Ageing and physical frailty associated with decrease in muscle and bone mass lead to the older persons’ vulnerability and increased risk of falling. It is estimated that one in every ten falls in this age group results in a fracture, leading to a [...] Read more.
Ageing and physical frailty associated with decrease in muscle and bone mass lead to the older persons’ vulnerability and increased risk of falling. It is estimated that one in every ten falls in this age group results in a fracture, leading to a downward spiral in their health status, causing greater dependence, with a progressive functional decline that makes it difficult to return to their functional and social status prior to the fracture. The aim of this study is to identify the available evidence on the interventions that promote the safety of older people with hip fracture after hospital discharge. A search will be performed in MEDLINE and CINAHL databases. Randomised and controlled studies that focus on functional assessment, performance in activities of daily living, level of concern about falls, risk and prevalence of falls, injuries secondary to falls, re-fracture rate and health-related quality of life in hip fracture patients will be included. Two authors will perform the study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment independently. Any disagreements will be resolved through discussion with a third researcher. Methodological quality of the included trials will be evaluated by the Cochrane risk-of-bias criteria, and the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
Study Protocol
Addressing Ageism—Be Active in Aging: Study Protocol
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030354 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Ageism refers to stereotyping (how we think), prejudice (how we feel), and discrimination (how we act) against people based on their age. It is a serious public health issue that can negatively impact older people’s health and quality of life. The present protocol [...] Read more.
Ageism refers to stereotyping (how we think), prejudice (how we feel), and discrimination (how we act) against people based on their age. It is a serious public health issue that can negatively impact older people’s health and quality of life. The present protocol has several goals: (1) adapt the Ambivalent Ageism Scale for the general Portuguese population and healthcare professionals; (2) assess the factorial invariance of the questionnaire between general population vs. healthcare professionals; (3) evaluate the level of ageism and its predictors in the general population and evaluate the level of ageism and its predictors in healthcare professionals; (4) compare the levels of ageism between groups and the invariance between groups regarding the explanatory model of predictors of ageism. This quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study will be developed in partnership with several Healthcare Professional Boards/Associations, National Geriatrics and Gerontology Associations, and the Universities of the Third Age Network Association. The web-based survey will be conducted on a convenience sample recruited via various social media and institutional channels. The survey consists of three questionnaires: (1) Demographic data; (2) Ambivalent Ageism Scale; (3) Palmore-Neri and Cachioni questionnaire. The methodology of this study will include translation, pilot testing, semantic adjustment, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and multigroup analysis of the Ambivalent Ageism Scale. Data will be treated using International Business Machines Corporation (IBM®) Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS). Descriptive analysis will be conducted to assess the level of ageism in the study sample. The ageism levels between the two groups will be compared using the t-student test, and two Structural Equation Modeling will be developed to evaluate the predictors of ageism. Assessing ageism is necessary to allow healthcare professionals and policymakers to design and implement strategies to solve or reduce this issue. Findings from this study will generate knowledge relevant to healthcare and medical courses along with anti-ageism education for the Portuguese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
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Study Protocol
Programs Addressed to Family Caregivers/Informal Caregivers Needs: Systematic Review Protocol
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(2), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12020145 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
(1) Background: considering the growing increase in informal caregivers or family caregivers, it is critical to identify the unmet care needs of informal caregivers to improve their experiences, health, and well-being, contributing to the achievement of care needs of the elderly or people [...] Read more.
(1) Background: considering the growing increase in informal caregivers or family caregivers, it is critical to identify the unmet care needs of informal caregivers to improve their experiences, health, and well-being, contributing to the achievement of care needs of the elderly or people with adult dependency and promotion of successful transitions from health services to the community/home. (2) Objective: to identify the current state of knowledge about programs addressed to family caregivers/informal caregivers needs. (3) Methods: a systematic review will be undertaken with resource to databases from EBSCOhost Research Platform, Scopus, Web of Science, The Virtual Health Library (VHL). Studies published after January 2011 in English, Spanish, French, Italian and Portuguese will be considered. This review will consider all studies that report on any intervention program targeting family caregivers/informal caregivers who need to improve their experiences, health, and well-being, contributing to the meeting of their needs or those who have dementia and cognitive impairment, mental disorders, impairments in activities of daily living, frailty and/or who need health care and/or promoting successful transitions of community. (4) Discussion: The results of this review could be used to develop an intervention model to meet the needs of the family caregivers/informal caregivers. Furthermore, these findings will help to guide the construction of health policies regarding family caregivers/informal caregivers, as well their needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care and Treatment Compliance in Chronic Conditions)
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